In 2004 as part of the joint Latitudinal Gradient Project in the Ross Sea, cruises of RV Tangaroa and RV Italica along the Victoria Land coast and the Balleny Islands collected 142 species of mollusc (four Polyplacophora, 99 Gastropoda, 37 Bivalvia and two Scaphopoda). About 20% of these species represent new records for the Ross Sea quadrant. The species richness was found to be higher at 71–72°S (Cape Hallett–Cape Adare) and lower at 74–75°S (Terra Nova Bay–Cape Russell) using Shannon-Wiener's H', Pielou's J' and Simpson's λ indices, as well as by using species richness estimators (e.g. ICE, Chao 2, Jack 2). The Balleny Islands (65–67°S), though not exhaustively sampled, show diversity values comparable to those of Terra Nova Bay–Cape Russell. These islands, located in the main Antarctic Coastal Current, appear to represent a crossroads in the Southern Ocean, with mollusc and other invertebrate species present, that have previously been recorded only from the Weddell Sea. The higher diversity in the Cape Hallett–Cape Adare area is not easy to interpret, but could be a result of the intense iceberg scouring off the two capes, observed from seafloor mapping, a factor that is known to enhance species diversity at the regional scale. The existence of a decreasing trend in diversity towards higher latitudes along the Victoria Land coast cannot yet be shown, due to the large gaps in sampling coverage.