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The Excavation of Tregulland Burrow, Treneglos Parish, Cornwall

  • Paul Ashbee
Extract

The ruined and gutted barrow called Tregulland Burrow, when totally excavated, proved to have had a complex structure. Stake holes denoting withdrawn stakes, an infilled ‘ritual’ pit, a satellite grave containing a cremation and arrowheads, and most probably the central grave pit, were the features of the first phase of its construction. A cairn-ring, with a buttressing bank, the soil for which was dug from an encircling ditch, and its turf covering, comprised the second. A great slab bearing cup-marks and an ‘eyebrow’ motif, also other lesser cup-marked and ornamented slabs, were incorporated in cairn-ring and bank. Cup-marked stones recovered from the disturbed central area suggested the one-time existence of a stone-built grave incorporating such elements. After this second phase the barrow centre was open and arena-like, and a food vessel and a cremation were put in close by the cairn-ring. All was finally enveloped by material from the depths of the ditch. Poorly built walling or turves retained the final mound.

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page 174 note 1 6-inch O.S. Maps (Cornwall), XI, S.E.; Nat. Grid Ref. 220867.

page 175 note 1 Close Rolls, 1234–7, pp. 433, 434, note the medieval pottery from the disturbance.

page 175 note 2 Sir Cyril and Lady Fox visited the excavation. Mr. John Hopkins assisted during the later stages. Thanks are due to Dr. I. W. Cornwall, Dr. G. W. Dimbleby, Mr. G. F. Levy, and Dr. F. Wallis for their special reports. Mr. J. G. Hurst and Dr. M. W. Thompson are to be thanked n only for their visits but for administrative arrangements.

page 182 note 1 Y.A.J. xxxii, 27.

page 183 note 1 Measured drawings were made of all, and are filed for record.

page 183 note 2 Antiq. Journ. xxi, 98–114.

page 183 note 3 Forty Years (1905), pp. 153–6.

page 183 note 4 Arch. Journ. vii, 66.

page 183 note 5 Die Bauart der Einzelgräber, Mannusbibl, Leipzig (1930); P.P.S. iv, 258–71.

page 183 note 6 ‘Barrow Excavations in the Eight Beatitudes’, Palaeohistoria (1954), ii, iii.

page 183 note 7 P.P.S. xviii, 153.

page 184 note 1 Extra to Case's list: Davidstow, , Cornwall, , Arch. Newsletter, 2 No. 7, p. 110: Magna, Ludford, Lincolnshire, , Antiq. Journ. xxviii, 27; Down, Snail (site XV), Wiltshire, , W.A.M. lvi, 144 (interim); Amesbury G61, Wiltshire, , M.O.W. 1956; Arreton Down, Isle of Wight, M.O. W. 1956; Panty Dulath, P. Hayes to C. B. A., 1958.

page 184 note 2 Antiq. Journ. xxi, 122.

page 184 note 3 Arch. Journ. xcvi, 193–222.

page 184 note 4 Eight Beatitudes (pt. ii), pp. 150–1.

page 184 note 5 Arch. Journ. xcix, 7.

page 184 note 6 Antiq. Journ. xxxi, 1–24.

page 184 note 7 Hencken, , Arch. Corn, and Scilly, p. 41, fig. 13.

page 184 note 8 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 142–66.

page 184 note 9 e.g. Barrow, Wick, P.S.A.N.S. liv, 177.

page 184 note 10 Antiq. Journ. xxxi, 23.

page 184 note 11 P.C.B.I., p. 128.

page 184 note 12 P.R.I.A. liv, 37–74.

page 184 note 13 Bull. Board of Celtic Studies, ix (1939), 373.

page 184 note 14 Collins and Waterman, Millin Bay, A late Neolithic Cairn in Co. Down.

page 184 note 15 Antiq. Journ. i, 292; Hencken, , Arch. Corn. and Scilly, p. 73, fig. 20, A.B.

page 184 note 16 Arch. Journl. ci, 38–40, a variant of Abercromby's Type 2. Note also Plantation, Fargo, W.A.M. xlviii, 363; Beaulieu, , P.P.S. ix, 12, fig. 8, 1, 4; Simondston, , Archaeologia, lxxxvii, pl. XLVI, 1, 2.

page 185 note 1 Archaeologia, lxxvi, 94.

page 185 note 2 Ibid., pp. 81–106.

page 185 note 3 Aber., B.A.P., p. 21; Archaeologia, xliii, fig. 120, 154; W.A.M. iii, 1856.

page 185 note 4 Archaeologia, lii, 48, no. cclxxvii.

page 185 note 5 P.P.S. iv, 119.

page 185 note 6 B.M., B. Age Guide (1920), p. 88, fig. 87.

page 185 note 7 Sturge Coll. (Britain), pl. X, 14.

page 185 note 8 Curwen, Arch. Sussex, fig. 34, 21.

page 187 note 1 Cat. Mus. Arch. Soc. Pol. du Morbihan, 70, pl. IV.

page 187 note 2 Childe, , Dawn (1947), p. 264, fig. 125. Hollow based arrowheads from Shaft Grave IV, have pointed barbs. Karo, Schachtgraber, Taf. CI.

page 187 note 3 P.P.S. (1938), iv, 66, fig. 5.

page 187 note 4 Sturge Coll. (Britain), pl. xi, r, t. See also Antiq. Journ. xxxvi, 30.

page 187 note 5 Sturge Coll. (Britain), pl. XI, u, r.

page 187 note 6 Antiq. Journ. xii, 158–62.

page 188 note 1 P.U.B.S.S. V, 3; vi, 198.

page 188 note 2 P.P.S. ii, 204; B.M. Stone Age Guide (1926), p. 105.

page 188 note 3 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, pl. XLVII, I.

page 188 note 4 P.P.S. V, 132, fig. 3.

page 188 note 5 Piggott, , Neo. Cult., p. 176.

page 188 note 6 Childe, , Skara Brae, pp. 133–4.

page 188 note 7 P.P.S. v, 133.

page 188 note 8 Germania, xxxi, 233–4.

page 188 note 9 Aarboger, 1954, p. 134, fig. 15, c, p. 182, fig. 40.

page 188 note 10 Karo, , Schachtgräber, Teil I, 154, Abb. 73, 892.

page 189 note 1 P.P.S. vii, 50; xiii, 47; xvii, 99.

page 189 note 2 Antiq. Journ. xii, 17.

page 189 note 3 ‘Inner’ and ‘outer’ faces or sides refer to the relationship of the stones to the barrow centre, viz. the ‘inner’ side of the great slab from the eastern interior of the cairn-ring bore the ‘eyebrow’ motif. ‘Upper’ and ‘lower’ indicate the side found uppermost or lowermost in the barrow.

page 191 note 1 Arch. Camb. (1940), pp. 169–91.

page 191 note 2 Antiq. Journ. xix, 294.

page 191 note 3 Op. cit.

page 191 note 4 The Prehistory of Scotland, p. 173; Keiller, Megalithic Monuments of North East Scotland(1934).

page 192 note 1 Archaeologia, lxxxvii, 131–4, pl. XLII, 2.

page 192 note 2 Arch. Journ. ci, 17–49; cvii, 44–65.

page 192 note 3 Y.A.J. xxiv, 263.

page 192 note 4 P.S.A.S. lxxxii, 68–123.

page 192 note 5 Rev. Arch. (1890), 304; P.P.S. iv (1938), 100.

page 192 note 6 Antiq. Journ. xxviii, 26.

page 192 note 7 Ten Tears, pp. 172, 177.

page 192 note 8 B.B. 342 and G. CXXIX, G. CXXXI, G. CCXX; Archaeologia, lii, 45.

page 192 note 9 e.g. Coilsfield, &c.

page 192 note 10 Hencken, , op. cit., p. 77.

page 192 note 11 Wheeler, , Prehistoric and Roman Wales, p. 82; Daniel, , Chamber Tombs, pp. 192, 198.

page 192 note 12 Archaeologia, lii, 14.

page 192 note 13 J.R.A.I. vi (1877), 279–86; Curwen, , Arch. Sussex (1954), pl. XII, 4.

page 192 note 14 Cowling, Rombalds Way (1946), 100, fig. 46.

page 192 note 15 Piggott, , Neolithic Cultures, pp. 211–12.

page 193 note 1 Ibid., 218.

page 193 note 2 P.P.S. xxiii, 158–9.

page 193 note 3 Pant y Dulath. Information from Mr. P. Hayes.

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