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Romano-British Chimney-Pots and Finials

  • A. W. G. Lowther

Summary

The late A. W. G. Lowther had for long collected information on Romano-British ‘chimney-pots’ and in his final years concluded that this was the true function of his Group B, except where a closed base indicated use as ornamental roof-finials. New discoveries have enlarged his originally small Group A, wheel-made pottery vessels with side-openings, which may possibly have had a ritual function. His notes are now presented in a published form, with comments on dating, distribution, and continental parallels; the opportunity has also been taken of adding a short excursus on Romano-British stone finials.

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page 35 note 1 For an obituary, see Antiq. Journ. liii (1973), 405 f.

page 35 note 2 The term chimney-pots is preferred to roofventilators in view of the fact that they were designed, as will be argued below, to exhaust hot gases from within buildings rather than simply to introduce fresh air.

page 35 note 3 Surrey Arch. Coll. xxvii (1926), 144–63, and xxviii (1930), 1–17 and 132–48.

page 35 note 4 Ibid, xlii (1934), 61—6.

page 35 note 5 Britannia, iii (1972), 146–7 and fig. 20.

page 36 note 1 Mr. Drury suggests the possibility of candlecovers. I am much indebted to him for his generosity in letting me see his drawings and descriptions and for allowing me to include references in the site list.

page 36 note 2 ‘Medieval Chimney-pots’ in Jope, E. M. (ed.), Studies in Building History (1961), pp. 7893; id., ‘Medieval Pottery Roof Ventilators and Finials found at Aardenburg, Zeeland, and Post-Medieval Finials at Deventer, Overijssel’, in Berichten van de Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek, xviii (1968), 209—25.

page 36 note 3 For the distribution in Britain see below (pp. 41–8); a representative foreign distribution is given by Behrens in Mainzer Zeitschrift, xxxvii/xxxviii (1942/3), 87, n.5.

page 37 note 1 The detailed references and dates of the Romano-British specimens are given in the following list (pp. 41–8).

page 37 note 2 Behrens, op. cit. (1942/3), 87 and Taf. 8, 1.

page 37 note 3 Nagy, L., ‘A Cellar-Find in the Aquincum Civil-Town (The Problem of the Pannonian Clay Lantern Towers)’, Budapest Régiségei, xiv (1945), 197 and fig. 13.

page 37 note 4 The York examples (fig. 3, 2–5, pl. 1b and, below, p. 47) were described by Home as flue or chimney cowls (Gordon Home, Roman york (1924.), pp. 163–4).

page 38 note 1 Not easily translatable into English, since ‘lighthouses’ is obviously inappropriate; perhaps the term ‘house-shaped lamp-holders’ will do.

page 38 note 2 Loeschcke, Siegfried, ‘Antike Laternen und Lichthäuschen’, Bonner Jahrbücher, cxviii (1909), 370430.

page 38 note 3 R. E. M., and Wheeler, T. V., Verulamium, a Belgic and Two Roman Cities (1936), p. 190, fig. 32, no. 43, and pl. LVIII (right).

page 38 note 4 Ibid., pl. LVIII (left).

page 38 note 5 ‘The Roman “Chimney-Pots” from Ashtead’, Surrey Arch. Coll. xlii (1934), 61–6.

page 38 note 6 ‘A Roman “Votive Lantern” from Newstead’, P.S.A.S. lxx (1935–6), 387–91.

page 38 note 7 ‘Die tōnerne Porte des Uarus von Intercisa’, in Beiträge zur älteren europäischen Kulturgeschichte (Festschrift für Rudolf Egger), i (1952), pp. 114–25.

page 38 note 8 ‘Lichthäuschen oder Schornsteinaufsatz’, Mainzer Zeitschrift, xxxvii/xxxviii (1942/3), 87 and Taf. 8.

page 38 note 9 Mr. L. S. Harley, F.S.A., kindly drew the author's attention to and sent a photograph of Sardinian chimney-pots, square in section, with side-openings, and knobbed pyramidal tops.

page 38 note 10 Oelmann, op. cit., p. 120.

page 39 note 1 See p. 35, n. 3.

page 39 note 2 Op. cit. (1968).

page 39 note 3 Op. cit. (1952), pp. 117, 119.

page 39 note 4 Cf., for example, the full discussion by L. Nagy of the Pannonian examples, op. cit. (1945), 155—202.

page 39 note 5 Op. cit. (1952), p. 120.

page 40 note 1 Op. cit. (1909), p. 406 and Abb. 19, 3–5.

page 40 note 2 Many are, in fact, products of the thriving Bath stone industry, as Mr. Philip Rahtz, F.S.A., has pointed out to me, but, without detailed geological examination, one cannot be certain that all the quoted examples derive from this centre.

page 40 note 3 Trans. Cardiff Naturalists' Soc. xx (1888), 53, 56 and fig. C; Ward, John, Romano-British Buildings and Earthworks (1911), p. 264 and fig. 78.

page 40 note 4 Arch. Camb. cii (1953), 132 and pls. iv, 1, xi, 3.

page 40 note 5 Arch. Camb. 5th ser. x (1893), 340.

page 40 note 6 V.C.H. Somerset, i (1906), p. 313 and fig. 70.

page 40 note 7 Archaeologia, lxii (1911), pl. LIX, fig. 1.

page 40 note 8 V.C.H. Somerset, i (1906), p. 260 and fig. 38; Cunliffe, B., Roman Bath (1969), p. 205 and pl. LXXIXb.

page 40 note 9 In site museum; see Goodburn, Roger, The Roman Villa, Chedworth (1972), p. 28 and pl. xii, 1.

page 40 note 10 Report by W. J. Wodlake, forthcoming (see pl. v).

page 40 note 11 Hewitt, A.T.Morley, Roman Villa, West Park, Rockbourne, Hants (1971), pls. viB and C.

page 40 note 12 Wilts. Arch. Mag. vii (1862), 65 and pl. iv, 7, 8.

page 40 note 13 Proc. Somerset Arch. and Nat. Hist. Soc. xcvi (1952), 114.

page 40 note 14 Britannia, iv (1973), 315, fig. 14 and pl. xxxiiia (see pl. via).

page 40 note 15 As the Richborough monument (Strong, D. E. in Richborough, v (1968), pp. 4073, and especially 72–3).

page 40 note 16 As the Janus Quadrifrons at Rome.

page 40 note 17 Rolland, H., Le Mausolée de Glanum (XXI e supplément to Gallia, 1969).

page 40 note 18 I am indebted to Mr. W. G. Putnam, F.S.A., for the fine photograph and his permission to publish it here.

page 40 note 19 n. 14 above.

page 41 note 1 Radan, T. G., ‘Angaben zur Frage der sogenannten “Leuchttürme”’, Gorsium Forschungen, i (1974), 149–61 (I am indebted to Mr. John Hopkins for calling my attention to this).

page 41 note 2 Mócsy, A., Pannonia and Upper Moesia (1974), pp. 173 ff.

page 41 note 3 Op. cit. (1942/3), 87.

page 41 note 4 In Jope, (ed.), op. cit. (1961), pp. 83–4 and 92, and fig. 5, 4.

page 41 note 5 Ibid., p. 92, n. 4.

page 41 note 6 Antiq. Journ. liv (1974), 305 f. and fig. 8.

Romano-British Chimney-Pots and Finials

  • A. W. G. Lowther

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