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The History of Civilization

  • V. Gordon Childe
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1 Introduction to the History of Science (Carnegie Institution Publications, 376, 1927). 1, 4.

2 Vorgriechische Mathematik. Berlin, 1934. Reviewed ANTIQUITY, IX, 190-4.

3 Textes mathématiques babyloniens. Leyden, 1938.

4 Examples can conveniently be found in the Loeb volume Greek Mathematical Works, edited by Ivor Thomas, pp. 45 ff., and in Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, 233.

5 cf. Isis, XXV, 16-45

6 Republished in ANTIQUITY, IX, 312.

7 Figured in Arnold and Guillaume, The Legacy of Islam.

8 The reports of Necho’s Phoenicians who, sailing westward round South Africa, noticed the sun on their right, and of Pytheas on his Atlantic voyage, were rejected as incredible.

9 Asia, 1938, XXXVIII, 536 ff. ; Iraq, 1935, II, I ff.

10 Iraq, 1936, III, 1 ff.

11 Iraq, I, 146 ff ; cf. LAAA, XXIV, 130 ff. (Sakje Gözü).

12 AJA, 1937, XLI, 10.

13 Schaeffer, Ugaritica, 1.

14 Studies in the Ancient Pottery of the Near East, 1, 118-135.

15 Abhandl. preuss. Akad. d. Wissen., phil.-hist. KL., 1933, 6 ; cf. Contenau in Syria, XVI, 532 and Scharff in ZfÄ., 1935, LXXI, 90 ff.

16 Nos. 216-7 in Falkenstein’s Archäische Texte am Uruk ; it is depicted also on contemporary seals, cf. Scharff, loc. cit.

17 H. Winkler, Rock Drawings of southern Upper Egypt (Egypt Explor. Soc., Arch. Survey of Egypt, 26), 1936.

18 Iraq, III, p. 111 ff. ; Stein, Archaeological Reconnaissances in the Punjab and South-eastern Iran, 1937.

19 Despite the invocation by the King of Mitanni in his treaty with the Hittites in 1360, of Indra, Mitra, Varuna and the Nasastyâ—gods familiar from the Rig-Veda, the oldest hymns of the Aryans of India—intercourse between that sub-continent and the west cannot yet be demonstrated archaeologically in this period. And China, where the historical record now begins, can be linked with the Near East only by the general considerations discussed by Carl Whiting Bishop in ANTIQUITY, 1940, XIV, 301 ff.

20 Heichelheim, Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Altertums, 244 ff.

21 McEwan, The Oriental Origin of Hellenistic Kingship. Chicago, 1934. (O.I. Studies, 13).

22 How nearly we cannot say while the date of Zoroaster for instance can be put anywhere between 1000 and 600 (Webster) or even later.

23 Heichelheim, op. cit., 175-205 etc., maintains that throughout the Ancient East the despotic monarchs controlled foreign trade as completely as Totalitarian States do today ; Speiser, on the contrary, contrasts the totalitarian regime of Egypt with ‘a social order founded on the recognition of personal rights’ in Mesopotamia, Nature, 1940, CLXVI, 707.

24 Meissner in Abhandl. preuss. Akad., phil.-hist. Kl., 1936, 1.

25 Till documents recently discovered at Mari imposed a drastic reduction on current dates for the First Dynasty of Babylon and all the earlier chronology of Mesopotamia, an approximate synchronism between the Hyksos invasion of Egypt and the Kassite infiltration into Babylonia seemed plausible. But on Sidney Smith’s (Alalakh and Chronology, London, 1940), latest interpretation the First Dynasty came to an end only fifteen years before the Hyksos were expelled.

26 The controversy in AJA, XXXVII, XXXVIII and XLIII as to when the alphabet was introduced—1000 or 700 B.C.—is revealing.

27 Heichelheim, op. cit., p. 271, suggests that the northern invaders introduced a two-field system.

28 Burn, The World of Hesiod, but cf. p. 11 above.

29 Cohen, AJA, XLII, p. 194.

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Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
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