Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Ingombe Ilede and the demise of Great Zimbabwe

  • Innocent Pikirayi (a1)
Extract

Although new research suggests multi-directional trajectories in the development of the Zimbabwe Tradition (see Chirikure et al. 2016), regional population shifts need not be discounted, as some of these generated states (e.g. Vigneswaran & Quirk 2015). Oral-historical data from northern Zimbabwe counters persistent but often misleading views of pre-colonial states in south-central Africa as exercising power over static and stationary populations (Pikirayi 1993). Rather, human mobility shaped, among other things, the Zimbabwe Culture's spatial features, its strategies for accumulating power and managing resources, and the regional political, social and economic actors to which it was connected. This occurred with the demise of Great Zimbabwe from the second half of the fifteenth century and for much of the sixteenth. Ingombe Ilede attests to post mid fifteenth-century regional shifts in patterns of trade that would lure the Portuguese to south-central Africa from the early sixteenth century onwards. The Zambezi became the preferred inland route. Great Zimbabwe's expansionary thrusts to control this trade undermined its own political control over the southern Zimbabwe plateau, as this spawned new political formations like the Mwene Mutapa state and other polities, including Ingombe Ilede.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ingombe Ilede and the demise of Great Zimbabwe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ingombe Ilede and the demise of Great Zimbabwe
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ingombe Ilede and the demise of Great Zimbabwe
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Birmingham, D. 1981. Central Africa to 1870: Zambezia, Zaire and the South Atlantic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chirikure, S., Bandama, F., House, M., Moffett, A., Mukwende, T. & Pollard, M.. 2016. Decisive evidence for multidirectional evolution of sociopolitical complexity in southern Africa. African Archaeological Review 33: 7595. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437-016-9215-1
Cortesao, A. & da Mota, A.T.. 1960. Portugaliae Monumenta (6 volumes). Lisbon: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra.
Garlake, P.S. 1970. Iron Age sites in the Urungwe district of Rhodesia. South African Archaeological Bulletin 25: 2544. https://doi.org/10.2307/3888765
Garlake, P.S. 1972. Great Zimbabwe. London: Thames & Hudson.
Koleini, F., Pikirayi, I. & Colomban, Ph.. 2017. Revisiting Baranda: a multi-analytical approach in classifying sixteenth/seventeenth-century glass beads from northern Zimbabwe. Antiquity 91: 751–64. https://doi.org/10.15184/aqy.2017.46
Lancaster, C.S. & Pohorilenko, A.. 1977. Ingombe Ilede and the Zimbabwe Culture. International Journal of African Historical Studies 10: 130. https://doi.org/10.2307/216889
Phillipson, D.W. & Fagan, B.M.. 1969. The date of the Ingombe Ilede burials. Journal of African History 10: 199204. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021853700009476
Pikirayi, I. 1993. The archaeological identity of the Mutapa state: towards an historical archaeology of northern Zimbabwe (Studies in African Archaeology 6). Sweden: Societas Achaeologica Upsaliensis.
Pikirayi, I. 2001. The Zimbabwe Culture: origins and decline of southern Zambezian states. Walnut Creek (CA): Altamira.
Vigneswaran, D. & Quirk, J.. 2015. Mobility makes states: migration and power in Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812291292
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antiquity
  • ISSN: 0003-598X
  • EISSN: 1745-1744
  • URL: /core/journals/antiquity
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed