Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 133
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Cohen, Cathy 2016. Relating input factors and dual language proficiency in French–English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 296.

    Crivello, Cristina Kuzyk, Olivia Rodrigues, Monyka Friend, Margaret Zesiger, Pascal and Poulin-Dubois, Diane 2016. The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers’ executive function. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 141, p. 121.

    GÁMEZ, PERLA B. and SHIMPI, PRIYA M. 2016. Structural priming in Spanish as evidence of implicit learning. Journal of Child Language, Vol. 43, Issue. 01, p. 207.

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti Davidson, Meghan M. Weismer, Susan Ellis and Kaushanskaya, Margarita 2016. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 142, p. 171.

    GATHERCOLE, VIRGINIA C. MUELLER 2016. Straw man: Who thought exposure was the ONLY factor?. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.

    GRÜTER, THERES 2016. Vocabulary does not equal language, but neither does morphosyntax. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.

    KANTO, LAURA LAAKSO, MARJA-LEENA and HUTTUNEN, KERTTU 2016. Use of code-mixing by young hearing children of Deaf parents. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.

    Kim, Ah-Young (Alicia) Park, Anne and Lust, Barbara 2016. Simultaneous vs. successive bilingualism among preschool-aged children: a study of four-year-old Korean–English bilinguals in the USA. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, p. 1.

    LEGACY, JACQUELINE ZESIGER, PASCAL FRIEND, MARGARET and POULIN-DUBOIS, DIANE 2016. Vocabulary size, translation equivalents, and efficiency in word recognition in very young bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, Vol. 43, Issue. 04, p. 760.

    LEGACY, JACQUELINE REIDER, JESSICA CRIVELLO, CRISTINA KUZYK, OLIVIA FRIEND, MARGARET ZESIGER, PASCAL and POULIN-DUBOIS, DIANE 2016. Dog or chien? Translation equivalents in the receptive and expressive vocabularies of young French–English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, p. 1.

    Li, Li Tan, Chee Lay Goh, Hock Huan and Hui, Sammy 2016. Home language shift and its implications for Chinese language teaching in Singapore. Cogent Education, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 1161958.

    Li, Li and Tan, Chee Lay 2016. Home Literacy Environment and its Influence on Singaporean Children’s Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 381.

    LIU, LIQUAN and KAGER, RENÉ 2016. Perception of tones by bilingual infants learning non-tone languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.

    Meir, Natalia Walters, Joel and Armon-Lotem, Sharon 2016. Bi-directional cross-linguistic influence in bilingual Russian-Hebrew children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,

    Miękisz, Aneta Haman, Ewa Łuniewska, Magdalena Kuś, Katarzyna O’Toole, Ciara and Katsos, Napoleon 2016. The impact of a first-generation immigrant environment on the heritage language: productive vocabularies of Polish toddlers living in the UK and Ireland. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, p. 1.

    O’Toole, Ciara and Hickey, Tina M. 2016. Bilingual language acquisition in a minority context: using the Irish–English Communicative Development Inventory to track acquisition of an endangered language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, p. 1.

    Yim, Dongsun Yoon, Sara and Lee, Jiyeon 2016. Receptive Vocabulary Assessment in Korean-English Bilingual Children: Cross-linguistic Investigations. Communication Sciences & Disorders, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 131.

    Biedinger, Nicole Becker, Birgit and Klein, Oliver 2015. Turkish-language ability of children of immigrants in Germany: which contexts of exposure influence preschool children's acquisition of their heritage language?. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 38, Issue. 9, p. 1520.

    Brice, Alejandro E. 2015. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.

    CARROLL, SUSANNE E. 2015. Exposure and input in bilingual development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.


The relation of input factors to lexical learning by bilingual infants

  • Barbara Z. Pearson (a1), Sylvia C. Fernandez (a1), Vanessa Lewedeg (a1) and D.Kimbrough Oller (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 November 2008

The bilingual child is seen as a unique source of information about the relation between input and intake. The strength of the association between language exposure estimates and vocabulary learning was examined for 25 simultaneous bilingual infants (ages 8 to 30 months) with differing patterns of exposure to the languages being learned. Using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories, standardized parent report forms in English and Spanish, the percentage of all words that were known in each language was calculated and then plotted against the estimates of language input (also in percentages). A significant correlation was found, r(25)= .82, p < .001. The correlation was also strong when examined point-by-point, even for children whose language environments changed by more than 20%; between observations, although it was not reliable at lower levels of exposure to Spanish. Especially for children with less input in the minority language, the factors which appeared to affect the strength of the association between input and amount learned in a language are discussed.

Corresponding author
Barbara Z. Pearson, University of Miami Mailman Center, c. o English, Box 248145, Coral Gables, FL 33124
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S. Döpke (1992). One parent, one language: An interactional approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

R. Eilers , D. K. Oller , S. Levine , D. Basinger , M. Lynch , & R. Urbano (1993). Canonical babbling in infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 297315.

A. Gopnik , & A. Meltzoff (1987). The development of categorization in the second year and its relation to other cognitive and linguistic developments. Child Development, 58, 15231531.

R. Held (1965). Plasticity in sensory-motor systems. Scientific American, 213, 8494.

E. Hoff-Ginsberg (1992). How should frequency in input be measured? First Language, 12, 233244.

J. Huttenlocher , W. Haight , A. Bryk , M. Seltzer , & T. Lyons (1991). Early vocabulary growth: Relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27, 236248.

N. Hyams (1986). Language acquisition and the theory of parameters. Dordrecht: Reidel.

B. Z. Pearson , S. C. Fernändez , & D. K. Oller (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning, 43, 93120.

S. Pinker (1991). Rules of language. Science, 253, 530535.

J. S. Reznick , & B. Goldfield (1992). Rapid change in lexical development in comprehension and production. Developmental Psychology, 28, 406413.

N. B. Schiff (1979). The influence of deviant maternal input on development of language during the preschool years. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 22, 581603.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *