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De Cordoue à Byzance*

Sur une “prothéorie” inédite de la physique d'Aristote

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 October 2008

Marwan Rashed
Affiliation:
Graduiertenkolleg “Textüberlieferung”, Universität Hamburg, Von-Melle-Park VI, Hamburg, Germany

Abstract

The editing of three anonymous Greek texts preserved in the Parisinus Suppl. gr. 643 allows us to clarify certain ideas on the transmission of knowledge in the Mediterranean during the second half of the 13th century. These texts – an introduction to the Physics of Aristotle, one to De generatione et corruptione and a page of Medical Problems – are in fact translations from Latin probably made at Salerno at the end of the Norman period or at the beginning of the Angevin dynasty. They allow us to establish the influence of the Parisian Faculty of Arts on the Sicilian intellectual milieu of the period and to illustrate how, whilst remaining true to its medical vocation, the University of Salerno evolved nonetheless towards a model of general education in the Arts. Finally these texts reveal the considerable influence – both philological and doctrinal – of Arabic learning on the Aristotelian teaching of their author. This very fact, combined with the presence of the Parisinus in Byzantium, in an environment of advanced philological learning, a few decades after its composition, leads us to question our understanding of the Palaeologan Renaissance as well as its independence with regard to the Arabo-latin scholarly tradition of the 13th century.

L'édition de trois textes grecs anonymes conservés dans le Parisinus suppl. gr. 643 permet de préciser certaines idées sur la transmission des savoirs en Méditerranée dans la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle. Ces textes – une introduction à la Physique d'Aristote, une au De generatione et corruptione et une page d'Apories médicales – sont en effet des traductions du latin effectuées probablement à Salerne à la fin de l'ère normande ou au dèbut de la domination angevine. Ils permettent d'établir définitivement l'influence de la Faculté des arts de Paris sur les milieux intellectuels siciliens de l'époque et d'illustrer concrètement comment, tout en restant fidèle à sa vocation médicale, l'Université de Salerne n'en a pas moins évolué vers un modèle artien d'enseignement général. On relèvera enfin l'influence profonde – tant au plan philologique que doctrinal – de la recherche arabe de l'époque sur l'enseignement aristotélicien de notre Anonyme. Ce fait, mis en rapport avec la présence du Parisinus à Byzance, dans un milieu de haute érudition, quelques décennies après sa confection, conduit à s'interroger sur les modalités de la Renaissance aristotélicienne des Paléologues, ainsi que sur son indépendance à l'égard de la scolastique arabo-latine du XIIIe siècle.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

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