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XIX.—Wooden Monumental Effigies in England and Wales

  • Alfred C. Fryer


The forty-sixth volume of Archaeologia contains a paper on Little Horkesley church, Essex, by Sir Clements R. Markham, with some account of the three wooden monumental effigies in that church. A carefully prepared list of the wooden monumental effigies in England and Wales is appended to that paper. This list is arranged as a topographical index, and records the existence of seventy-eight wooden effigies. Four, however, are given in error, so that this number is reduced to seventy-four. Recent research now permits nineteen more to be added to this list. Sir Clements R. Markham only refers to six wooden effigies which were destroyed; records of sixteen more, however, are now appended, and it is quite probable that this unfortunate list may have to be extended as further knowledge of our lost effigies comes to light.



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page 487 note a Pp. 269–280.

page 489 note a Vol. i. 104.

page 489 note b Vol. vi. 282.

page 489 note c Vol. i. 400.

page 489 note d Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, x. Part 3.

page 489 note c Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, xxvii. 289.

page 489 note f Transactions of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, viii. 185.

page 489 note g Vol. xviii. 77.

page 489 note h Vol. xi. 149.

page 489 note i Vol. xxxiii. 239.

page 489 note j Vol. vi. 192.

page 489 note k P. 55.

page 489 note l The wooden figures of William of Valence and King Henry V. in Westminster Abbey were covered with metal plates; yet they have been included in the above number, although these wooden cores cannot be called sculpture when deprived of their plates.

page 489 note a .Six Berkshire, four Buckinghamshire, one Brecknockshire, two Cambridgeshire, two Cumberland, two Derbyshire, two Devonshire, seven Durham, ten Essex, two Gloucestershire, six Hampshire and the Isle of Wight, two Herefordshire, three Kent, two Middlesex, one Monmouthshire, one Nottinghamshire, three Norfolk, ten Northamptonshire, two Rutland, two Staffordshire, four Shropshire, two Somersetshire, six Suffolk, one Surrey, one Sussex, and nine Yorkshire.

page 489 note b Six Brecknockshire, one Cumberland, one Devonshire, one Durham, five Essex, two Herefordshire, one Lincolnshire, one Nottinghamshire, one Northamptonshire, one Shropshire, and two Suffolk.

page 490 note a See the exhaustive paper “On the Funeral Effigies of the Kings and Queens of England, with special reference to those in the Abbey Church of Westminster” by Hope, W. H. St. John in Archaeologia, lx. 517570; also Some Minor Arts, 57; Portraiture in Recumbent Effigies, by Albert Hartshorne, 28–30.

page 491 note a SirCornwallis, Charles, An Account of the Baptism, Life, Death and Funeral of the Most Incomparable Prince FREDERICK HENRY, Prince of WALES. (London, 1751), 47.

page 491 note b Twelve days after the funeral.

page 491 note c Ibid. 50.

page 491 note d The Chancellor's Roll of 56 Henry III. (1272).

page 491 note e In the Louvre is a wooden effigy of Blanche de Champagne, died 1283. This is covered with plates of copper, and the head rests upon an enamelled cushion of Limoges work.

page 491 note f An early example of a wooden tomb, but supporting a stone effigy, is that of William Longespée in Salisbury cathedral church.

page 492 note a The will of Henry VII. expressed the desire that an “ymage of tymber” of a king, covered with plates of fine gold, in the manner of an armed man, be made and set up on the crest of the shrine of the Confessor.

page 492 note b Blomefield found that the effigy of Sir Robert du Bois, who died 1311, was hollowed out and filled with charcoal.

page 492 note c The Bole Armenian is an earthly mineral which occurs in amorphous masses and is composed chiefly of silica with 20 per cent, of alumina and 10 of iron. It has a dull yellow, brownish or red colour, has a greasy feel, and yields to the nail. It is opaque and slightly translucent.

page 492 note d Mr. Albert Hartshorne gives a detailed description of the use of gesso in the decoration of both stone and wooden effigies. See Some Minor Arts, 62–64.

page 492 note e Hollis's Monumental Effigies.

page 493 note a Victoria History, Northants, i. 401.

page 493 note b See Gough's, Sepulchral Monuments, i. part i. 38; and the Kerrich Coll. (British Museum), 6732, p. 13.

page 493 note c Page 63.

page 494 note a This curious effigy is probably to some member of the Cheyne family. The manor of Norton passed into their possession in 1328, and this effigy was most likely carved between 1340 and 1350.

page 494 note b The effigy rests on an oblong wooden box of late fourteenth or early fifteenth-century workmanship, and now lies in the presbytery. It seems that the body of the duke was removed into the presbytery after the suppression of the abbey, as the inscription “Hic jacet Robertus Curtus” is in the chapter-house.

page 495 note a See Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, xxvii. 289.

page 496 note a See Stone, Percy Gr., Architectural Antiquities of the Isle of Wight, ii. 25.

page 497 note a Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological Natural History Society, xiii. 185189. The effigy and cadaver were exhibited by Mr. Hope to the Society of Antiquaries on the 13th March, 1884. See Proceedings, 2nd S. x. 63–66, and the accompanying engraving of the subdean's effigy.

page 498 note a Mr. Bloxam dates the one at Much Marcle about 1350, and Mr. Albert Hartshorne would assign it to about the year 1360.

page 498 note b Archaeological Journal, xxxiii. 239.

page 499 note a Note to pl. cxxv.

page 499 note b Portraiture in Recumbent Effigies, by Albert Hartshorne.

page 501 note a One is much later than the other two.

page 502 note a Mr. Edward Prior conjectures that the figure may have been an angel similar to those at Westminster.

page 502 note b Victoria History of Northants, i. 401.

page 502 note c Some Minor Arts, 59.

page 503 note a Some Minor Arts, 64.

page 503 note b These peculiarities appear in stone effigies before 1250, as at Wells and conspicuously at Westminster Abbey.

page 504 note a Shropshire.

page 506 note a The brasses of Sir John Creke at Westley Waterless, and of Sir John d'Aubernoun at Stoke d'Abernon, both show the cyclas and also the fluted bascinet. These brasses are illustrated in Haines's Monumental Brasses, part i. cli. clii.

page 507 note a The effigy of Sir John Lyons, Warkworth, Northamptonshire, living 1346, is usually given as the latest example of the cyclas.

page 507 note b The effigy of the youth William of Hatfield, who died in 1335, is represented in his effigy at York wearing a baudric over a delicately embroidered jupon, and fastened by a large stud on the left side. In front is a loop for the anelace. This is an early civil example of the baudric as well as the jupon.

page 507 note c See Sword Belts of the Middle Ages, by Hartshorne, Albert, and Archaeological Journal, xlviii. 334.

page 508 note a Kerrich MS. Coll. (British Museum), 6,730, p. 61.

page 512 note a Collars of this kind belong to the period 1461–1485.

page 512 note b This effigy is figured in Bloxam's Monumental Architecture.

page 513 note a See Archaeological Journal, lv. 119. This effigy dates from 1471–1475.

page 513 note b Boutell's Series of Monumental Brasses.

page 513 note c Cotman's, Brasses of Norfolk, i. pl. 36.

page 513 note d Viscount Dillon gives a list of several on the continent (Archaeological Journal, lv. 119): Henneberg effigy (1490); Albrecht Dürer's “Death and the Knight” and his portraits of the Brothers Baumgartner (1506); bas-relief on the Porto Nuovo at Naples of Alphonso the Victorious and his companions who were executed in J 470; and in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence is a portrait of Erasmo da Narni (Gattamelata) and his squire by Griorgione (1438–1441). The squire wears the chin-piece, but instead of the salade he is seen in the cap only.

page 515 note a The tabard occasionally appears in the Yorkist period, but did not come into anything like general use until the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. It is rarely found later than the sixteenth century.

page 517 note a Diary of Richard Symonds, published by the Camden Society in 1859. Original MS. 17062 British Museum. He mentions that the armorial bearings on the tomb were “a chevron between 3 spear's heads, crest, a wreath, a wyvern, gules.” These were the arms of the family of Games of Aberbrain.

page 517 note b The Progress of the Duke of Beaufort through Wales in 1684, by Dineley, Thomas. Copied from the original MS. at Badminton (London, 1888), 210.Jones, Theophilus, History of the County of Brecknock (Brecknock, 1809), ii. part i. 41.

page 517 note a The earl married three times; and these effigies represent Jane and Margaret, being his second and third wives. They were the daughters of Sir Roger Cholmeley, and the first lady was the widow of Sir Henry Gascoigne. Queen Elizabeth was furious at the earl marrying his deceased wife's sister, and he was tried before the Bishop of Durham and the Archbishop of York, as Metropolitan, in the Ecclesiastical Court, but he died before the case was concluded.

page 520 note a See Programme of Excursion, June 21–29, 1904, Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, p. 14.

page 520 note b Gough, ii. civ.

page 520 note c Albert Hartshorne, Portraiture in Recumbent Effigies, 35.

page 521 note a Ashmole (1719) says it was “a raised monument of wood.” Leland says it stood in the middle of the chapel and the knight lay between his two wives.

page 522 note a The only remaining figure of a tomb of “three tiers of oaken beds,” which stood in the chancel to the memory of John, William, and Thomas Games of Aberbrain. The parliamentarian soldiers destroyed all the figures except this one. Tomb removed in early years of nineteenth century.

page 524 note a This tomb, decorated with shields of arms, may not belong to these effigies, as fragments of an altar tomb were found in the middle of the Reynes Chapel.

page 527 note a This tomb has been cut down so that the entablature rests on the base. This was done before Leland saw it.

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