Skip to main content Accessibility help

Agency ‘in itself’. A discussion of inanimate, animal and human agency

  • Torill Christine Lindstrøm


‘Agency’, the concept, its connections to ontology and its uses within archaeological theory, are discussed and criticized. In recent archaeological theory, the term ‘agency’ has been attributed to things, plants, animals and humans. In this paper it is argued that the term ‘agency’ is logically meaningless if applied to everything that moves or has effects on its surroundings, and that we need a new, more precise terminology that discriminates between ‘agency’, ‘effect’, ‘actant’ and ‘effectant’. That people, of all cultures, perceive and experience things/objects as having agency is explained as being due to projections of human characteristics, human psycho-neurological functioning, and the fact that all individuals and cultures are deeply involved with and dependent on things/objects. Connected to this, questions regarding different ontologies, animism, ethics and sciences are discussed. The paper presents a critique of symmetrical archaeology and materiality studies. Broader paradigmatic perspectives, more theoretical and methodological inclusiveness, and more inter- and trans-disciplinary endeavours are suggested to increase archaeology's ‘agency’.


Corresponding author

*Torill Christine Lindstrøm, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Norway. Email:


Hide All
Âikäs, T., Puputti, A.-K., Núnez, M., Aspi, J. and Okkonen, J., 2009: Sacred and profane livelihood. Animal bones from sieidi sites in northern Finland, Norwegian archaeological review 42, 109–22.
Alberti, B., and Bray, T.L. (eds), 2009: Animating archaeology. Of subjects, objects and alternative ontologies, Special section of Cambridge archaeological journal 19, 337441.
Argent, G., 2010: Do the clothes make the horse? World archaeology 42, 157–74.
Atran, S., and Norenzayan, A., 2004: Religion's evolutionary landscape. Counterintuition, commitment, communion, Behavioral and brain sciences 27, 713–70.
Auersperg, A.M.I., Kacelnik, A. and von Bayern, A.M.P., 2013: Explorative learning and functional inferences on a five-step means–means–end problem in Goffin's cockatoos (Cacatua goffini), PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8 (7):e68979.
Bandura, A., 2006: Toward a psychology of human agency, Perspectives on psychological science 1, 164–80.
Barrett, D., 2010: Supernormal stimuli. How primal urges overran their evolutionary purpose, New York.
Bearzi, M., and Stanford, C.B., 2008: Beautiful minds. The parallel lives of great apes and dolphins, Cambridge.
Bekoff, M., 2007: The emotional lives of animals, Novato.
Bekoff, M., Allen, C. and Burghardt, G.M. (eds), 2002: The cognitive animal. Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition, Cambridge.
Bell, J., 1992: On capturing agency in theories about prehistory, in Gardin, J.C. and Pebbles, C. (eds), Representations in archaeology, Bloomington, 3055.
Bennett, G.G., and Laland, K.N., 2005: Social learning in animals. Empirical studies and theoretical models, BioScience, doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0489:SLIAES]2.0.CO;2.
Bennett, J., 2010: Vibrant matter. A political ecology of things, Durham, NC.
Boast, R., 1997: A small company of actors. A critique of style, Journal of material culture 2, 173–98.
Borghi, A.M., and Cimatti, F., 2010: Embodied cognition and beyond. Acting and sensing the body, Neuropsychologica, 48, 3, 763–73, doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologica.2009.10.029.
Botting, F., 2012: More things. Horror, materialism and speculative weirdism, Horror studies 3, 281303.
Bourdieu, P., 1977: Outline of a theory of practice, New York.
Bourdieu, P., 1990: The logic of practice, Stanford, CA.
Bovet, D., and Vauclair, J., 2000: Picture recognition in animals and humans. A review, Behavioural brain research 109, 143–65.
Bowlby, J., 1969: Attachment and loss, Vol. 1, Attachment, New York.
Bowlby, J., 1973: Attachment and loss, Vol. 2, Separation, anxiety and anger, London.
Bradbury, J.W., and Vehrencamp, S.L., 2011: Principles of animal communication, Sunderland.
Brennan, T. 2004: The transmission of affect, Ithaca, NY.
Bronfenbrenner, U., 1979: The ecology of human development. Experiments by nature and design, Cambridge.
Brown, L.B., and Thouless, R.H., 1965: Animistic thoughts in civilized adults, Journal of genetic psychology 107, 3342.
Bugnyar, T., and Kotrschal, K., 2002: Observational learning and the raiding of food caches in ravens, Corvus corax. Is it ‘tactical’ deception? Animal behaviour 64, 185–95.
Burr, V., 1995: An introduction to social constructivism, London.
Calder, L., 2011: Cruelty and sentimentality. Greek attitudes to animals, 600–300 BC, Oxford (BAR International Series 2225).
Call, J., and Tomasello, M., 1998: Distinguishing intentional from accidental actions in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and human children (Homo sapiens), Journal of comparative psychology 112 (2), 192206.
Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, 2012, written by P. Low and edited by J. Panksepp, D. Reiss, D. Edelman, B. Van Swinderen, P. Low and C. Koch.
Clayton, N.S., Dally, J.M. and Emery, N.J., 2007: Social cognition by food caching corvids. The western scrub-jay as a natural psychologist, Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society B 362, 507–22.
Corballis, M.C., and Lea, S.E.G. (eds), 1999: The descent of mind. Psychological perspectives on human evolution, London.
Coy, J., 1994: Animals’ attitudes to people, in Ingold, T. (ed.), What is an animal?, London, 7783.
Dalton, R., 2010: Fossil finger points to new human species. DNA analysis reveals lost relative from 40,000 years ago, Nature 464, 7288, 472.
Deacon, T.W., 1997: The symbolic species. The co-evolution of language and the brain, New York.
DeMarrais, E., Gosden, C. and Renfrew, C. (eds), 2004: Rethinking materiality. The engagement of mind with the material world, Cambridge.
Descartes, R., 1984: The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. 2 (tr. Cottingham, J., Stoothoff, R. and Murdoch, D.), Cambridge.
Descola, P., 2005: Beyond nature and culture, Proceedings of the British Academy 139, 137–55.
Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J., 2000: Agency in archaeology. Paradigm or platitude? in Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J. (eds), Agency in archaeology, London, 317.
Dolinski, D., and Szczucka, K., 2013: Emotional disrupt-then-reframe technique of social influence, Journal of applied social psychology 43, 2013–14.
Dornan, J.L., 2002: Agency and archaeology. Past, present, and future directions, Journal of archaeological method and theory 9 (4), 303–29.
Faarlund, J.T., 2009: Darwin og evolusjonsteorien i lingvistikken, in Hessen, D.O., Lie, T. and Stenseth, N.C. (eds), Verden ble aldri den same, Oslo, 229–50.
Feldman, R.S., 2008: Development across the life span, 6th edn, Englewood Cliffs.
Fijn, N., 2009: Living with herds. Human–animal co-existence in Mongolia, Cambridge.
Fowler, C., 2004: The archaeology of personhood. An anthropological approach, London.
Ganguli, I., 2006: Mice show evidence of empathy, The Scientist, 30 July, available at, accessed 30 June 2006.
Gansum, T., and Hansen, H., 2002: Fra jern til stål. Mytologiske og rituelle aspekter i teknologiske prosesser, Borre.
Gardner, A. 2004: Agency uncovered. Archaeological perspectives on social agency, power and being human, London.
Gardner, R.A., and Gardner, B., 1998: The structure of learning. From sign stimuli to sign language, New York.
Gell, A., 1998: Art and agency. An anthropological theory, Oxford.
Giddens, A., 1979: Central problems in social theory. Action, structure, and contradictions in social analysis, Berkeley.
Giddens, A., 1993 (1976): New rules of sociological method, Stanford, CA.
Gilhus, I.S., 2006: Animals, gods and humans. Changing attitudes to animals in Greek, Roman and early Christian ideas, London.
Goettner-Abendroth, H., 2012: Matriarchal societies. Studies on indigenous cultures across the globe, New York.
Goldberg, P., and Macphail, R., 2006: Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology, Oxford.
Gosling, S.D., and John, O.P., 1999: Personality dimensions in nonhuman animals. A cross-species review, Current directions in psychological science 8, 6975.
Graves, R., 1997: The Larousse encyclopedia of mythology, London.
Griffin, D.R., and Speck, G.B., 2004: New evidence of animal consciousness, Animal cognition 7, 518.
Grøn, O., 2010: Evenk shamans. A non-exotic approach. Ethnoarchaeological observations, in Hardy, K. (ed.), Archaeological invisibility and forgotten knowledge. Conference proceedings, Kódʹz, Poland, 5–7 September 2007, Oxford (British Archaeological Reports, International Series 2183), 108–14.
Güzeldere, G., Nahmias, E. and Deaner, R.O., 2002: Darwin's continuum and the building blocks of deception, in Bekoff, M., Allen, C. and Burghardt, G.M. (eds), The cognitive animal. Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition, Cambridge, 353–62.
Hadjikhani, N., Kveraga, K., Naik, K.P. and Ahlfors, S.P., 2009: Early (M170) activation of facespecific cortex by face-like objects, NeuroReport 20, 403–7.
Hartmann, E. von. 1871: Kantische Studien zur Erkenntnisstheorie und Metaphysik, Berlin.
Harvey, G., 2005: Animism. Respecting the living world, Adelaide.
Hill, E., 2013: Archaeology and animal persons. Toward a prehistory of human–animal relations, Environment and society. Advances in research 4, 117–36.
Hodder, I., 1986: Reading the past, Cambridge.
Hodder, I., 2000: Agency and individuals in long-term processes, in Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J. (eds), Agency in archaeology, London, 2133.
Hodder, I., 2012a: Entangled. An archaeology of the relationships between humans and things, Chichester.
Hodder, I., 2012b: Introduction. Contemporary theoretical debate, in Hodder, I. (ed.), Archaeological theory today, Cambridge, 114.
Hoskins, J., 2006: Agency, biography and objects, in Tilley, C., Keane, W., Küchler, S., Rowlands, M. and Spyer, P. (eds), Handbook of material culture, London, 7484.
Ingold, T. (ed.) 1994: What is an animal? London.
Ingold, T., 2000: The perception of the environment. Essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill, London.
Ingold, T., 2001 (1998): From complementarity to obviation. On dissolving the boundaries between social and biological anthropology, archaeology, and psychology, in Oyama, S., Griffiths, P.E. and Gray, R.D. (eds), Cycles of contingency. Developmental systems and evolution, Cambridge, 255–80; first published in Zeitschrift für Etnologie 123, 2152.
Ingold, T., 2006: Rethinking the animate, re-animating thought, Ethnos 71, 920.
Ingold, T., 2007: Materials against materiality, Archaeological dialogues 14 (1), 116.
Ingold, T., 2014: Is there life amidst the ruins? Journal of contemporary archaeology 1 (2), 231–35.
Jennbert, K., 2011: Animals and humans, Lund.
Johannsen, N., 2012: Archaeology and the inanimate agency proposition. A critique and a suggestion, in Johannsen, N., Jenssen, M. and Juel Jensen, H. (eds), Excavating the mind. Cross-sections through culture, cognition and materiality, Aarhus, 305–47.
Johannsen, N., Jenssen, M. and Juel Jensen, H. (eds) 2012: Excavating the mind. Cross-sections through culture, cognition and materiality, Aarhus.
Johnson, M., 1989: Conceptions of agency in archaeological interpretation, Journal of anthropological archaeology 8, 189211.
Johnson, R.B., and Onwuegbuzie, A.J., 2004: Mixed methods research. A research paradigm whose time has come, Educational researcher 33, 1426.
Joyce, A.A., 2000: The founding of Monte Albán. Sacred propositions and social practices, in Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J. (eds), Agency in archaeology, London, 7191.
Kaminski, J., 2013: Dogs steal in the dark, Animal cognition 16, 385–94.
Knappett, C., 2005: Thinking through material culture. An interdisciplinary perspective, Philadelphia.
Knappett, C., 2007: Materials with materiality? Archaeological dialogues 14 (1), 2023.
Knappett, C., and Malafouris, L., 2008: Material and nonhuman agency. An introduction, in Knappett, C. and Malafouris, L. (eds.), Material agency. Towards a non-anthropocentric approach, New York, ix–xix.
Kohring, S., 2014: Materiality, technology, and constructing social knowledge through bodily representation. A view from prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands, European journal of archaeology 17, 248–63.
Kvale, S., 2006: InterViews. An introduction to qualitative research interviewing, London.
Latour, B., 1993: We have never been modern, London.
Latour, B., 1999: Pandora's hope. Essays on the reality of science studies, Cambridge.
Latour, B., 2005: Reassembling the social. An introduction to actor-network theory, Oxford.
Lindstrøm, T.C., 2009a: Different classes of entities, interactions, and identities. But have human perception of animals and objects really changed over time?, paper delivered at 31st Annual Meeting of the Theoretical Archaeology Group (UK-TAG), Durham, 17–19 December.
Lindstrøm, T.C., 2009b: Function or fashion? Costume and colour in the Villa dei Misteri fresco cycle, lecture delivered at Accordia Research Centre, Institute of Classical Studies, School of Advanced Studies, University of London, and Institute of Archaeology, University College London, University of London, 10 November 2009.
Lindstrøm, T.C., 2010: The animals of the arena. How and why could their destruction and death be endured and enjoyed?, World archaeology 42, 313–26.
Lindstrøm, T.C., 2012: ‘I am the walrus’. Animal identities and merging with animals – exceptional experiences? Norwegian archaeological review 45, 151–76.
Lindstrøm, T.C., 2014: Copy or not a copy? That's the question, El retrado privado en AVGVSTA EMERITA. Arqueologica clásica (CIAC 2013), Merida, 47–50.
Lindstrøm, T.C and Zubrow, E., 2014: Fear and amazement, in Eneix, L. (ed.), Archaeoacoustics. The archaeology of sound, Mayakka, 255–64.
Lucas, G., 2012: Understanding the archaeological record, Cambridge.
Malafouris, L., 2013: How things shape the mind, Cambridge.
Marx, K., 1959 (1932): Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844, Moscow.
Maslow, A.H., 1966: The psychology of science. A reconnaissance, New York.
Merleau-Ponty, M., 1962: Phenomenology of perception, London.
Midgley, M., 1995: Beast and man. The roots of human nature, London.
Mlot, C., 1997: Stalking the ancient dog, Science news online, 28 June, available at, retrieved 23 July 2008.
Moe, D., Fedele, F., Maude, A.E. and Kvamme, M., 2007: Vegetational changes and human presence in the low-alpine and subalpine zone in Val Febbraro, upper Valle di Spuga (Italian Central Alps), from the Neolithic to the Roman period, Vegetation history and archeobotany 16, 431–51.
Molloy, K., and O’Connell, M., 2004: Holocene vegetation and land-use dynamics in the karstic environment of Inis Oírr, Aran Islands, western Ireland. Pollen analytical evidence evaluated in the light of the archaeological record, Quaternary international 113, 4164.
Mumford, S., and Anjum, R., 2011: What we tend to mean? Norsk filosofisk tidsskrift 46 (1), 2032.
Myrstad, R., 1996: Bjørnegraver i Nord-Norge. Spor etter den samiske bjørnekulten, Tromsø (Stensilserie B, historie/arkeologi 46).
Myszka, A., Piontek, J. and Miłosz, E., 2012: Traumatic injuries in the late medieval and early modern population from Lekno, Poland, Interdisciplinaria archaeologica 3, 237–43.
Nelson, R.K., 1983: Make prayers to the raven. A Koyukon view of the northern forest, Chicago.
Nilsson Stutz, L., 2010: The way we bury our dead. Reflections on mortuary ritual, community and identity at the time of the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition, Documenta praehistorica 37, 33.
Ohman, A., and Mineka, S., 2001: Fears, phobias, and preparedness. Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning, Psychological review 108, 483522.
Olsen, B., 2003: Material culture after text. Re-membering things, Norwegian archaeological review 36, 87104.
Olsen, B., 2007: Keeping things at arm's length. A genealogy of asymmetry, World archaeology 39, 579–88.
Olsen, B., 2010: In the defence of things. Archaeology and the ontology of objects, Lanham, MD.
Olsen, B., Shanks, M., Webmoor, T. and Witmore, C., 2012: Archaeology. The discipline of things, Berkeley, CA.
Oma, K.A., 2010: Between trust and domination. Social contracts between humans and animals, World archaeology, 42, 175–87.
Ovchinnikov, I., Götherström, A., Romanova, G., Kharitonov, V., Lidén, K. and Goodwin, W., 2000: Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus, Nature, 404, 490–93.
Overmier, J.B. 1986: Reassessing the learned helplessness hypothesis, Social science 71, 2731.
Panksepp, J., 1998a: Affective neuroscience. The foundations of human and animal emotions, New York.
Panksepp, J. 1998b: The periconscious substrates of consciousness. Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the self, Journal of consciousness studies 5, 566–82.
Panksepp, J., 2005a: Affective consciousness. Core emotional feelings in animals and humans, Consciousness and cognition 14, 3080.
Panksepp, J., 2005b: Beyond a joke. From animal laughter to human joy? Science 308, 6263.
Panksepp, J., and Biven, L., 2010: The archaeology of mind. Neuroevolutionary origins of human emotion, New York.
Pauketat, T. 2001: Practice and history in archaeology, Anthropological theory 1, 7398.
PBS-Nature, 2007: Dogs that changed the world. The rise of the dog, available at, retrieved 8 May 2007.
Pedersen, M., 2001: Totemism, animism and north Asian indigenous ontologies, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 7, 411–27.
Pennisi, E., 1999: Did cooked tubers spur the evolution of big brains? Science 283, 2004–5.
Pearce, M., 2011: Have rumours of the ‘death of theory’ been exaggerated?, in Bintliff, J. and Pearce, M. (eds), The death of archaeological theory?, Oxford, 8087.
Pearce, M., 2013: The spirit of the sword and spear, Cambridge archaeological journal 23, 55–67.
Pickering, A., 1995: The mangle of practice. Time, agency, and science, Chicago.
Pickering, A., 2001: Reading the structure, Perspectives on science 9, 499510.
Pinker, S., 1999: How the mind works, New York.
Piontek, J., and Vančata, V., 2012: Transition to agriculture in central Europe. Body size and body shape amongst the first farmers, Interdisciplinaria archaeologica 3, 2342.
Plotnik, J.M., de Waal, F.B.M. and Reiss, D., 2006: Self-recognition in an Asian elephant, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (abstract) 103(45), 17053–57.
Povinelli, D.J., Rulf, A.B., Landau, K.R. and Bierschwale, D.T., 1993: Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence, Journal of comparative psychology 107, 347–72.
Prag, J., and Neave, R., 1997: Making faces. Using forensic and archaeological evidence, College Station.
Prior, H., Schwarz, A. and Güntürkün, O., 2008: Mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of self-recognition, PLoS Biology 6 (8), e202 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202.
Raby, C.R., Alexis, D.M., Dickinson, A. and Clayton, N.S., 2007: Planning for the future by western scrub jays, Nature 445, 919–21.
Renfrew, C., 2004: Towards a theory of material engagement, in Demarrais, E., Gosden, C. and Renfrew, C. (eds), Rethinking materiality, Cambridge, 2332.
Renfrew, C., and Zubrow, E.B.W. (eds), 1994: The ancient mind. Elements of cognitive archaeology, Cambridge.
Reed, E.S., 1988: The affordances of the animate environment. Social science from the ecological point of view, in Ingold, T. (ed.), What is an animal? London, 110–26.
Robb, J., 2010: Beyond agency, World archaeology 42, 493520.
Rothbauer, P., 2008: Triangulation, in Given, L. (ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods, Thousand Oaks.
Ryan, C., and Jethá, C., 2010: Sex at dawn. The prehistoric origins of modern sexuality, New York.
Schiffer, M.B.(with A.R. Miller), 1999: The material life of human beings. Artifacts, behaviour and communication, London.
Schnapp, A., 1994: Are images animated. The psychology of statues in ancient Greece, in Renfrew, C. and Zubrow, E.B.W. (eds), The ancient mind. Elements of cognitive archaeology, Cambridge, 4044.
Scobie, A., and Taylor, A.J.W, 1975: Perversions ancient and modern. I. Agalmatophilia, the statue syndrome, Journal of the history of the behavioural sciences 11, 4954.
Seligman, M.E.P., 1975: Helplessness. On depression, development, and death, San Francisco.
Serpell, J., 1995: The domestic dog. Its evolution, behaviour, and interactions with people, Cambridge.
Shackelford, T.K., Schmitt, D.P. and Buss, D.M., 2005: Universal dimensions of human mate preferences, Personality and individual differences 39, 447–58.
Shanks, M., 2012: The archaeological imagination, Walnut Creek.
Shanks, M. and Tilley, C., 1987: Re-constructing archaeology. Theory and practice, London.
Sigurdsson, H., Cashdollar, S. and Sparks, S.R.J., 1982: The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. Reconstruction from historical and volcanological evidence, American journal of archaeology 86, 3951.
Smuts, B., 2002: Gestural communication in olive baboons and domestic dogs, in Bekoff, M., Allen, C. and Burghardt, G.M. (eds), The cognitive animal. Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition, Cambridge, 443–50.
Spector, T., 2012: Identically different, London.
Stamps, J.A., 2007: Growth–mortality tradeoffs and ‘personality traits’ in animals, Ecology letters 10, 355–63.
Teddlie, C., and Tashakkori, A. (eds.), 2003: Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioural research, Thousand Oaks.
Thomas, J., 2008: Phenomenology and material culture, in Tilley, C., Keane, W., Küchler, S., Rowlands, M. and Spyer, P. (eds), Handbook of material culture, Los Angeles, 43–59.
Tilley, C., 2006: Objectification, in Tilley, C., Keane, W., Küchler, S., Rowlands, M. and Spyer, P. (eds.), Handbook of material culture, London, 6073.
Tilley, C., Keane, W., Küchler, S., Rowland, M. and Spyer, P. (eds), 2006: Handbook of material culture, London.
Tinbergen, N., 1951: The study of instinct, Oxford.
Tolman, E. C., 1948: Purposive behaviour in animals and man, Psychological review 55, 189258.
Tsao, D.Y., Freiwald, W.A., Tootell, R.B. and Livingstone, M.S., 2006: A cortical region consisting entirely of face-selective cells, Science 311, 670–74.
Tsao, D.Y., Moeller, S. and Freiwald, W.A., 2008: Comparing face patch systems in macaques and humans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science in the USA 105, 19514–19.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.
Verbeek, P.-P., 2005: What things do. Philosophical reflections on technology, agency, and design, Pennsylvania.
Viveiros de Castro, E., 1998: Cosmological deixis and Amerindian perspectivism, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4, 469–88.
Webmoor, T., 2007: ‘What about one more turn after the social’ in archaeological reasoning? Taking things seriously, World archaeology 39, 563–78.
Wilcox, S., and Jackson, R., 2002: Jumping spider tricksters. Deceit, predation, and cognition, in Bekoff, M., Allen, C. and Burghardt, G.M. (eds), The cognitive animal. Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition, Cambridge, 2733.
Willerslev, R., 2007: Soul hunters. Hunting, animism and personhood among the Siberian Yukaghirs, Berkeley, CA.
Willerslev, R., and Ulturgasheva, O., 2012: Revisiting the animism versus totemism debate. Fabricating persons among the Eveny and Chukchi of north-eastern Siberia, in Brightman, M., Grotti, V.E. and Ulturgasheva, O. (eds), Animism in rainforest and tundra. Personhood, animals, plants and things in contemporary Amazonia and Siberia, New York, 4868.
Witmore, C.L., 2007: Symmetrical archaeology. Excerpts of a manifesto, World archaeology 39, 546–62.
Witmore, C.L., 2014: Archaeology and the new materialisms, Journal of contemporary archaeology 1 (2), 203–46.
Witoszek, N., 1998: Norske naturmytologier. Fra Edda til økofilosofi, Oslo.
Wrangham, R., and Conklin-Brittain, N.L., 2003: Cooking as a biological trait, Comparative biochemistry and physiology, Part A 136, 3546.
Wynn, T., 2002: Archaeology and cognitive evolution, Behavioral and brain sciences 25, 389438.
Zastawnya, A., Rauba-Bukowskab, A., Trąbskac, J. and Trybalskad, B., 2013: Results of the microscopic analyses of vessels from assemblages of the Modlnica Type (with Furchenstichkeramik) from Site 5 in Modlnica, Kraków District, Poland, Interdisciplinaria archaeologica 3, 257–77.


Agency ‘in itself’. A discussion of inanimate, animal and human agency

  • Torill Christine Lindstrøm


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed