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Adapting Glasshouses for Human Use: Environmental Experimentation in Paxton’s Designs for the 1851 Great Exhibition Building and the Crystal Palace, Sydenham

  • Henrik Schoenefeldt
Extract

When the horticulturist Joseph Paxton first published his proposal to house the 1851 Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations inside a glasshouse of enormous scale at Hyde Park, London, the scheme was praised as a more practical alternative to an earlier idea that had been put forward by the Royal Commission for the Great Exhibition’s own Building Committee. However, the feasibility of Paxton’s idea soon became the subject of concern. The use of glasshouses for the cultivation of plants was well established, but could this type of building now be adapted to the task of accommodating artefacts? Could it also provide visitors to the Exhibition with a comfortable environment? A particular worry was the issue of cooling, given that the Exhibition was to take place in summer. Prospective exhibitors anxiously made reference to the hot and humid conditions inside greenhouses such as the Palm House at Kew Gardens and the Conservatory at Regent’s Park, and they criticized Paxton’s idea as a risky experiment. Paxton did not ignore the challenge. He pointed out that his design incorporated shading devices, provision for evaporative cooling and natural ventilation, all of which were intended to maintain comfortable temperatures on hot days. He argued that his proposals had been informed by his previous experience with conservatory design, claiming that he had validated the effectiveness of his ventilation and cooling strategy through smalls-cale experiments at Chatsworth House. That Paxton’s plans were accepted and realized was largely due to good fortune. His design was considered to be the only one that could be constructed in time for the opening of the exhibition, which had already been advertised internationally. The Executive Committee, however, requested that conditions inside the building be carefully monitored. In effect, the Great Exhibition Building at Hyde Park became a significant early experiment in what would now be termed ‘environmental design’ (Fig. 1).

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Notes

1 ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, pp. 385–86.

2 ‘Since the Unfortunate Vote of the Houses of Commons’, The Times, 15 July 1850, p. 4; ‘National Exhibition Building’, Architect and Building Gazette, 20 July 1850, p. 344; ‘Building for the Exhibition of 1851’, Builder, 13 (1850), p. 358 ; ‘An Architect, Exhibition Of 1851’, The Times, 17 July 1850, p. 8.

3 ‘Public Dinner at Derby to Mr. Paxton’, The Times, 7 August 1851, p. 8; ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, pp. 385–86; ‘Dinner to Charles Fox at Derby’, The Times, 23 June 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition of 1851’, Morning Chronicle, 12 October 1850, p. 4; ‘Banquet at Mansion House’, The Times, 30 June 1851, p. 8; ‘The Stephenson Banquet at Bangor’, The Times, 29 August 1851, p. 7.

4 ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, pp. 385–86; [Anon.], The Palace of Industry (London, 1851), pp. 1636 .

5 Schoenefeldt, Henrik, ‘The Transformation of the Horticultural Glasshouse Prototype for Human Habitation’ (doctoral thesis, University of Cambridge, 2011); a copy of the thesis has been deposited in the RIBA Library, London.

6 Chatsworth House, Devonshire Collection, Paxton MS 584.3, Letter from Joseph Paxton to Sarah Paxton, 23 July 1850; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 29 March 1851, p. 5; ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, pp. 385–86.

7 ‘An Architect’ and ‘Exhibition of 1851’, The Times, 17 July 1850, p. 8.

8 See, for example, Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, The Crystal Palace: The Structure, Its Antecedents, and Its Immediate Progeny (Northampton, Mass., 1951); Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Early Victorian Architecture in Britain (London, 1972), pp. 53071 ; Giedion, Sigfried, Space, Time and Architecture: the Growth of a New Tradition (Cambridge, Mass, London, 1962), pp. 25574 ; Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types (London, 1976), pp. 24356 . Paxton has been discussed in Chadwick, F. G., Works of Sir Joseph Paxton, 1803–1861 (London, 1961).

9 Addis, Benjamin, ‘The Crystal Palace and its Place in Structural History’, Internal Journal of Space Structures, 21/1 (2006), pp. 319 ; Peters, Tom, ‘Some Structural Problems Encountered in the Building of the Crystal Palace of 1851’, in Studies in the History of Civil Engineering, ed. Thorne, Robert (Aldershot, 2000), pp. 115 ; Peters, Tom, Time is Money — Die Entwicklung des modernen Bauwesens (Stuttgart, 1981), pp. 15983 ; Thorne, Robert, ‘Paxton and Prefabrication’, Architectural Design, 57 (1987), pp. 2328 .

10 Schoenefeldt, Henrik, ‘The Crystal Palace — Environmentally Considered’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 12 (2008), pp. 28394 ; Schoenefeldt, Henrik, ‘Paxton’s Experimental Glasshouse at Hyde Park’, in RIBA Education Yearbook, ed. Nunes, John-Paul (London, 2010), pp. 13639 ; Schoenefeldt, Henrik, ‘The Building of the Great Exhibition of 1851: an Environmental Design Experiment’, in Proceedings of the 25 th Passive and Low Energy Architecture International Conference, ed. Kenny, Paul, Brophy, Vivienne and Owen Lewis, J. (Dublin, 2007), paper no. 191 .

11 Appleby, Thomas, ‘On Cultivating the Pine-apple’, Gardener’s Magazine, 9 (1833), pp. 30317 ; Wallis, George, ‘On the Means of Ascertaining the Degree of Humidity Most Suitable for the Atmosphere of Hot-houses’, Gardener’s Magazine, 15 (1839), pp. 50609 ; Lymburn, Robert, ‘On the Atmosphere in Houses’, Gardener’s Magazine, 7 (July 1842), pp. 36668 .

12 Select Committee on Sewage of Towns, ‘Second report from the Select Committee on Sewage of Towns; together with the analysis of evidence, proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence, appendix and index’, Parliamentary Papers, 1862, document no. 469, questions 2324–2533; Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1855, document nos 415 and 415-I.

13 A more detailed treatment of this subject is found in Schoenefeldt, ‘Crystal Palace — Environmentally Considered’, pp. 287–90.

14 ‘Mr. Paxton’s History of the Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851’, Illustrated London News, 19 October 1850, pp. 322–23; ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, p. 386.

15 ‘Society of Arts — Exhibition of 1851’, The Times, 14 November 1850, p. 4; ‘The Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851’, Jackson’s Oxford Journal, 26 October 1850, p. 1.

16 ‘Great Industrial Building’, Illustrated London News, 22 March 1851, p. 244.

17 Downes, Charles and Cowper, Charles, The Building for the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (London, 1852), pp. 3941 .

18 ‘Society of Arts — Exhibition of 1851’, The Times, 14 November 1850, p. 4; ‘Design by Paxton, F.L.S., for a Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851’, Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850, p. 13; ‘The Crystal Palace — Mr. Paxton’s Lecture’, Journal of the Exhibition of 1851, 23 November 1850, pp. 29–30; ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, p. 386; Paxton, Joseph, ‘The Victoria Regia House, Chatsworth’, Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 13 (1850), pp. 32425 .

19 ‘Society of Arts’, Literary Gazette, November 1850, pp. 860–61; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 3 February 1851, p. 5.

20 Ibid.

21 William MacKenzie, ‘On the Mechanical Ventilation and Warming of St George’s Hall, Liverpool’, Proceedings I Mechanical Engineering (1863), pp. 194–208; Boswell Reid, David, Illustrations of the Theory and Practice of Ventilation (London, 1844); Cooke, Robert, The Palace of Westminster: Houses of Parliament (London, 1987); Boswell Reid, David, Brief Outline Illustrations of the Alterations in the House of Commons (London, 1837).

22 Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, First Report of the Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851 (London, 1852), pp. 6789 .

23 Anon., The Palace of Industries (London, 1851), p. 38 .

24 Digby Wyatt, Matthew, Construction of the Building, Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (London, 1851), p. 66 ; ‘Mode of Opening and Shutting the Ventilators’, Illustrated London News, 26 April 1851, p. 319.

25 Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, First Report, pp. 67–89.

26 Joseph Paxton, ‘The Industrial Palace in Hyde Park’, Illustrated London News, 16 November 1850, p. 386; Anon., ‘Design by Paxton, F.L.S., for a Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851’, Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850, p. 13.

27 ‘Design by Paxton, F.L.S.’, p. 13.

28 Exhibition of 1851, Monthly Report of Progress’, Journal of Design and Manufactures, 4 (1850), pp. 2932 .

29 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 29 March 1851, p. 5.

30 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 16 September 1851, p. 5.

31 Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, First Report, p. 67.

32 Ibid., p. 50.

33 Henry Charles Owen, ‘Return Showing the Strength of the Corps of the Royal Sappers and Miners Employed in the Exhibition’, in Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, First Report, p. 50.

34 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Morning Chronicle, 1 August 1851, p. 5; Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, ‘First Report’, p. 67.

35 Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, First Report, p. 67.

36 Ibid.

37 Source of twohourly data: ‘Seventy Ninth Day’, Morning Chronicle, 1 August 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 2 August 1851, p. 5; Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Morning Chronicle, 12 August 1851, p. 5; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Aug. 19’, Morning Chronicle, 20 August 1851, p. 5; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Aug. 20’, Morning Chronicle, 21 August, p. 6; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 22 August 1851, p. 6; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Aug. 21’, Morning Chronicle, 22 August 1851, p. 6; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Aug. 23’, Morning Chronicle, 25 August 1851, p. 3; ‘Temperature of the Great Exhibition–1 Sept’, Morning Chronicle, 2 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Morning Chronicle, 3 September 1851, p. 6; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 4’, Morning Chronicle, 5 September 1851, p. 3; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 5’, Morning Chronicle, 6 September 1851, p. 3; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 8’, Morning Chronicle, 9 September 1851, p. 2; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 10’, Morning Chronicle, 11 September 1851, p. 3; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 11’, Morning Chronicle, 12 September, p. 6; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 12’, Morning Chronicle, 13 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 15’, Morning Chronicle, 16 September 1851, p. 3; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Sept. 19’, Morning Chronicle, 20 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 22 August 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 3 September 1851, p. 6; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Examiner, 6 September 1851, p. 569; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 15 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 16 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 17 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 18 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 20 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 23 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 24 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 1 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 2 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 3 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 4 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 6 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 7 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 8 October 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Daily News, 15 October 1851, p. 3; ‘The Great Exhibition’, Manchester Times, 11 October 1851, p. 1; ‘The Temperature of the Great Exhibition, Oct. 9’, Era, 12 October 1851, p. 10.

38 Sources of external temperature data: ‘State of the Weather in London, or the week ending _, 1851, as observed at the Horticultural Garden, Chiswick’, Gardener’s Chronicle, 24 May 1851, p. 328; 31 May 1851, p. 344; 7 June 1851, p. 360; 14 June 1851, p. 376; 21 June 1851, p. 392; 28 June 1851, p. 408; 5 July 1851, p. 424; 12 July 1851, p. 440; 19 July 1851, p. 457; 26 July 1851, p. 472; 2 August 1851, p. 488; 23 August 1851, p. 536; 30 August 1851, p. 552; 6 September 1851, p. 568; 13 September 1851, p. 584; 20 September 1851, p. 600; 27 September 1851, p. 617; 4 October 1851, p. 632; 11 October 1851, p. 648; 18 October 1851, p. 664.

39 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 16 September 1851, p. 5.

40 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 30 June 1851, p. 5, ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 4 July 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 1 July 1851, p. 5.

41 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 1 July 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 30 June 1851, p. 5.

42 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Examiner, 26 July 1851, p. 474.

43 ‘Personal News and Gossip’, Leader, 28 June 1851, p. 603.

44 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Standard, 30 June 1851, p. 3.

45 Ibid.

46 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 16 September 1851, p. 5; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 1 July 1851, p. 5.

47 ‘Temperature of the Great Exhibition’, Illustrated London News, 11 October 1851, p. 471; ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 1 July 1851, p. 5.

48 ‘Temperature of the Great Exhibition’, Illustrated London News, 11 October 1851, p. 471.

49 Ibid.

50 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Examiner, 26 July 1851, p. 474.

51 Ibid.

52 Ibid.; Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, ‘First Report’, p. 68.

53 Greeley, Horace, Hints Toward Reforms (New York, 1854), p. 404 .

54 Anon., ‘Wanderings in the Crystal Palace’, Art-Journal (June 1851), pp. 180–81.

55 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 2 August 1851, p. 5.

56 ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 1 July 1851, p. 5.

57 Charles Owen, Henry, ‘Temperature, Appendix No. X., RETURN Showing the TEMPERATURE of the Building for each day during the Time of the Exhibition’, in ‘First Report’, ed. Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851 (London, 1852), pp. 6768 .

58 Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, ‘First Report’, p. 68.

59 Ibid.

60 Henry Ward, Stephen, Healthy Respiration (London, 1855), pp. 5960 .

61 Ibid.

62 Paxton, Joseph, What is to Become of the Crystal Palace? (London, 1851), p. 6 .

63 ‘Prince Albert and the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest’, Daily News, 26 June 1851, p. 5; ‘City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest’, Examiner, 28 June 1851, pp. 408–9.

64 Joseph Paxton, ‘Sanitariums [sic] for Exercise of Invalids and Others in All Weathers’, Illustrated London News, 5 July 1851, pp. 11–12; ‘Prince Albert and the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest’, Daily News, 26 June 1851, p. 5.

65 Ibid.

66 ‘City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest’, Examiner, 28 June 1851, p. 408; ‘Prince Albert and the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest’, Daily News, 26 June 1851, p. 5; ‘Foreign Airs and Native Places’, Household Words, 2 August 1851, p. 446; ‘Proceedings of Societies’, Literary Gazette, 20 May 1854, p. 476.

67 Paxton, ‘Sanitariums’, pp. 11–12.

68 Ibid.; Paxton, What is to Become, p. 11.

69 Paxton, What is to Become, p. 11.

70 Paxton, What is to Become?, pp. 11ff; Anon., ‘The Great Exhibition’, Morning Chronicle, 27 June 1851, p. 5; Anon., ‘The Exhibition Building’, Builder, 10 (1852), p. 116 ; Anon., ‘The Political Examiner’, Examiner, 28 June 1851, p. 403.

71 Paxton, What is to Become?, p. 11; Anon., ‘The Great Exhibition’, The Times, 30 September 1851, p. 5.

72 Anon., ‘To the Editor of Times’, The Times, 8 July 1851, p. 3; Cambridge, University Library, Bbb.23.46, ‘Introduction to a Collection of pamphlets’, 1851, p. 12.

73 Commissioners appointed to inquire into the cost and applicability of the Exhibition Building in Hyde Park (hereafter ‘Hyde Park Commission’), Parliamentary Papers, 1852, document no. 1453, questions 283–477; ‘British Archaeological Association’, The Times, 22 August 1851, p. 8.

74 ‘British Archaeological Association’, The Times, 22 August 1851, p. 8.

75 The Exhibition Building’, Builder, 10 (1852), p. 116 ; Hyde Park Commission, Parliamentary Papers, 1852, document no. 1453, questions 456–61.

76 Joseph Paxton, ‘Shall the Crystal Palace Stand or Not?’, The Times, 28 July 1851, p. 5.

77 Hyde Park Commission, Parliamentary Papers, 1852, document no. 1453, question 286.

78 Ibid., questions 283–477.

79 Ibid., questions 320–24.

80 Ibid., question 322.

81 Silliman, Benjamin, Rush Goodrich, Charles, The World of Science, Art, and Industry Illustrated from Examples in the New York Exhibition, 1853–54 (New York, 1854).

82 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Morning Chronicle, 27 June 1851, p. 5; ‘The Political Examiner’, Examiner, 28 June 1851; Hyde Park Commission, Parliamentary Papers, 1852, document no. 1453, questions 295, 458.

83 The Great ExhibitionMorning Chronicle, 27 June 1851, p. 5; ‘The Political Examiner’, Examiner, 28 June 1851.

84 ‘The Great Exhibition’, Glasgow Herald, 30 June 1851, p. 3.

85 ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Standard, 20 May 1852, p. 1.

86 Ibid.

87 Ibid.

88 Ibid.

89 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3.

90 ‘The People’s Palace’, Leisure Hour, 13 April 1854, p. 231; Digby Wyatt, Matthew, View of the Crystal Palace and Park Sydenham (London, 1854), p. 18 ; Phillips, Samuel, Guide to the Crystal Palace and its Park and Gardens (London, 1859), p. 10 ; Anon., ‘The New Crystal Palace at Sydenham’, Fraser’s Magazine, 48 (1853), p. 610 .

91 Phillips, Guide [1859], pp. 13ff.

92 Hyde Park Commission, Parliamentary Papers, 1852, document no. 1453, questions 385–87.

93 Phillips, Guide [1859], p. 29; Anon., The Crystal Palace, Sydenham: its history, dimensions, contents and general arrangements (London, 1854), p. 8 .

94 Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, document 415-I, questions 716–830; ‘Lecture at Leeds by Sir Joseph Paxton’, Leeds Mercury, 6 December 1855, p. 4.

95 Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, document 415-I, question 819.

96 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3.

97 Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, document 415-I, question 732.

98 ‘Under the Crystal Palace’, Standard, 5 September 1870, p. 5.

99 ‘The People’s Palace’, Leisure Hour, 13 April 1854, p.231; ‘The Crystal Palace — Progress of the Interior’, Standard, 7 March 1854, p. 5; ‘The Progress of the Crystal Palace’, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, 5 March 1854, p. 5.

100 Phillips, Samuel, Official General Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park (London, 1860), p. 18 .

101 Anon., The Crystal Palace, Sydenham, pp. 19–30; Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, document 415-I, question 827.

102 Ibid., question 827.

103 Ibid, question 732.

104 Ibid, question 821.

105 These dimensions are taken from W. H. Wild’s drawings of the Sydenham Crystal Palace, submitted to Office of Works (Metropolitan Archives, MBO/Plans 567) and from the drawings of the Great Exhibition building in Downes, Charles, Cowper, Charles, The Building Erected in Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (London, 1852).

106 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3; Phillips, Samuel, Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park (London, 1854), p. 29 ; ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Daily News, 10 December 1855, p. 7.

107 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Leicester Chronicle, 12 August 1854, p. 1.

108 Phillips, Guide [1854], p. 30; ‘Opening of the Crystal Palace’, Morning Post, 12 June 1854, p. 2; ‘Crystal Palace — its Sanitary Capabilities’, John Bull, 9 October 1852, p. 645; ‘Progress of the Sydenham Crystal Palace’, Manchester Times, 29 October 1853, p. 11.

109 Letter from S. Leigh Sotheby to the shareholders of the Crystal Palace Company, dated 1 December 1855, in ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 7 December 1855, p. 2.

110 ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 7 December 1855, p. 2.

109 Ibid.; ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Daily News, 10 December 1855, p. 7.

111 ‘The New Crystal Palace’, Essex Standard, 26 June 1852; ‘The New Crystal Palace’, York Herald, and General Advertiser, 26 June 1852, p. 7. For the Great Stove, see Neumann, Martin, Glasshäuser aller Art, Grundsätze und Erfahrungen über die Anlegung, Erhaltung and Pflege (Weimar, 1852), pp. 6667 .

113 Select Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, document 415-I, question 829.

114 ‘The Progress of the Sydenham Crystal Palace’, Manchester Times, 29 October 1853, p. 11; ‘Consumption of Smoke’, Journal of the Society of Arts (1853), pp. 626–27.

115 ‘The Crystal Palace — Progress of the Interior’, Standard, 7 March 1854, p. 5; ‘The Progress of the Crystal Palace’, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, 5 March 1854, p. 5.

116 Phillips, Guide [1860], p. 28. See also Schoenefeldt, ‘Crystal Palace’ [thesis], appendix 3, catalogue of drawings.

117 Phillips, Guide [1860], p. 28; ‘The Crystal Fountain’, Lady’s Newspaper, 8 July 1854, p. 12.

118 ‘Consumption of Smoke’, Journal of the Society of Arts (1853), pp. 626–27; ‘Floral Fete at the Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 4 June 1855, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Fountain’, Lady’s Newspaper, 8 July 1854, p. 12.

119 Phillips, Guide [1859], p. 13.

120 Vol. XIV — No. 698’ [untitled frontispiece text], Builder, 14 (1856), pp. 33738 ; ‘The Great Water Tower at the Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 19 May 1856, p. 3.

121 ‘The New Crystal Palace at Sydenham’, Fraser’s Magazine (December 1853), p. 609.

122 Phillips, Guide [1860], p. 17.

123 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Hampshire Telegraph, 26 August 1854, p. 7; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 21 August 1854, p. 4.

124 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Leicester Chronicle, 12 August 1854, p. 1.

125 Francis Campbell, John, Frost and Fire, Natural Engines, Toolmarks, and Chips (Edinburgh, 1865), pp. 3738 .

126 ‘The Heat’, Mercury and Daily Post, 12 August 1884, p. 5; ‘The Great Heat’, Western Mail, 12 August 1884, p. 3.

127 ‘The Heat’, Mercury and Daily Post, 12 August 1884, p. 5.

128 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Leicester Chronicle, 12 August 1854, p. 1; ‘The Crystal Palace’, The Times, 7 August 1854, p. 8.

129 Campbell, Frost and Fire, pp. 37–38; ‘The Crystal Palace as Picture Gallery’, The Times, 20 July 1921, p. 15; Conway, Martin, Third Annual Report of the Imperial War Museum, 1920–21 (London, 1921), p. 20 .

130 ‘The Coldness of the Crystal Palace’, The Times, 27 November 1855, p. 10; ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 10 December 1855, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Palace Company’, John Bull, 5 January 1856, p. 16.

131 ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 28 December 1854, p. 2; ‘Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 8 December 1858; ‘The Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 22 December 1866, p. 2.

132 ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Daily News, 10 December 1855; ‘The Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 7 December 1855, p. 2; ‘The Coldness of the Crystal Palace’, The Times, 27 November 1855, p. 9.

133 ‘The Progress of the Crystal Palace’, Art Journal, March 1854, p.79; ‘The People’s Palace’, Leisure Hour, 13 April 1854, p. 234.

134 ‘Metropolitan News’, North Wales Chronicle, 2 December 1854, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Palace Confusion’, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, 26 July 1857, p. 8; ‘The Second edition’, Pall Mall Gazette, 16 May 1874, p. 8.

135 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3; ‘London, Saturday, Oct. 2.’, Daily News, 2 October 1858, p. 4; ‘Public Amusement’, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, 16 July 1865, p. 6.

136 ‘The Crystal Palace at Sydenham’, North Wales Chronicle, 2 December 1854, p. 2.

137 Report by Arthur Anderson to the shareholders of the Crystal Palace Company, 7 December 1855, in ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Daily News, 10 December 1855, p. 7.

138 ‘The Coldness of the Crystal Palace’, The Times, 27 November 1855, p. 9.

139 ‘The Crystal Palace Company — Meeting Yesterday’, John Bull, 5 January 1856, p. 16.

140 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Era, 21 November 1858, p. 5.

141 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 15 October 1855, p. 4; ‘Exhibition of Pictures’, Daily News, 17 November 1856, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Palace at Sydenham’, North Wales Chronicle, 2 December 1854, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Palace at Sydenham’, Morning Chronicle, 29 December 1854, p. 3; ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Morning Post, 6 January 1855, p. 1; ‘Grand Military Concerts’, Morning Post, 1 December 1854, p. 1.

142 Ibid.; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Post, 15 November 1858, p. 3; ‘Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 4 October 1856; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 4 October 1858, p. 2; ‘Miscellaneous News’, Examiner, 16 October 1858, p. 666; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Post, 15 November 1858, p. 3.

143 ‘London, Saturday, Oct. 2’, Daily News, 2 October 1858, p. 4; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 4 October 1858, p. 2; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Era, 21 November 1858, p. 5.

144 ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Morning Post, 27 December 1859, p. 1.

145 See, for example, ‘Advertisements and Notices’, Daily News, 22 December i860, p. 4; ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Standard, 22 December 1862, p. 1; ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Morning Post, 8 January 1863, p. 1; ‘Advertisements and Notices’, Daily News, 2 December 1864, p. 1; ‘Advertisements and Notices’, Era, 23 December 1866, p. 1; ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Morning Post, 21 December 1867, p. 1; ‘Multiple Classified Advertisements’, Bell’s Life, 25 December 1869, p. 2; ‘Multiple Classified Advertisements’, Bell’s Life, 15 January 1870, p. 2; ‘Advertisements and Notices’, Era, 5 January 1873, p. 9; ‘Multiple Advertisements and Notices’, Morning Post, 27 December 1876, p. 1.

146 ‘Crystal Palace Company’, Morning Post, 31 December 1873, p. 6; ‘The Crystal Palace Company’, Standard, 14 August 1891, p. 3; ‘The Crystal Palace Company’, Standard, 22 February 1895, p. 7.

147 ‘The Weather and the Parks’, Daily News, 8 January 1864, p. 6.

148 ‘The Weather and the Parks’, Daily News, 20 December 1859, p. 6.

149 ‘The Weather’, The Times, 16 December 1859, p. 7; ‘The Weather’, The Times, 19 December 1859, p. 6; ‘The Weather’, The Times, 21 December 1859, p. 12.

150 ‘Under the Crystal Palace’, Standard, 5 September 1870, p. 5; ‘Christmas Amusements at the Crystal Palace’, Orchestra, 19 December 1868, p. 197; ‘Christmas Amusements at the Crystal Palace’, Essex Standard, 18 December 1868; ‘Memoranda’, London Review, 19 December 1868, p. 665.

151 ‘Exhibitions’, The Times, 28 December 1869, p. 3, ‘The Handel Festival’, The Times, 15 June 1871, p. 8; ‘The Handel Festival’, The Times, 17 June 1871, p. 12.

152 ‘Christmas at the Crystal Palace’, Sporting Times, 20 December 1873, p. 403; ‘Multiple Advertising’, Morning Post, 27 December 1876, p. 1; ‘Multiple Advertising’, Bell’s Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 25 December 1869, p. 2.

153 ‘Crystal Palace Concerts’, Musical Standard, 25 February 1888, p. 115; ‘Crystal Palace Concerts’, Musical World, 19 February 1877, p. 103; ‘The Theatrical and Musical Examiner’, Examiner, 7 December 1867, p. 777; ‘Crystal Palace Pantomime’, Era, 29 December 1888, p. 16; ‘Crystal Palace’, Era, 29 December 1872, p. 7.

154 ‘Crystal Palace’, Era, 29 December 1872, p. 7.

155 ‘Under the Crystal Palace’, Standard, 15 September 1870, p. 5; ‘Memoranda’, London Review of Politics, Society, Literature, Art, and Science, 19 December 1868, p. 665.

156 ‘Christmas Festivities at the Crystal Palace’, Berrow’s Worcester Journal, 24 December 1869, p. 7; ‘Christmas Festivities’, Sporting Gazette, 18 December 1869, p. 910.

157 London, National Archives, WORK 17/110, Report by Assistant Secretary Imperial War Museum to Charles J. Ffoulkes, 8 December 1920.

158 Ibid.; London, National Archives, WORK 17/110, Letter from Charles J. Ffoulkes to Secretary of H.M. Office of Works, 8 December 1920.

159 London, National Archives, WORK 17/110, Letter from the General Manager to Charles Ffoulkes, 22 December 1920.

160 ‘The Crystal Palace as Picture Gallery’, The Times, 20 July 1921, p. 15.

161 ‘Four Years at the Crystal Palace’, The Times, 23 August 1957, p. 10.

162 Conway, Third Annual Report of the Imperial War Museum, p. 20.

163 Constantine, Joseph, Practical Ventilation and Warming (London, 1881), p. 150 .

164 ‘The Handel Festival’, Morning Chronicle, 15 June 1857, p. 5; ‘The Handel Festival’, Ipswich Journal, 25 June 1859, p. 6.

165 Musgrave, Michael, The Musical Life of the Crystal Palace (Cambridge, 1995), p. 19 .

166 ‘Great Handel Festival’, Morning Post, 18 June 1857, p. 5; ‘The New Orchestra for the Handel Festival’, Era, 22 June 1862, p. 15.

167 ‘The Handel Festival in the Crystal Palace’, Bradford Observer, 18 June 1857, p. 8.

168 ‘The Handel Festival’, Illustrated London News, 27 June 1857, p. 640; ‘The Handel Festival in the Crystal Palace’, Bradford Observer, 18 June 1857, p. 8; ‘The Handel Festival’, Berrow’s Worcester Journal, 20 June 1857, p. 8; ‘The Handel Festival’, Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, 20 June 1857, p. 6.

169 ‘M. Blondin’s First Ascent at the Crystal Palace’, Illustrated Times, 8 June 1861, p. 370; ‘A walk through the nave of the Crystal Palace, 1854’, online resource, at http://sydenham.org.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?f=1o&t=i500&start=40 (accessed on 23 July 2010).

170 ‘Second Flower Show at the Crystal Palace’, Daily News, 9 June 1859, p. 2.

171 ‘Opening of the Crystal Palace by Her Majesty’, Daily News, 12 June 1854, p. 5.

172 ‘Floral Fete at the Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 4 June 1855, p. 2.

173 ‘Christmas Amusements at the Crystal Palace’, Orchestra, 19 December 1868, p. 197; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Saturday Review, 5 July 1856, p. 226; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Post, 4 June 1855, p. 3.

174 ‘Crystal Palace Flower Show’, The Times, 23 May 1870, p. 7; ‘Public Amusements of the Metropolis’, New Sporting Magazine (July 1858), p. 69.

175 ‘Flower Show at the Crystal Palace’, Lady’s Newspaper, 19 June 1858, p. 385.

176 ‘Crystal Palace Flower Show’, Englishwoman’s Review, 29 May 1858, p. 640; ‘Public Amusements of the Metropolis’, New Sporting Magazine (July 1858), p. 69.

177 ‘Crystal Palace Flower Show’, Englishwoman’s Review, 29 May 1858, p. 640.

178 ‘Public Amusements of the Metropolis’, New Sporting Magazine (July 1858), p. 69; ‘Rose Shows’, The Times, 38 June 1875, p. 13.

179 ‘The Crystal Palace’, The Times, 3 April 1877, p. 5.

180 ‘Handel Festival’, The Times, 23 June 1865, p. 14, ‘The Handel Festival’, Lloyd’s Weekly Newspaper, 7 June 1868, p. 8; ‘Handel Festival’, Orchestra, 6 June 1868, p. 173; ‘Music’, Illustrated London News, 2 January 1868, p. 591.

181 ‘The Handel Festival’, Musical World, 27 June 1868, p. 443; ‘Handel Festival’, Orchestra, 6 June 1868, p. 173.

182 Collection of historic photographs found at http://forum.sydenham.org.uk/viewtopic.php?f=io&t=742 (accessed on 23 July 2010).

183 ‘The Handel Festival’, Daily News, 24 June 1859, p. 2; ‘The Handel’, Birmingham Daily Post, 13 June 1868, p. 4; ‘The Handel Festival’, Derby Mercury, 23 June 1880, p. 8; ‘Pitch’, Musical Standard, 11 July 1885, p. 27; ‘Latest London News’, Aberdeen Weekly Journal, 26 June 1888, p. 5; ‘The Handel Festival’, Standard, 26 June 1894, p. 3, ‘The Handel Festival’, Morning Post, 15 June 1897, p. 2.

184 ‘Handel Triennial Festival’, Birmingham Daily Post, 18 June 1868, p. 5.

185 ‘The Handel Triennial Festival’, Standard, 13 June 1868, p. 3.

186 ‘The Handel’, Birmingham Daily Post, 13 June 1868, p. 4.

187 ‘Multiple News Items’, Standard, 16 June 1868, p. 3.

188 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Musical Standard, 25 July 1874, p. 59.

189 ‘The Handel Festival’, Musical Standard, 7 July 1877, p. 5.

190 ‘Handel Triennial Festival’, Glasgow Herald, 12 June 1897, p. 7.

191 ‘Latest London News’, Aberdeen Weekly Journal, 26 June 1888, p. 5; ‘The Handel Festival’, Derby Mercury, 23 June 1880, p. 8.

192 ‘The Handel Festival’, Standard, 12 June 1897, p. 5; ‘The Handel Festival’, Morning Post, 15 June 1897, p. 2; ‘The Handel Festival’, Daily News, 24 June 1862, p. 5.

193 ‘The Great Handel Festival’, Standard, 18 June 1857, p. 3; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Leicester Chronicle, 12 August 1854, p. 1.

194 ‘Music’, Illustrated London News, 13 October 1866, p. 370.

‘Crystal Palace’, Le Follet, Journal de Grand Monde, 1 August 1876, p. 6.

195 ‘Crystal Palace’, Standard, 9 June 1862, p. 3.

196 ‘The Handel Festival’, The Times, 24 June 1862, p. 14; ‘The Handel Festival’, Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, 28 June 1862, p. 8.

197 ‘The Great Handel Festival’, Standard, 18 June 1857, p. 3; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3; ‘The Crystal Palace’, Leicester Chronicle, 12 August 1854, p. 1.

198 ‘The Crystal Palace’, Morning Chronicle, 17 June 1858, p. 3.

199 Ibid.

200 ‘The Handel Commemoration at the Crystal Palace’, Aberdeen Journal, 29 June 1859, p. 6.

201 ‘The Handel Triennial Festival’, Daily News, 20 June 1891, p. 3.

202 ‘The Handel Festival’, Leeds Mercury, 25 June 1891, p. 5.

203 ‘The Handel Festival’, Morning Post, 15 June 1897, p. 2.

204 ‘Crystal Palace Concerts’, Musical World, 5 June 1869, p. 409; ‘The Handel Festival’, Standard, 23 June 1885, p. 5.

205 ‘The Crystal Palace’, The Times, 4 January 1945, p. 5.

206 ‘The Handel Festival’, Birmingham Daily Post, 23 June 1874, p. 5.

207 ‘The Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace’, Musical Standard, 23 June 1883, p. 382.

208 ‘The Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace’, Leeds Mercury, 20 June 1891, p. 7.

209 ‘The Handel Festival’, Standard, 23 June 1885, p. 5.

210 ‘Pitch’, Musical Standard, 11 July 1885, p. 27.

211 ‘Handel Triennial Festival’, Glasgow Herald, 12 June 1897, p. 7.

212 ‘The Handel Festival’, Standard, 15 June 1897, p. 7; ‘The Handel Festival of 1897’, Musical Standard, 19 June 1897, p. 398.

213 ‘The Handel Festival’, Morning Post, 15 June 1897, p. 2.

214 ‘The Crystal Palace — Progress of the Interior’, Standard, 7 March 1854, p. 5; ‘Opening of the Crystal Palace’, Morning Post, 12 June 1854, p. 2.

215 McIntosh, Charles, The Book of the Garden, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1853), I, pp. 27778 ; Claudius Loudon, John, Remarks on the Construction of Hothouses (London, 1817), p. 71 .

216 Committee on Metropolitan Communications, Parliamentary Papers, 1854, documents 415,415-I, question 716.

217 Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture, pp. 255–74; Hitchcock, Early Victorian, pp. 530–71; Pevsner, Nikolaus, A History of Building Types (London, 1976), pp. 24356 .

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Architectural History
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