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The Protectorate Citadels of Scotland

  • A. A. Tait

On the 12th of February, 1652, a Declaration, ‘that Scotland shall, and may be incorporated into, and become one Common-wealth with this England’ was proclaimed at the Mercat Cross, in the High Street of Edinburgh. An English bystander noted with innocent surprise, that ‘there was a very great concourse of people att the proclayming … but soe sencelesse are this generation of theire owne goods that scarce a man of them shew'd any signe of rejoycing.’ This Union with Protectorate England was to last until the Restoration.

The rule of General Monck was arbitrary and military in character. It evolved in a system of Justices of the Peace, a highly successful instrument of government. That it was effective is shown by the following ‘letter from the Highlands’:

I cannot but acquaint you of the great conformity that this New establishment of Justices of Peace hath brough upon the heads of our country of Perthshire; So that for fear of the Justices and Constables, there is neither an Argile-man nor Loqaber [Lochaber]-man that has taken in these a Nights meat for nought, or dare so much as carry a sword.

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The original dating of any contemporary letter or document has been followed.

B.M. The British Museum.
Colvin H. M. Colvin, Biographical Dictionary of English Architects, 1660–1840 (London: 1954).
D.N.B. Dictionary of National Biography.
M.P. Mercurius Politcus.
P.R.O. Public Record Office, London.

1. Terry, C. S. (ed.). The Cromwellian Union 1651–1652, Edinburgh, Scottish History Society, 1880, p. xxii .

2. The Correspondent of Mercurius Politicus showed more political maturity : ‘ God will continue, and give them eyes to see their happiness in it’ (M.P. No. 98, p. 1551).

3. C. H. Firth, (ed.), Scotland and the Commonwealth 1651–1653, Edinburgh, Scottish History Society, 1895, p. 41 ; A News-Letter from Leith : April 24, 1652.

4. 1654–1660.

5. Preferable to the justice of the Scottish Sheriffs and Ministers, where ‘ Another woman … was 28 days and nights with Bread and Water, being stript stark naked and laid upon a cold stone, with only a hair cloth over her; Others had Hair shirts dipped in Vinegar put on them to fetch off the skin.’ (M.P. No. 98, p. 1551).

6. M.P. No. 303, p. 6091, Letter from the Highlands, March 27, 1656.

7. Burnton, Thomas, Parliamentary journal (6 vols), 1828 ed., IV, 169 .

8. Ibid., 164.

9. In a letter from ‘lnnerara’ the local inhabitants are described as ‘savage, cruel, covetous and treacherous … Their women are pure Indian complexions, unparalleled for deformity’ (M.P. No. 117, p. 1837).

10. Birch, Thomas (ed.). Collection of State Papers of John Thurloe (7 vols), 1742, VI, 79 . A Letter: Gen. Monck to the Lord Protector, February 26, 1656/7.

11. Ibid.

12. See in Pennant, Thomas. A Tour in Scotland (3 vols), 1769, III, 253, for Leith : 75 for Perth, and I, 179, for Inverness.

13. These lacked even a preacher, as Muchill Garrisch observed: ‘but for spirituail food for our soules, it is very hard to attain, insomuch that our poore soules are almost famished in some places.’ (Several Proceedings ol State Affairs. No. 235, p. 3229).

14. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Protectorate 1654–1659. Edinburgh, Scottish History Society, 1899, p. 379 . An Establishment of the Forces in Scotland: 1657/8.

15. Laing, David (ed.), Letters from Roundhead Officers. Edinburgh, Ballatyne Society. 1856, p. 136 .

16. Life in the isolated forts was not uneventful, as that at Lewis in the Hebrides was stormed and taken in 1654 by the Royalist Lord Seafield. (M.P., January 31. 1654, ‘A Letter from Dalkeith ’).

17. Only Ayr, Inverness and St Johnston are referred to as citadels.

18. In August, 1653, a ‘supply of ye Train of Artillery … for use of ye Garrisons in Scottland ’ was sent north, and in June of that year ‘ye officers of ye Ordnance doe forthwith Contract for ye provisions … for ye supply of Inverness in Scotland’; so that the forts must have been fairly well underway at that date (P.R.O., W.O. 47/2).

19. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Commonwealth p. 28 .

20. P.R.O., S.P. 18, XL, 41 1, September 26, 1653.

21. It was ready in 1654 to receive for ‘ye Garrisson of Inner Loughy in Scotland … Six Di. Culverings … two hundred spare pistols … tun of lead … five barrels of pitch’ etc. (P.R.O., W.O. 47/3).

22. A drawing of Slezers, dated 1689, titled ‘Innerlochie or Obrians Fort’, is inscribed: ‘This Fort formerly contributed much to keep the Highlands in subjection to the government, and in intire Peace amongst themselves’ (B.M. King's MS, L.37–1).

23. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, folio Y.C., 20.

24. Duart was captured for the Protectorate in September, 1653 (MP., September 13. 1653, p. 2750, ‘Letter from Dalkeith’).

25. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, 6.2.

26. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1652–1653, pp. 355, 369.

27. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, folio Y.C., 20.

28. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Commonwealth, p. 152. Letter from Col. Lilburne to John Thurloe, June 23, 1653 .

29. Lankester, (ed.). Memorial of John Hay, Ray Society, 1846, p. 156 .

30. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, 6.3.

31. Dunlop, Robert (ed.), Ireland under the Commonwealth, 2 vols, Manchester, 1913, II, 643. Abstract.

32. Ayre, Inverness, St Johnston, and (probably) Leith followed in design contemporary European usage. Samvelis Marolois. Giometria Theoretica, Amsterdam, 1633, plates 69, 71, give a fair prototype.

33. Capt. William Webb, worked 1631–1656, architect of the Connaught forts (Dunlop, Ireland under the Commonwealth, II, 375. Letter from Commissioners to Capt. Webb, 1653). His drawing of Limerick is in the Clarke MSS, folio Y.C. 20.

34. Colvin, p. 240. There are later drawings, c. 1685, for it in the B.M. King's MS. LIII. 18a/b/c.

35. Dunlop, Robert (ed.), Ireland under the Commonwealth, II, 376 . Letter from Commissioners to Capt. Webb.

36. Ibid., 537. General Orders, August 15, 1655.

37. State Papers of John Thurloe, IV, 73. Letter from Lord Broghill to John Thurloe, September, 1655

38. For Carlisle citadel see Capt. Beckman's ‘Plan and Prospect of Carlisle', 1672 (B.M. Add. MS. 16, 371, d).

39. See Major Beckman's Report on Hull, 1685 (B.M. Add. MS. 16, 370. ff. 102, 107).

40. Lankester, (ed.), Memorial of John Ray, p. 162 .

41. Ibid., p. 156.

42. Though work was done at Scarborough (P.R.O. AO1/2520/608), at Berwick (AO1/2512/533), and the Isle of Wight (AO1/2516/568), only the building accounts remain.

43. B.M. Add. MS., 5027, A art. 63.

44. B.M. Add MS., 5415, 59.

45. A design for a ‘Royal Citadell’ as Plymouth, dated 1677, is initialled ‘J.R.’, presum ably John Roseworme, the Parliamentarian military engineer (B.M. Add. MS., 5415. 6.2).

46. Work was still going on at Ayr, Inverness, and St Johnston in August, 1657 (State Papers ol John Thurloe, VI, 471).

47. It is worth noting that at the Proclamation of the Lord Protector in Perth, in 1654, ‘John Miln master of wark for the masones’ was present. ( Maidment, James (ed.), The Chronicle of Perth Edinburgh. Maitland Club. 1831, p. 43 ).

48. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Protectorate, p. xlviii .

49. State Papers of John Thurloe, VI. 471.

50. James Maidment, op. cit., p. 43.

51. A drawing of Perth ‘as fortified by the Rebels’, dated 1715–16, shows the citadel with the 4th bastion destroyed (B.M. King's MS. L. 76).

52. Laing, David (ed.), John Nicoll's Diary, Edinburgh, Ballatyne Club, 1846, p. 179 .

53. Richard Pococke, Tour in Scotland, Edited by D. W. Kemp, Edinburgh, Scottish History Society, 1887, p. 250.

54. Perhaps a member of the Swedish Tessin family of architects. Nicodemus ‘der Altere’ lived 1615–1681. An Ewald Tercerne appears in Sprigg's Anglica Rediviva. 1647, as Chief Engineer. An Edward Tessin, son of Hans Ewald (?), signed a drawing of Tangiers c. 1670 (P.R.O.. M.P.H. 25, 54).

55. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, folio Y.C. 20.

56. D.N.B.

57. M.P., April 12, 1652, p. 1552. Letter from Dalkeith.

58. This was never published. There was also undertaken, in 1650, a series of plans of the important towns of England, Scotland, and Ireland (B.M. Add. MS. 564, art. 1/29).

59. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Commonwealth, pp. 76, 77. Petition, Major Fisher to Major General Deane, dated (by Firth), 1653 .

60. John Slezer, , Ancient and Present State of Scotland, 2 vols, Edinburgh, 1695, II, pi. 30 .

61. Reference to the building of this church and to agreements with Rankeine ‘anent the building of the church’, occur in the Ayr Burgh Registers, Town Council Minute Book, 1655–1663.

62. The divides within the lancets now differ as the Old Kirk has been given stained glass.

63. State Papers ot John Thurloe, VI, 471. Letter from General Monck to the Lord Protector, August 20, 1657.

64. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, MS. 6.3.

65. P.R.O., S.P. 25/68, p. 285.

66. Firth, C. H. (ed.), Scotland and the Protectorate, p. 299 . Letter from General Monck to Major General Lambert, August 21, 1655.

67. Mackay, William & Laing, G. S., (eds.), Records of Inverness, Aberdeen, New Spalding Club, 1924, II, p. 210 . Unfortunately the Minutes from 1655–1662 are missing.

68. Skinner, Col. W., Descriptions of the Present State and Situation of the Remains of Oliver's Fort, 1747, f. 2 (B.M. King's MS. L.9.a).

69. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, folio Y.C. 20.

70. Ibid.

71. Buonauito Lorini, Le Fortihcationi, Venice, 1609, Libro Terzo, 165. A more immedi ate source for the ‘taken’ design would be plate 11 of David Papillon's A Practicall Abstract of the Arts of Fortification and Assailing published in London in 1645.

72. Worcester College Library, Clarke MSS, folio Y.C. 20.

73. Robert Blount, died Inverness, 1656. Lieut. Colonel in Fitch's Regiment ( Firth, C. H. and Davies, Godfrey, Regimental History of Cromwell's Army, 2 vols, 1940. II. 513 ).

74. Robert Norwood's Fortification or Architecture Military, 1639, culled the work of ‘sundry Authors in other languages’, and presented an efficient, plated text-book for the fortifications of the Civil War.

75. Skinner, Col. W., Description of the Remains of Oliver's Fort, 1747, p. 5 .

76. Hapillon in his preface to his Practicall Abstracts mentions ‘the theoricall writings of Mr Ward, Mr Crista, Mr Norwood, and the Author of the Enchyridion.’

77. He died in 1658 ( Firth, C. H. (ed.), Journal of Joachim Hane, Oxford, 1896, p. xxxii ). He came to England from Frankfurt in 1649. (Ibid., p. v).

78. State Papers of John Thurloe, VI, 437.

79. Ibid., p. 306. M.P. No. 397, p. 208, describes the fortifications at Mardyke as ‘very well completed’.

80. P.R.O.. S.P. 25/69, p. 159.

81. Ibid.

82. Cal. S. P. Dom., 1654, p. 82.

83. Ibid., p. 88, dated April 11, 1654.

84. Lieut. Col. John Roseworme, military engineer of Manchester during the Civil War, was employed by the Protectorate until 1652, when ‘Lt. Col. Roseworme bee paid off by Mr ffrost what is due to him ‘ (Cal. S.P. Dom., 1651–1652. p. 45). He became Engineer General, and in that capacity was paid £45.10 per quarter (Cal. S.P. Dom.. 1657/8, p. 588).

85. Ormerod, George (ed.), ‘Good Service hitherto Ill rewarded’, Chetham Society. New Series, II, 1844, p. 220 .

86. Carruthers, Robert (ed.). Highland Notebook, Inverness, 1843, p. 99 .

87. Skinner, Col. W., Description of the Remains of Oliver's Fort, 1747, f. 2.

88. John Mylne, 1611–1667. Principal Master Mason in Scotland, (Robert Mylne, Master- Masons of the Crown of Scotland, 1893).

89. Edinburgh Town Council, Register of Acts and Decrees, Edinburgh, February 23, 1650.

90. Laing, David (ed.), John Nicoll's Diary, p. 179 .

91. State Papers ol John Thurloe. V. 302. Letter, General Monck to the Lord Protector, August 12, 1656.

92. Ibid., VI, 79. Letter, General Monck to the Lord Protector, February 26, 1656/7.

93. Ibid., 289. Letter, General Monck to John Thurloe.

94. Ibid., 330. Letter, General Monck to John Thurloe.

95. It was of the same design as that also employed at St Johnston and Inverness (P.R.O., M.P. H.H. 32).

96. Lankester, (ed.). Memorial of John Ray. p. 156 .

97. Franck, Richard, Northern Memoirs. 1694, p. 210 .

98. The proposed fort at Inverness in 1747 was to cost £92,673 19 1½d, compared with the £100,000 of Ray's estimate for the Protectorate citadel.

99. Van Dalem was Engineer General ( Sprigg, Joshua, Anglica Rediviva, 1647, p. 329 ). Sprigg also lists: Capt. Hooper, Engineer Extraordinary; Eval Tercerne, Chief Engineer: Master Lyon and Tomlinson, Engineers.

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