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Fighting Organized Crime in the Asia Pacific Region: New Weapons, Lost Wars

  • Andreas SCHLOENHARDT (a1)
Abstract

This article analyses offences dealing with the incrimination of organized crime under international and domestic laws in the Asia Pacific region and develops recommendations to improve existing and proposed provisions. The article frames the arguments for and against offences such as “participation in an organized crime group”, “gangsterism”, or “racketeering”, and critically examines the rationale, elements, and application of existing and proposed organized crime offences in the Asia Pacific.

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a.schloenhardt@uq.edu.au
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Associate Professor, The University of Queensland TC Beirne School of Law, Brisbane, Australia; Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. The author expresses his thanks to Professor CHANG Wen Chen, National Taiwan University, College of Law and Associate Professor LEE Sang Won, Seoul National University, School of Law for their support and friendship at the time this article was finalized.

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1. REAGAN Ronald, “Declaring War on Organized Crime” New York Times (12 January 1986).

2. ADAMOLI Sabrina, DI NICOLA Andrea, SAVONA Ernesto U., and Paola ZOFFI, Organized Crime Around the World (Helsinki: HEUNI, 1998), 132.

3. WISE Eduard, “RICO and Its Analogues” (2000) 27 Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce 303 at 304.

4. UN General Assembly, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Elaboration of a Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, UN Doc A/55/383 (2000), Annex I [CTOC].

5. See further, CLARK Roger, “The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime” (2004) 50 Wayne Law Review 161 at 174175; SCHLOENHARDT Andreas, “Transnational Organized Crime and International Criminal Law” in Mahmoud Cherif BASSIOUNI, ed., International Criminal Law, Vol. I, 3rd edn. (Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 939 at 954956.

6. Clark, ibid., at 175–6.

7. UNODC, Division for Treaty Affairs, Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto (2004) at 17 [Legislative Guides].

8. See further, Schloenhardt in Bassiouni, ed., supra note 5 at 956–60.

9. Organized Crime Control Act, Pub. L. 91-452, Title IX, 84 Stat. 922; Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations, 18 USC §§1961–1968 [RICO].

10. MOON Michael A., “Outlawing the Outlaws: Importing RICO's Notion of ‘Criminal Enterprise’ into Canada to Combat Organized Crime” (1999) 24 Queen's Law Journal 451 at 459.

11. BAKER Estelle, “The Legal Regulation of Transnational Organized Crime” in Adam EDWARD and Peter GILL, eds., Transnational Organized Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (London: Routledge, 2003), 183 at 187.

12. Adamoli, supra note 2 at 132.

13. Contrast the distinction of three models in Moon, supra note 10 at 494; MILITELLO Vincenzo, “Participation in an Organized Criminal Group as International Offence” in H.J. ALBRECHT and Cyrille FIJNAUT, eds., The Containment of Transnational Organized Crime (Freiburg: Edition Iuscrim, 2002), 97 at 105109.

14. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), s. 465.

15. Crimes Act 1961 No.3 (New Zealand), s. 310.

16. Criminal Code Act 1995 (Commonwealth), s. 11.5(1); Criminal Code 2002 (Australian Capital Territory), s. 48(1); Northern Territory of Australia Criminal Code Act 1983, s. 282; Criminal Code Act 1899 (Queensland), ss. 541–2; Crimes Act 1958 (Victoria), s. 321(1)–(2); Criminal Code Act Compilation Act 1913 (Western Australia), ss. 558–60.

17. Crimes Ordinance (Hong Kong), s. 159A.

18. Penal Code (Singapore), s. 120A.

19. Penal Code (Malaysia), ss. 120A–B.

20. Penal Code (Brunei), ss. 120A–B.

21. Penal Code (Philippines), art. 8.

22. Criminal Code (Papua New Guinea), ss. 515–17.

23. See COULSON Chris, “Criminal Conspiracy Law in Japan” (2007) 28 Michigan Journal of International Law 863 at 868894.

24. See Adamoli, supra note 2.

25. See BLAKESLEY Christopher, “The Criminal Justice System Facing the Challenge of Organized Crime” (1998) 69 International Review of Penal Law 69 at 78; HILL Peter, The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law and the State (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), at 148149.

26. YEO Stanley, MORGAN Neil, and CHAN Wing Cheong, Criminal Law in Malaysia and Singapore (Singapore: LexisNexis, 2007), para. 34.52.

27. Ibid., para. 34.67.

28. Wise, supra note 3 at 312.

29. California Street Terrorism and Prevention Act; Penal Code (CA), §186.20.

30. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), ss. 67.1, 467.11–13; Crimes Act 1961 No.3 (New Zealand), s. 98A.

31. Criminal Code, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), art. 154.

32. Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), s. 93T.

33. Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), art. 2(1)−(3).

34. R v. Mitford [2005] 1 New Zealand Law Review 753, para. 59.

35. MULLINS Timothy, “Broader Liability for Gang Accomplices: Participating in a Criminal Gang” (1996−99) 8 Auckland University Law Review 832 at 837.

36. Crimes Act 1961 No.3 (New Zealand), s. 98A.

37. See SCHLOENHARDT Andreas, “Taming the Triads: Organized Crime Offences in PR China, Hong Kong and Macau” (2008) 38 Hong Kong Law Journal 645 at 678679.

38. Ciarniello v. R [2006] BCSC 1671, para. 67 per W.F. Ehrcke J.

39. E.g. CTOC, supra note 4, art. 5(1)(a)(ii); Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.11(1).

40. Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, art. 294(1). See further Schloenhardt, supra note 37 at 655–7.

41. Crimes Act 1961 No.3 (New Zealand), supra note 30, s. 98A(1)(a)–(b); Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93T(1)(b).

42. New South Wales, Legislative Assembly, Hansard (6 September 2006), Crimes Legislation Amendment (Gangs) Bill, Second Reading (Michael DALEY, Moroubra) 1537.

43. CTOC, supra note 4, art. 5(1)(a)(ii); Crimes Act 1961 No.3 (New Zealand), supra note 30, s. 98A(1); Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93T(1)(a).

44. Criminal Code Act 1995 (Commonwealth), supra note 16, s. 390.6; Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.13; Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, supra note 40, art. 294(1); Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), supra note 33, art. 2(3); Criminal Code, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), supra note 31, art. 154(1); Organized Crime Control Act 1996 (Chinese Taipei, Taiwan), art. 3(1). Under Penal Code (Macau), art. 288(1), it is a separate offence (not an aggravation) to establish or promote an “organization or association designed to or engaging in criminal conduct”.

45. Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, supra note 40, art. 294; Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), art. 2(1).

46. Organized Crime Control Act 1996 (Chinese Taipei, Taiwan), supra note 44, art. 6; Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), art. 2(2); Criminal Code Act 1995 (Commonwealth), supra note 16, s. 390.4.

47. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 244.2(3); Penal Code (Macau), supra note 44, art. 288(2).

48. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act 1996 (Canada), s. 5(3)(a); Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.12.

49. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW). Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93T(2)–(4).

50. Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), supra note 45, art. 3.

51. LYNCH Gerard, “RICO: The Crime of Being a Criminal, Part I and II” (1987) 87 Columbia Law Review 661 at 688.

52. Blakesley supra note 25 at 89.

53. RICO, supra note 9, 18 USC §1961(5); RICO Bill (Philippines), s. 4(d).

54. Wise, supra note 3 at 303.

55. Ibid., at 306, 308.

56. GASTROW Peter, “The Origin of the Convention” in Albrecht and Fijnaut, eds, supra note 13, 19 at 22.

57. Wise, supra note 3 at 311 [emphases added, references removed].

58. E.g. GOLDSMITH Michael, “RICO and Enterprise Criminality” (1982) 88 Columbia Law Review 774 at 774; James JACOBS with Chris PANARELLA and Jay WORTHINGTON, Busting the Mob: United States v. Cosa Nostra (New York: New York University Press, 1994) at 22.

59. E.g. GERBER Ethan, “ ‘A RICO You Can't Refuse’: New York's Organized Crime Control Act” (1988) 53 Brooklyn Law Review 979 at 992; see also BRADLEY Craig, “Racketeers, Congress, and the Courts: An Analysis of RICO” (1980) 65 Iowa Law Review 837 at 838; NEWMAN Larry, “RICO and the Russian Mafia” (1998) 9 Indiana International and Comparative Law Review 225 at 244.

60. See Schloenhardt, supra note 37 at 658–74.

61. See SCHLOENHARDT Andreas, “Mission Unaccomplished: Japan's Anti-Boryokudan Law” (2010) 29 Journal of Japanese Law 123.

62. See SCHLOENHARDT Andreas, “Crimes (Criminal Organizations Control) Act 2009 (NSW)” (2009) 33 Criminal Law Journal 281.

63. See SCHLOENHARDT Andreas, “Mafias and Motorbikes: New Organized Crime Offences in Australia” (2008) 19 Current Issues in Criminal Justice 2593.

64. Societies Ordinance 1997 (Hong Kong), s. 8(1)(a); Societies Act 1967 (Singapore), s. 4(2)(b) and (d).

65. Societies Ordinance 1997 (Hong Kong), s. 18; Societies Act 1967 (Singapore), s. 14(1); Societies Act 1966 (Malaysia), s. 41(1).

66. Societies Ordinance 1997 (Hong Kong), supra note 64, s. 18(3); Societies Act 1967 (Singapore), supra note 64, s. 23.

67. Crimes (Criminal Organizations Control) Act 2009 (New South Wales), ss. 6–9; Criminal Organization Act 2009 (Queensland), ss. 8–15; Serious and Organized Crime (Control) Act 2008 (South Australia), s. 10.

68. Crimes (Criminal Organizations Control) Act 2009 (New South Wales), s. 14; Criminal Organization Act 2009 (Queensland), s. 18; Serious and Organized Crime (Control) Act 2008 (South Australia), s. 14.

69. New South Wales Parliament, Legislation Review Committee, Legislation Review Digest, No. 5 of 2009 (4 May 2009), para. 13; Totani and Anor. v. State of South Australia (2009) 105 South Australian State Reports 244.

70. State of South Australia v. Totani and Anor. (2010) 271 Australian Law Review 662; LOUGHNAN Arlie, “The Legislation We Had to Have? The Crimes (Criminal Organizations Control) Act 2009 (NSW)” (2009) 20 Current Issues in Criminal Justice 457 at 460; Totani and Anor v. The State of South Australia (2009), supra note 69, paras. 155–156 per Bleby J.; Hill, supra note 25 at 170–1.

71. SAEKI Hitoshi, “Japan: The Criminal Justice System Facing the Challenge of Organized Crime” (1998) 69 International Review of Penal Law 413 at 418; HILL Peter, “The Changing Face of the Yakuza” (2004) 6 Global Crime 97 at 99, 103104, 110; KAPLAN David and DUBOR Alec, Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003) at 212; SHIKATA Ko, “Yakuza—Organized Crime in Japan” (2006) 9 Journal of Money Laundering Control 416 at 417; HILL Peter, “Heisei Yakuza: Burst Bubble and Bōtaihō” (2003) 6 Social Science Japan Journal 1 at 10, 15; SMITH Jennifer, “An International Hit Job: Prosecuting Organized Crime Acts as Crimes Against Humanity” (2009) 97 Georgetown Law Journal 1111 at 1118; Australian Crime Commission (ACC), Submission to the Inquiry into the Legislative Arrangements to Outlaw Serious and Organized Crime Groups, Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Crime Commission (undated), online: www.aph.gov.au/Senate/committee/acc_ctte/laoscg/submissions/sublist.htm.

72. Societies Act 1966 (Malaysia), supra note 65, s. 43.

73. Serious and Organized Crime (Control) Act 2008 (South Australia), supra note 67, s. 35; s 26 Crimes (Criminal Organizations Control) Act 2009 (New South Wales).

74. Wise, supra note 3 at 321.

75. Saeki, supra note 71 at 419.

76. See Schloenhardt, supra note 37 at 649–50.

77. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.11(1)–(3).

78. Societies Ordinance 1997 (Hong Kong), supra note 64, s. 28(2); Organized and Serious Crime Ordinance 1994 (Hong Kong), s. 2.

79. LEVITZ Mark K. and Robert PRIOR, “Criminal Organization Legislation: Canada's Response” (2003) 61 The Advocate 375 at 381.

80. UN General Assembly, Interpretative Notes for the Official Records (Travaux Préparatoires) of the Negotiations of the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, UN Doc. A/55/383/Add.I, para. 4 [Interpretative Notes].

81. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.1(1); Crimes Act 1961 No. 3 (New Zealand), supra note 43, s. 98A(3); Organized Crime Law 1997 (Macau), supra note 33, art. 1(1)–(2).

82. Supreme People's Court of China, “Explanations for the Applications of Law Concerning the Adjudication of Cases Involving Criminal Organizations with a Triad Nature (2000)” in Ronald KEITH and LIN Zhiqui, New Crime in China: Public Order and Human Rights (Abingdon: Routledge, 2006), 102 (with reference to the original source in Mandarin). Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, “Interpretation Concerning Art. 194(1) of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China (2002)” in Margaret L. LEWIS, “China's Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime”, paper presented at the symposium Organized Crime in Asia: Governance and Accountability, Brisbane, June 2007 [copy held with author], at 181–2.

83. [Unidentified author], “Taiwan: Introduction to the ‘Organized Crime Control Act’ ” (1997) 68 International Review of Penal Law 1019 at 1021.

84. SHELLEY Louise, “Transnational Organized Crime” (1995) 48 Journal of International Affairs 463 at 464.

85. Ibid.

86. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.1(1)(a); Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China, supra note 40, art. 26; Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93S(1); Organized Crime Control Act 1996 (Chinese Taipei, Taiwan), supra note 44, art. 2.

87. Organized and Serious Crime Ordinance 1994 (Hong Kong), supra note 78, s. 2; ss. 390.4(1)(c), Criminal Code Act 1995 (Commonwealth), supra note 16, ss. 390.5(1)(c) and (2)(c); 390.6(1)(c) and (2)(c).

88. Law to Prevent Unjust Acts by Organized Crime Group Members 1991 (Japan), art. 3.

89. Baker, supra note 11 at 188.

90. CTOC, supra note 4, art. 2(a).

91. See Schloenhardt, supra note 37 at 677–679.

92. Interpretative Notes, supra note 80, para. 3.

93. Legislative Guides, supra note 7 at 13 (with reference to the Interpretative Notes).

94. R. v. Lindsay (2004) 182 C.C.C. (3d) 301 at para. 58 per Fuerst J.; Criminal Code Act 1995 (Commonwealth), supra note 16, ss. 390.4(1)(d), 390.5(1)(d) and (2)(d), 390.6(1)(s) and (2)(d).

95. R v. Leclerc [2001] JQ No. 426 (Court of Québec, Criminal and Penal Division).

96. Crimes Act 1961 No. 3 (New Zealand), supra note 43, ss. 98A(2)(c)–(d) and 312A(a); Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93S(1).

97. Organized and Serious Crime Ordinance (Hong Kong), schedule 1.

98. Lewis, supra note 82 at 180.

99. R v. Lindsay, supra note 94.

100. ROBERTSON J. Bruce, ed., Adams on Criminal Law, 5th student edn. (Wellington: Thomson Brookers, 2007) at 252.

101. Legislative Guides, supra note 7 at 13.

102. RICO, supra note 9, 18 USC §1961(4).

103. US v. Turkette, 452 US 576 (1981). See further, ALLISON Bridget, et al. , “Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations” (1997–98) 35 American Criminal Law Review 1103 at 11151117.

104. National Organization for Women v. Scheidler, 510 US 249, 261 (1994); US v. Muyet, 994 F. Supp. 501, 511 (DNY, 1998); FRANKLIN Amy, et al. , “Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations” (2008) 45 American Criminal Law Review 871 at 881.

105. Chang v. Chen, 80 F. 3d 1293 (9th Cir, 1996); US v. Rogers, 89 F. 3d 1326, 1337 (7th Cir, 1996); Richmond v. Nationwide Cassel LP, 52 F 3d 640, 644 (7th Cir, 1995); Franklin, ibid., at 881; Blakesley, supra note 25 at 792. See also Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Bill (Philippines), s. 4(b).

106. Baker, supra note 11 at 185.

107. Wise, supra note 3 at 321.

108. “Taiwan: Introduction to the ‘Organized Crime Control Act”, supra note 83 at 1028.

109. See Hill, supra note 25 at 169.

110. See Allison, supra note 103 at 312–315.

111. HILL Peter, “The Changing Face of the Yakuza” (2004) 6 Global Crime 97 at 103; also, Hill, supra note 25 at 202–4.

112. R v. Lindsay, supra note 94.

113. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.11(1).

114. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 467.11(1)(3).

115. Serious and Organized Crime (Control) Act 2008 (South Australia), supra note 67, s. 35.

116. CTOC, supra note 4, art. 5(1)(a)(ii).

117. Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46 (Canada), supra note 30, s. 244.2(3).

118. Controlled Drugs and Substance Act 1996 (Canada), s. 5(3)(a).

119. Crimes Act 1900 (New South Wales), supra note 32, s. 93T(3).

120. ROACH Kent, “Panicking over Criminal Organizations: We Don't Need Another Offence” (2000) 44 Criminal Law Quarterly 1 at 3.

121. COX Jim, Tasmania, Minister for Police and Emergency Management, Submission to the Inquiry into the Legislative Arrangements to Outlaw Serious and Organized Crime Groups, Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Crime Commission (undated), online: www.aph.gov.au/Senate/committee/acc_ctte/laoscg/submissions/sublist.htm.

122. Hill, supra note 25 at 174.

123. Smith, supra note 71 at 1119.

124. Ibid., at 1115–16.

125. Hill, supra note 25 at 147.

126. CTOC, supra note 4, art. 8

127. Convention Against Corruption, 31 October 2003, GA Res. 58/4, UN Doc. A/58/422 (2004).

128. VERBRUGGEN Frank, “On Containing Organized Crime Using ‘Container Offences’ ” in Albrecht and Fijnaut, eds, supra note 13, 113 at 117–118 [emphasis added].

129. KOENIG Dorean M., “The Criminal Justice System Facing the Challenge of Organized Crime” (1998) 44 Wayne Law Review 1351 at 1377.

130. New South Wales Premier M. REES cited in CARTY Lisa, “No Second Chances as NSW gets Tough for Bikies in Gangs” Sydney Morning Herald (30 March 2009).

131. Vincenzo Militello, “Participation in an Organised Criminal Group as International Offense” in Albrecht and Fijnaut, eds., supra note 13, 97 at 97.

132. Australia, Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Crime Commission, “Inquiry into the Future Impact of Serious and Organized Crime on Australian Society” (19 September 2007), online: Australian Government 〈www.aph.gov.au/Senate/committee/acc_ctte/completed_inquiries/2004-07/organized_crime/report/index.htm〉, paras. 6.93 and 6.101.

* Associate Professor, The University of Queensland TC Beirne School of Law, Brisbane, Australia; Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore. The author expresses his thanks to Professor CHANG Wen Chen, National Taiwan University, College of Law and Associate Professor LEE Sang Won, Seoul National University, School of Law for their support and friendship at the time this article was finalized.

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Asian Journal of International Law
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