Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

An Historiographical Guide to Subcarpathian Rus'1

  • Paul R. Magocsi (a1)
Extract

It is customary among western scholars who have written about the Carpatho-Rusyns to consider them “the most forgotten among the forgotten.”2 Little is known in the West about the political, economic, and cultural developments of Subcarpathian Rus', especially before 1918. Yet such an enormous amount of material has been written in eastern European languages about this territory that as early as 1931 the noted Slavic linguist Roman Jakobson could write: “In the whole east Slavic world, there is hardly any other marginal area whose past has been examined with such affectionate meticulousness and scholarliness as Carpatho-Russia.”3

The present study is intended as an introductory guide to the voluminous historiography of Subcarpathian Rus'. The material has been arranged according to the following topical and chronological subdivisions: bibliographical aids; general historical studies; early history to 1514; 1514 to 1711; 1711 to 1848; 1848 to 1918; 1918 to 1938; October, 1938, to March, 1939; 1939 to 1944; 1945 to the present; cultural developments; Rusyns in Hungary; Rusyns in Jugoslavia; and Rusyns in the United States. Works will be discussed under the heading which most nearly describes the period dealt with in the text regardless of the date of publication. The time periods were not designated arbitrarily but are based on certain historical events the significance of which will be clarified in the appropriate subsection. Most studies treated in this article deal exclusively or primarily with Subcarpathian Rus' only a few are concerned with problems of a more general nature. Many studies dealing with the recent history of the area are not necessarily included because they represent sound historical research but because they are valuable, highly selective accounts of crucial events, many of them written by the participants themselves.

Copyright
References
Hide All

2 Kami, Robert A., The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1848–1918 (2 vols., New York: Columbia University Press, 1950), Vol. I, p. 325.

3 Jakobson, Roman O., “Neue Arbeiten zur Vergangenheit Karpatorusslands,” Slavische Rundschau, Vol. III (Prague, 1931), p. 512.

4 For some views on the nomenclature controversy, see Petrov, Aleksej L., Karpatorusskija meževyja nazvanija iz pol. XIX i iz nač. XX v. [Carpatho-Russiah Boundary Nomenclature from, the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries] (Prague: Česká akademie véd a uměni, 1929) (219 pp.); René, Martel, “Le nom d' ‘ukrainien’ en Russie subcarpathique,” Monde Slave, Vol. XIV, No. 1 (Paris, 1937), pp. 560569; Bohdan, Barvins'kyj, Nazva ‘Ukrajina’ na Zakarpatti [The Name “Ukraine” in Transcarpathia]. In Onomastica, No. 4 (Winnipeg: Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences, 1925) (16 pp.); Ivan, Vanat, “Do pytannja vžyvannja terminiv ‘Zakarpattja’ ta ‘Prjašivščyna’” [Regarding the Use of the Terms “Transcarpathia” and “Prešov Region”], in Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kul'lura (PreŠov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 602603.

5 The transliteration of titles in Russian and Ukrainian follows the system used by Recenzija: A Review of Soviet Ukrainian Scholarly Publications, published by the Seminar in Ukrainian Studies at Harvard University. Titles in the Rusyn dialect and etymological script are transliterated according to the Ukrainian pattern.

6 Kálmán, Zsatkovics, “A magyarorsz´gi oroszok történetírásának történelme” [A History of the Historiography of the Russians in Hungary], Századok, Vol. XXIV (Budapest, 1890), pp. 568573 and 644–660; Francev, Vladimir A., “Obzor važnějšix izučenij Ugorskoj Rusi” [A Survey of the More Important Studies on Ugro-Rus'], Russkij filologičnij věinik, Vol. XLV, No. 1–2 (Warsaw, 1901), pp. 145197.

7 Evgenij, Perfeckij, “Obzor ugrorusskoj istoriografii” [A Survey of Ugro-Russian Historiography], Izvěstija otdělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj akademii nauk, Vol. XIX, No. 1 (St. Petersburg, 1914), pp. 291341; Evgenij, Perfeckij, “Nejdůležtějši studie o dějin´ch Podkarpatské Rusi”[The Most Important Studies on the History of Subcarpathian Rus'], in “Dvě stati k dějinám Podkarpatské Rusi,” Sbornik filozofickej fakulty university Komenského, Vol. I, No. 6 (Bratislava, 1922), pp. 115126.

8 Rácz, Joseph A., “La developpement de la littérature historique carpathoukrainienne,” Revue d'histoire comparée, Vol. XXII (Paris, 1944), pp. 172182.

9 Kolomiec, Ivan G., “Istoriografija, istočnikiiliteratura”[Historiography, Sources, and Literature], in Kolomiec, Ivan G., Social'no-èkonomičeskie otnošenija i obščestvennoe dviženie v Zakarpat'e vo vtoroj polovine XIX stoletija, Vol. II (Tomsk: lzdatel'stvo Tomskogo universiteta, 1962), pp. 524615. See also Bilak, S. M., “Do pytannja krytyky buržuazno-nacionalistyčnyx fal'syfikacij istoriji Zakarpattja (1919–1944 rr.)” [On the Question of Criticism of Bourgeois Nationalist Falsifications of the History of Transcarpathia, 1919–1944], in Kul'lura i pobut naselennjaukrajins'kyxkarpat(Užhorod: Uzhorods'kyj derzávnyj universytet, 1973), pp. 6573; V. V. Pal'ok, “Dejaki pytannja istoriji Zakarpattja z najdavnišyx časiv do kincja XVIII st. v ukrajins'kij radjans'kij istoriohrafiji” [Some Questions on the History of Transcarpathia from the Oldest Times until the End of the Eighteenth Century in Ukrainian Soviet Historiography], in ibid., pp. 105–112.

10 Ivan, Levickij, Galicko-ruskajabibliografija XIX stolětija: 1801–1886 [Galician-Rusyn Bibliography of the Nineteenth Century] (2 vols., L'viv, 18881895) (xxii, 162 pp., and 736 pp.); Ivan, Levyc'kyj, Ukrajins'ka bibljiografija Avstro-Uhorščyny za roky 1887–1900 [Ukrainian Bibliography of Austria-Hungary for the Years 1887–1900] (3 vols., 18871893); Materijaly do ukrajins'koji bibliografiji [Materials for Ukrainian Bibliography], Vols. I–III (L'viv: Bibliografična komisija Naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, 19091911) (269, 290, and 300 pp.).

11 Nykolaj, Lelekač and Ivan, Harajda, Zahal'na bibliohrafija Podkarpatja [A General Bibliography of Subcarpathia]. In Literaturno-naukova biblioleka, No. 30 (Užhorod: Podkarpatskoe obščestvo nauk, 1944) (150 pp.). Supplemented in Literaturna nedǐlja, Vol. IV, No. 9–11 (Užhorod, 1944).

12 Pelenskyj, Eugene J., Ucrainica: Selected Bibliography on Ukraine in Western-European Languages. In Memoirs of the Scientific Ševčenko Society, Vol. CLVIII (Munich, 1948) (110 pp.); Myxajlo, Hres'ko, “Zakarpattja—oiyma mandrivnykiv i včenyx” [Transcarpathia in the Eyes of Travelers and Scholars], Zovten, Vol. XVIII, No.II (L'viv, 1968), pp. 130138.

13 Bibliografický katalog [Bibliographical Index] (Prague, 19221946). Yearly publication with entries for works published in Czechoslovakia in the Subcarpathian Rusyn (podkarpatorusk´), Russian, and Ukrainian languages.

14 Bibliografie (české historie) [Bibliography of Czech history] (Prague: Historický klub). Beginning with volume “za léta 1925–1926” (Prague, 1929), a special subsection was included for works on the history, literature, language, and folklore of Subcarpathian Rus'. Entries dealing with the province were listed separately until volume “za léta 1937–1941” (Prague, 1951).

13 Jifi, Kr´l, Geografick´ bibliografie Podkarpatské Rusi [Geographical Bibliography of Subcarpathian Rus']. In Travaux géographiques, No. 11 (Prague: Geografický ustav Karlovy university, 1923) (61 pp.); Jiři, Kr´i, Geografické bibliografie Podkarpatské Rusi za roky 1923–1926 [Geographical Bibliography of Subcarpathian Rus’ for the Years 1923–1926], In Travaux géographiques tchèques, No. 13 (Prague: Geografický ústav Karlovy university, 1928) (54 pp.).

16 Orest, Zilynskyj (ed.), Sto padesát let česko-ukrajinských literárnich styků 1814–1964: vědecko-bibliografický sborník [One Hundred and Fifty Years of Czech-Ukrainian Literary Relations, 1814–1964: A Scholarly Bibliography] (Prague: Svět sovětů, 1968) (478 pp.).

17 Mikuláš, Nevrlý, Bibliografia ukrajinik v slovenskej reči, 1945–1964 [A Bibliography of Ukrainian Studies in the Slovak Language, 1945–1964] (Bratislava: Slovenska akademia vied, 1965) (198 pp.); Z žyttja ukrajinciv na Slovaččyni: bibliohrafija pro budivnyču pracju ukrajinciv na Slovaččyni [On the Life of Ukrainians in Slovakia: A Bibliography on the Constructive Work of Ukrainians in Slovakia] (3 vols., Prešov: Štátna vedeck´ knižnica, 19591961) (195, 165, and 140 pp.); Olena, Pažur, Ukrajinci Čexoslovaččyny 1962–1964 rr,: bibliohrafija knyh, Žurnal'nyx la hazetnyx statej [The Ukrainians of Czechoslovakia in the Years 1962 to 1964: A Bibliography of Books, Journals, and Newspaper Articles]. In Bibliografia východného Slovenska, 1945–1964, Vol. XII, Pt. 1 (Prešov: Štátna vedecká knižnica, 1967) (257 pp.).

18 Rud', M. P., Ukrajins'ka Radjans'ka Socialistyčna Respublika, 1917–1967: bibliohrafičnyj pokažčyk literature [The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: Bibliographical Index of the Literature] (Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1969), pp. 9496, 144–147, 198–200, and 314–316.

19 Ežegodnik knigi SSSR [Book Annual of the Soviet Union] (Moscow, 1935, 1941).

20 Arkadij, Žyvotko, Presa Karpats'koji Ukrajiny [The Press in Carpatho-Ukraine] (Prague: Vydavnyctvo Jurija Tyščenka, 1940) (iii, 22 pp.).

21 Nikolaus, Radványi, Die Archive in der Podkarpatská Rus. En Beilrag zur Errichtung des Landesarchivs (Užhorod, 1922) (144 pp.); Andrej, Šaš, Arxiv privilegirovannago goroda Mukačeva 1376–1850 gg.: spravočnaja kniga po istorii, materialam i ustrojslvu starago gorodskago arxiva [Archive of the Chartered City of Mukačevo, 1376–1850: A Guide to the History, Holdings, and Organization of the Old City Archive] (Mukačevo: lzdanie goroda Mukačeva, 1927) (160 pp.); Mykytas', Vasyl' L., Davni rukopysy i starodruky: opys i kataloh [Old Manuscripts and Publications: Description and Catalog] (2 vols., Užhorod, 1961 [93 pp.]; L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1964 [81 pp.]); Mykytas', Vasyl' L., Davni knyhy Zakarpats'koho Deržavnoho Krajeznavčoho Muzeju [Old Books in the Transcarpathian State Regional Museum](L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1964) (85 pp.).

22 These holdings are briefly surveyed in Belov, Genadii A., et al. (eds.), Gosudarstvennye arxivy Sojuza SSR: Kratkij spravočnik [State Archives of the Soviet Union: A Short Guide] (Moscow: Glavnoe arxivnoe upravlenie, 1956), pp. 295300.

23 Daniel, Babila, Historia diocesana (unpublished manuscript written at the end of the eighteenth century); Antal, Décsy, Az magyar oroszokrúl való igen rövid elmélkedés [Very Brief Thoughts on the Ugro-Russians] (Košice, 1797) (67 pp.); Joannicio, Basilovits, Brevis notilia Fundationis Theodori Koriatovils olim ducis de Munkacs, pro Religiosis Rulhenis Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, in monte Csernek ad Munkacs: Anno MCCCLX (3 vols., 6 pts., Košice, 17991805) (128, 207, 157, 259, 93, and 96 pp.); Orlaj, Ivan S., “Istorija o Karpato-Rossax, ili o pereselenii Rossijan v Karpatskija gory i o priključenijax s nimi slučivšixsja” [The History of the Carpathian Russians or the Migration of Russians into the Carpathian Mountains and the Adventures that Took Place], Sěvernyj věstnik, Vol. I, Pts. 1 and 3 (St. Petersburg, 1804), pp. 158172, 261–276, and 267–294 (reprinted in Ilarion S. Svéncicskij, Materialy po istorii vozroždenija Karpatskoj Rusi [2 vols., L'viv, 1905–9], Vol. 1, pp. 56–83); Michael, Lutskay, Historia Carpatho-Ruthenorumin Hungarica Sacra, et civilis. Ex probatissimis Autoribus, Diplomatibus Regiis, et Documentis Archivi Diocesis Munkats (6 vols. Manuscript in the University Library, Užhorod); Károly, Mészáros, A magyarorsádgi oroszok története [A History of Hungary's Russians] (Budapest, 1850); Aleksander, Duxnovič, “Istinnaja istorija Karpato-Rossov ili Ugorskix Rusinov” [A True History of the Carpatho-Russians or Hungarian Rusyns], Russkij arxiv, Vol. LII, No. 4–5 (Moscow, 1914), pp. 529559 (reprinted in Oleksandr Duxnovyč, Tvory [2 vols., Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohčne vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1967], Vol. II, pp. 531–566); Ivan, Duliškovič, Istoričeskija črty Ugro-Russkix [An Historical Sketch of the Ugro-Russians] (3 vols., Užhorod, 18741877) (133, 140, and 234 pp.).

24 Bidermann, Hermann J., Die ungarischen Ruthenen, ihr Wohngebiet, ihr Erwerb, und ihre Geschichte (2 vols., Innsbruck: Wagner'schen Universitäts-Buchhandlung, 18621867) (xvi, 140, and iv, 120 pp.).

25 Antal, Hodinka, A munkácsi görög-katholikus püspökség története [A History of the Greek-Catholic Bishopric of Mukačevo] (Budapest: Kiadja a magyar tudományos akadémia, 1910) (v, 856 pp.). See also the references to Hodinka's writings in notes 55,57, 63, and 65.

26 Tivadar, Lehoczky, A beregmegyei görögszertartásu katholikus lelkészségek története a XIX század végeig [History of the Greek Catholic Ecclesiastics of Bereg Comitat until the End of the Nineteenth Century] (Mukačevo. 1904) (170 pp.); Oreszt, Szabó, A magyar oroszokról (Ruthének) [On the Hungarian Russians (Ruthenes)]. In Nemzetiségi ismertető könyvtär. Vol. I (Budapest, 1913) (302 pp.); Sándor, Bonkáló, A magyar rutének [The Hungarian Ruthenes] (Budapest: Pfeifer Ferdinand, 1920) (44 pp.); Sándor, Bonkáló, A Ruthének (Ruszinok) [The Ruthenes(Rusyns)](Budapest: Franklin Társulat kiadása, 1940) (184 pp.).

27 Tivadar, Lehoczky, Beregvármegye monografiája [Monograph on Bereg Comitat] (3 vols., Užhorod, 18811882) (463, 505, and 820 pp.); Nyegre, L., Ungmegye monografiája [Monograph on Ung Comitat] (Užhorod, 1882); Magyarország vármegyéi és városai: Zemplén vármegye [Hungary's Comitats and Cities: Zemplén Comitat] (Budapest: Apollo irodalmi társaság, 1896) (567 pp.); István, Szabó, Ugocsa megye [Ugocsa Comitat]. In Magyarorság és Nemzetiség tanulmányok a magyar népiségtörténel köréböl, 1st ser., Vol. I (Budapest: Kiadja a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, 1937) (xii, 615 pp.).

28 Die österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild, Vol. V (Ungarn), Pt. 2 (Vienna: K. K. Hof-undStaatsdruckerei, 1900), pp. 363482. See also Gabriel, Daras, “Les Karpatorusses: leur chemin vers la conscience et l'unité nationale,” Nouvelle revue de Hongrie, Vol. LIX (Budapest, 1938), pp. 587595; and the references to Hodinka and Bonkáló in note 57.

29 Karel, Kadlec, “Les Russes au sud des Carpathes citoyens de la République tchécoslovaque,” La nation tchéque, Vol. IV (Paris, 1919), pp. 804814; Karel, Kadlec, Podkarpatská Rus. In Mirové smlouvy kongressu pařižského a stát československý, No. 6 (Prague: Státovědecké společnosti, 1920) (28 pp.); Florian, Zapletal, Rusini a naši buditelé [The Rusyns and Our National Awakeners] (Prague: Kolokol, 1921) (67 pp.); Kamil, Krofta, Podkarpatská Rus a Československo [Subcarpathian Rus’ and Czechoslovakia] (Prague: Svaz národniho osvobozeni, 1935) (64 pp.); Kamil, Krofta, “Ruthenes, Czechs, and Slovaks,” The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. XIII (London, 1935), pp. 14, 362–371, and 611–626; Cyril, Kochannyj-Goralčuk, Podkarpatská Rus a minulosti a přitomnosti [Subcarpathian Rus’ in the Past and Present] (Prague: Státní nakladatelstvi, 1931) (160 pp.).

30 Josef, Chmelař, Stanislav, Klima, and Jaromir, Nečas (eds.), Podkarpatská Rus: obraz poměrů přirodnich, hospodáŕských, politických, cirkevnich, jazykových a osvětoých [Subcarpathian Rus': A Description of Geographical, Economic, Political, Ecclesiastical, Linguistic, and Cultural Conditions] (Prague: Orbis, 1923) (210 pp.). A Russian edition in Latin script also appeared under the title Podkarpatska Rus': obraz obstojatel'stv, prirodnych, hospodarskich, politčeskich, cerkovnych, jazykovych i prosvititel'nych (New York: Gazeta “Deń,” 1924) (205 pp.).

31 Jaroslav, Zatloukal (ed.), Podkarpatská Rus: Sbornik hospodářskeho, kulturniho a politického poznání Podkarpatské Rusi [Subcarpathian Rus': An Anthology of Economic, Cultural, and Political Information on Subcarpathian Rus'] (Bratislava: Klub přátel Podkarpatské Rusi, 1936) (334 pp.).

32 Sreznevskij, Izmail I., “Rus’ Ugorskaja: otryvok iz opyta geografii russkago jazyka” [Hungarian Rus': Excerpt from an Experiment on the Geography of the Russian Language], Věstnik imperatorskago russkago geografičeskago obščestva, Vol. 1, No. 1–2 (St. Petersburg, 1852), pp. 128. See also Zadorožnyj, V. Je., “Zakarpattja v rosijs'kij publicystyci peršoji polovyny XIX St.” [Transcarpathia in Russian Publicistic Writings in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century], in Kul'tura i pobut naselennja ukrajins'kyx karpat (Užhorod: Užhorods'kyj deržavnyj universytet, 1973), pp. 97104 (full bibliography).

33 Arsenij, , “Russkie v Vengrii” [Russians in Hungary], Žurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosěščenija. Vol. CXXXIX, No. 6 (St. Petersburg, 1868), pp. 699716; Jakob O. Golovackij, “Istoriko-etnografičeskij očerk Galičiny i Ugorskoj Rusi” [Historical-Ethnographic Sketch of Galicia and Hungarian Rus'], ibid., Vol. CLXXIX, No. 2(1875), pp. 349–396; De-Vollan, Grigorij A., Ugorskaja Rus':istoričeskij oč [Hungarian Rus': A Historical Sketch] (Moscow, 1878)(49 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., “Zametki po Ugorskoj Rusi” [Notes on Hungarian Rus'], Zurnal Ministerstva narodnago prosviSienija, Vol.CCLXIX (St. Petersburg, 1892), pp. 439458; Filevič, Ivan P., “Ugorskaja Rus’ i svjazannye s nej voprosy i zadači russkoj istoričeskoj nauki” [Hungarian Rus' and the Questions and Tasks of Russian Historical Science], Varšavskija universitetskija izvestija, Vol. V, No. 3 (Warsaw, 1894) (32 pp.); Hryhorij, Kupčanko, Naša rodyna [Our Homeland] (Vienna, 1897), especially pp. 174226 (reprinted in New York-Berlin: Izdanie Minkus, 1924); Baxtin, Nikolaj N., Ugorskaja Rus' [Hungarian Rus'] (Petrograd, 1915) (48 pp.). See also note 108.

34 Vergun, Dmitrij N. (ed.), Vosem’ lekcij o Podkarpatskoj Rusi [Eight Lectures on Subcarpathian Rus'] (Prague: Izdanie českoj školy političeskix učenij, 1925) (117 pp.); Karpatorusskij Sbornik: Podkarpatskaja Rus' v čest' prezidenta T. G. Masarika [A Carpatho-Russian Anthology: Subcarpathian Rus'in Honor of President T. G. Masaryk] (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprověctitel'nago sojuza, 1930) (329 pp.); Podkarpatskaja Rus' za gody 1919–1936 [Subcarpathian Rus'during the Years 1919–1936] (Užhorod: “Russkij Narodnij Golos,” 1936)(196 pp.); Nikolaj, Pavlovič, Russkajakul'tura i Podkarpatskaja Rus' [Russian Culture and Subcarpathian Rus']. In Izdanie kul'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 23 (Užhorod, 1926) (19 pp.); Antonij Lukovič, “Nacional'naja i jazykovaja prinadležnost’ russkago naselenija Podkarpatskoj Rusi” [The National and Linguistic Character of the Russian Population of Subcarpathian Rus']. In ibid., No. 40(1929) (20 pp.), and Karpatskij Svět, Vol. II, No. 1 (Užhorod, 1929), pp. 397403.

35 Slepeckij, Ivan S. (ed.), Prjaševščina: istoriko-literaturnyj sbornik [The Prešov Region: A Historical-Literary Anthology] (Prague: Xutor, 1948) (335 pp.).

36 For studies by Ukrainian ethnographers who were particularly interested in the Subcarpathian region, see Stepan, Tomašivs'kyj, “Uhors'ki rusyny v svitli urjadovoji uhors'koji statystyky” [Hungarian Rusyns in the Light of Official Hungarian Statistics], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, Vol. LXI (L'viv, 1903), pp. 146; Stepan Tomašivs'kyj, “Etnografična terytorija Uhors'koji Rusy” [The Ethnographical Territory of Hungarian Rus'], ibid., Vol. LXVII (1905), pp. 1–18; Stepan, Tomašivs'kj, Etnografična karta Uhors'koji Rusy [An Ethnographic Map of Hungarian Rus'], in Lamanskij, Vladimir I. (ed.), Stat'i po slavjanověděniju. Vol. III (St. Petersburg: Izdanie vtorago otdělenija Imperatorskoj akademii nauk, 1910), pp. 178269 (statistics and map); Stepan, Tomašivskij, “Ugorskaja Rus'” [Hungarian Rus'], in Ukrainskij narod v ego prošlom i nastojaščem, Vol. II (Petrograd, 1916), pp. 421426; Volodymyr, Hnatjuk, Etnografični materijaly z Uhors'koji Rusy [Ethnographic Materials from Hungarian Rus'], Vols. I, II, and III, Pt. 1. In Etnografičnyjzbirnyk (40 vols., L'viv: Etnografična komisija Naukovoho tovarystva im. Ševčenka, 18951929), Vols. III, IV, and IX; and Volodymyr, Hnatjuk, “Rusini v Uhrách” [Rusyns in Hungary], Slovanský přehled, Vol. I (Prague, 1899), pp. 216220 and 418–427. For a complete bibliography of Hnatjuk's works and articles about his activities in Subcarpathian Rus', see Naukovyjzbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. III (Prešov, 1967), pp. 7220.

37 Dmytro, Dorosenko, Uhors'ka Ukrajina [Hungarian Ukraine] (Prague: Vsesvit, 1919) (34 pp.); Karpats'ka Ukrajina [Carpathian Ukraine] (L'viv: Ukrajins'kyj vydavnyčyj instytut, 1939) (160 pp.) (reprinted in New York by Karpats'kyj sojuz in 1972); Vasyl', Pačovs'kij, Ystorija Pôdkarpatskoî Rusy [A History of Subcarpathian Rus']. In Vydavnyctvo Tovarystva “Prosvila,” No. 4–7 (Užhorod, 1921) (142 pp.) (see also the third edition: Istorija Zakarpattja [A History of Transcarpathia] [Munich: Bdžilka, 1946]).

38 Oleksander, Mycjuk, Narysy z socijal'no-hospodars'koji istoriji, b. uhors'koji, nyni Pidkarpats'koji Rusy [An Outline of the Socioeconomic History of the Former Hungarian, now Subcarpathian, Rus'] (2 vols., Užhorod-Prague, 19361938) (x, 246, and 390 pp.).

39 Kontratovyč, Yrynej M., Ystorija Podkarpatskoî Rusy dlja naroda [A History of Subcarpathian Rus' for the People] (3rd ed., Užhorod: Vydavnyctvo tovarystva “Prosvita,” 1930) (112 pp.); Fedeleš, Vira Y., Učebnyk Ystoriy Podkarpatskoi Rusy ot najdavnijšyx časov do dnešnyx dnej y Cexoslovakiy do XIV vîka [Textbook History of Subcarpathian Rus’ from Earliest Times to the Present and of Czechoslovakia to the Fourteenth Century] (2nd ed., Užhorod: Unio, 1924) (62 pp.).

40 Vasylij, Hadžega, “Dodatky k istorii Rusynôv y rus'kyx cerkvej v Maramoroši: studii ystoryčno-arkhivni” [Notes on the History of the Rusyns and Rusyn Churches in Máramaros: A Historical-Archival Study], Naukovŷi zbôrnyk Tovarystvo “Prosvila,” Vol. 1 (Užhorod, 1922), pp. 140228; Vasylij Hadžega, “Dodatky k ystorii Rusynôv y rus'kyx cerkvej v Užanskoj župî: studiî ystoryčno-arxyvni” [Notes on the History of the Rusyns and Rusyn Churches in Ung Comitat: A Historical-Archival Study], ibid., Vol. II (1923), pp. 1–64; and Vol. III (1924), pp. 155–239; Vasylij Hadžega, “Dodatky k ystoriî Rusynôv i rus'kyx cerkvej v župî Ugoča” [Notes on the History of the Rusyns and Rusyn Churches in Ugocsa Comitat], ibid., Vol. IV (1925), pp. 117–176; and Vol. V (1927), pp. 1–62; Vasylij Hadžega, “Dodatky do ystorii Rusynôv y rus'kyx cerkvej v buv. župî Zemplynskoj” [Notes on the History of the Rusyns and Rusyn Churches in the Former Comitat of Zemplén], ibid., Vol. VII-VIII (1931), pp. 1–167; Vol. IX (1932), pp. 1–67; Vol. X (1934), pp. 17–120; Vol. XI (1935), pp. 17–182; and Vol. XII (1937), pp. 37–83. See also Kondratovič, Irinej M., “Očerki iz istorii Mukačevskoj eparxii” [Essays from the History of the Mukačevo Eparchy], in Karpatorusskij sbornik (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 91111.

41 Basil, Boysak, The Fate of the Holy Union in Carpatho-Ukraine (Toronto and New York, 1963) (iv, 240 pp.); Pekar, Atanasij V., Narysy istoriji cerkvy Zakarpattja:jerarxične oformlennja [Essays on the History of the Church in Transcarpathia: Formation of the Hierarchy]. In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, ser. 2, Sect. 1, Vol. XXII (Rome, 1967) (241 pp.); Athanasius, Pekar, Historic Background of the Eparchy of Prjashev (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Byzantine Seminar Press, 1968) (vi, 83 pp.); Julius, Kubinyi, The History of the Prjašiv Eparchy. In Editiones Universitatis Catholicae Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, Vol. XXXII (Rome, 1970) (213 pp.). See also Charles, Bourgeois, “Les Gréco-catholiques en Russie-Subcarpathique,” Nouvelle revue théologique. Vol. LVII, No. 7 (Tournai-Louvain, 1930), pp. 566584; Vasilij, Shereghy and Vasilij, Pekar, Vospitanije podkarpato-ruskoho svjaščenstva—The Training of Carpatho-Ruthenian Clergy (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1951) (126 pp.).

42 Kolomiec, Ivan G., Očerki po istorii Zakarpat'ja [Essays on the History of Transcarpathia]. In Trudy Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta imeni V. V. Kujbyševa: Sbornik robot po voprosam istorii. Serija istoričeskaja, Vol. CXXI, No. 2 (Tomsk, 1953) (207 pp.); Kolomiec, Ivan G., Oĉerki po istorii Zakarpat'ja: social'noèkonomičeskie otnošenija, nacional'no-političeskoe i kul'turnoe dviženie v Zakarpat'e v XIX veke [Essays on the History of Transcarpathia: Socioeconomic Relations and National-Political and Cultural Movements in Transcarpathia in the Nineteenth Century], Pt. 2 (Tomsk: Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo universiteta, 1959) (245 pp.).

43 Zakarpats'ka, Ukrajina” [Transcarpathian Ukraine], in Ukrajins'ka radjans'ka encyklopedija (17 vols., Kiev: Akademija nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 19601964), Vol. V, pp. 136138; Istorija mist i sil Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky: Zakarpats'ka oblast' [A History of the Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: The Transcarpathian Province] (Kiev: Akademija nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 1969) (736 pp.); Viktor I. Bjelousov, “Zakarpats'ka oblast'” [Transcarpathian Region] and Kompanijec', Ivan I., “Zakarpats'ka Ukrajina” [Transcarpathian Ukraine], in Radjans'ka encyklopedija istoriji Ukrajiny (4 vols., Kiev: Akademija nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 1970), Vol. II, pp. 165173; Miščenko, Serhij O., et al. (eds.), Šljaxom do ščastja: narysy istoriji Zakarpattja [On the Road to Happiness: An Outline of the History of Transcarpathia] (Užhorod: Vydavnyctvo “Karpaty,” 1973) (288 pp.); Ivan, Hrančak and Palek, Vasyl' V., Misto nad Užem: istoryčnyj narys [City on the Už River: An Historical Outline] (Užhorod: Vydavnyctvo “Karpaty,” 1973) (288 pp.). This same thesis is set forth in works intended for the Rusyn population in present-day eastern Slovakia: Andrij, Šlepec'kyj, Zakarpats'ki budyteli ta naša sučasnist' [Transcarpathian National Awakeners and the Present] (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1957) (115 pp.); Ivan, Macyns'kyj, Rozmova storič [Discourse of the Centuries] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovenské pedagogické nakladatel'stvo odbor ukrajinskej literatúry, 1965), especially pp. 13230; Jurij, Bača, Andrij, Kovač, and Mykola, Stec', Čomu, koly i jak: vidpovidi na osnovni pytannja z žyttja ukrajinciv Čexoslovaččyny [Why, When, and How? Answers to Basic Questions about the Life of the Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia] (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1967) (82 pp.).

44 L'udovit, Haraksim, K sociálnym a kultúrnym dejinám Ukrajincov na Slovensku do roku 1867 [On the Social and Cultural History of the Ukrainians in Slovakia before 1867] (Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, 1961) (201 pp.).

45 Omeljan, Stavrovs'kyj, Slovac'ko-pols'ko-ukrajins'ke prykordonnja do 18 stolittja [The Slovak-Polish-Ukrainian Borderland before the Eighteenth Century] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1967) (491 pp.) (full bibliography).

46 Andrij, Čuma and Andrij, Bondar, Ukrajins'ka škola na Zakarpatti ta sxidnij Slovnyk: istoryčnyj narys [U krainian Schools in Transcarpathia and Eastern Slovakia: A Historical Outline], Pt. 1 (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1967) (113 pp.); Ivan, Macyns'kyj (ed.), Slovnyk istoryčnoho žyttja zakarpats'kyx ukrajinciv [Dictionary of the Historical Life of the Transcarpathian Ukrainians]. In Duklja, Vol. XV, No. 1 (Prešov, 1967).

47 Aldo, Dami, La Ruthénie subcarpathique (Genève-Annemasse: Les éditions du Mont-Blanc, 1944) (375 pp.).

48 Jean, Mousset, Les villes de la Russie subcarpatique (1919–1938): l'effort tchécoslovaque. In Travaux publiés par l'institut d'études slaves, Vol. XVIII (Paris: Librairie Droz, 1938) (139 pp.).

49 Reshetar, John S., “Carpatho-Ruthenia,” in Slavonic Encyclopedia (New York: Philosophical Library, 1949), pp. 132136; Rudnytsky, Ivan L., Augustin, Stefan, and Vasyl, Markus, “Transcarpathia,” in Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia (2 vols., Toronto: University of Toronto Press for the Ukrainian National Association, 19631971), Vol. I, pp. 710714; 787–789, 850–856, and 891–892; historical introduction to Vladimir, Moudry and František, Nemec, The Soviet Seizure of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Toronto: William B. Anderson, 1955), pp. 357.

50 Ferdinand, Lessek, Pravik Podkarpatskoi Rusy [Prehistoric Subcarpathian Rus'] (Užhorod: Vŷdavnyctvo Školnyj oddil civ. upravŷ Podk. Rusy, 1922) (42 pp.); Jankovič, Josef M., Podkarpatská Rus v prehistorii—Podkárpatskád Rusz a prehistóriában [Subcarpathian Rus' in Prehistoric Times] (Mukačevo: Musejni společnosti Lehockého, 1931) (52, 62, 56 pp., 16 tables). For the results of recent archeological research, see Potušnjak, Fedir M., Arxeolohični znaxidky bronzovoho ta zaliznoho viku na Zakarpatti [Archeological Findings from the Bronze and Iron Ages in Transcarpathia] (Užhorod: Užhorods'kyj deržavnyj universytet, 1958) (144 pp., 80 tables); Smiško, Markian Ju., Karpats'ki kurhany peršoji polovyny peršoho tysjačolittja našoji ery [Carpathian Grave Mounds from the First Half of the First Millennium of Our Era] (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo Akademiji nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 1960) (186 pp.); Bidzilja, Vasyl' I., Istorija kul'tury Zakarpattja na rubežinašojiery [History of the Culture of Transcarpathia at the Dawn of Our Era] (Kiev: Naukova dumka, 1971) (182 pp.).

51 On the foreign nobility, see note 45.

52 On Corvinus' popularity, as expressed in Rusyn folk tales, see Eugen, Perfeckij, “Podkarpatské a haličskoruské tradice o králi Matyášovi Corvinovi” [Subcarpathian and Galician Rusyn Traditions about King Mátyás Corvinus], Sbornik filosofické fakulty university Komenského, Vol. IV, No. 42 (Bratislava, 1926), pp. 219278.

53 Kontratovič, Irenej M., K istorii starodavnago Užgoroda i Podkarpatskoj Rusi do XIV věka [On the History of Užhorod and Subcarpathian Rus' to the Fourteenth Century]. In Izdanie kul'turno-prosveětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 39 (Užhorod, 1928) (20 pp.); Nikolaj A. Beskid, Karpatorusskaja drevnost' [Carpatho-Russian Antiquity]. In ibid., No. 43 (Užhorod, 1928) (160 pp.); Beskid, Nikolaj A., Karpatorusskaja Pravda [Carpatho-Russian Truth] (Homestead, Pa.: lzdanije “Amerikanskoho russkoho viestnika,” 1933) (297 pp.); Julij, Gadžega, Dva istoričeskix voprosa: starožili-li karpatorossy i o načalax xristianskoj religii na Podkarpatskoj Rusi [Two Historical Questions: Are the Carpatho-Russians Autochthonous and how did Christianity begin in Subcarpathian Rus'?]. In Izdanie kul'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 42 (Užhorod, 1928) (47 pp.). See also the reference to Pačovs'kij in note 37 and to Hadžega in note 40.

54 A good example of such romantic historical writing is Anatolij, Kralyckij, Knjaz' Laborec': istoryčna povist' iz IX vika [Prince Laborec': A Historical Tale from the Ninth Century] (originally published in Galičanin [1863]; reprinted in Vydavnyctvo tovarystva “Prosvita,” No. 53 [Užhorod, 1925] [19 pp.]). See also articles by Anatolij, Kralyckij and Jurij, Žatkovyč which appeared in the 1890's in the journal Listok (Užhorod).

55 The first to propound such theories was Joannicio Basilovits. See note 23. For a more objective appraisal of Korjatovyč, see Eugen, Perfeckij, “Dvě stati k dějinám Podkarpatské Rusi: 2. Kniže Fedor Koriatovič Mukačevský” [Two Articles on the History of Subcarpathian Rus': 2. Prince Fedor Korjatovyč of Mukačevo], Sbornik filozofickej fakulty university Komenského, Vol. 1, No. 6 (Bratislava, 1922), pp. 126132; Vasylij, Hadžega, “O pereselennju knjazja Fedora Korjatovyča do Madjarščynŷ” [On the Migration of Prince Fedor Korjatovyč to Hungary], Podkarpatska Rus', Vol. VI, No. 7 (Užhorod, 1929), pp. 153157; Vasylij, Hadžega, “Knjaz'Fedor Korjatovyč i Maramaroš” [Prince Fedor Korjatovyč and Máramaros], Podkarpatska Rus', Vols. VII (1930) and VIII (1931), pp. 6875, 99–113, 141–148, and 169–175; Antonius, Hodinka, “Documenta Koriatovicsiana et fundatio monasterii Munkacsiensis,” Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 2, Vol. I, No. 2–3 (Rome, 1950), pp. 339359; No. 4 (1953), pp. 525–551; Vol. II, No. 1–2 (1954), pp. 165–189.

56 For a historical survey of the problem, see Jiři, Král, “Osidleni Karpatské Rusi: historický přehled” [The Settlement of Carpathian Rus': An Historical Survey], Sbornik československé společnosti zeměpisné, Vol. XXIX (Prague, 1923), pp. 6583; and a shorter version, “Ystorija kolonizacii Podkarpatskoi Rusy” [History of the Colonization of Subcarpathian Rus'], Podkarpatska Rus', Vol. I, No. 2–3 (Užhorod, 1924), pp. 3743 and 68–72.

57 Lubor, Niederle, “Počátky Karpatské Rusi” [The Beginnings of Carpathian Rus'], Národopisný věstnik československý. Vol. XV, Pt. 2 (Prague, 1922), pp. 2331; Lubor Niederle, “Počátky slovanského osidlení v Podkarpatské Rusi” [The Beginnings of Slavic Settlement in Subcarpathian Rus'], ibid., Vol. XXIV, Pt. 1–2 (1931), pp. 39–41. See also Volodymyr, Hnatjuk, “Čy zakarpats'ki ukrajinci avtoxtony?” [Are the Transcarpathian Ukrainians Autochtons?], Literatumo-naukovyj vistnyk, Vol. LXXVI, No. 3 (L'viv, 1922), pp. 269276; and Omeljan, Pritsak, “Xto taki avtoxtony Karpats'koji Ukrajiny?” [Who are the so-called Autochthons of Carpatho-Ukraine?], Nova zorja, No. 1 (L'viv, 1939), pp. 1516 (full bibliography). For the Hungarian viewpoint, see Antal, Hodinka, “L'habitat, I'économie, et le passé du peuple ruthène,” Revue des études hongroises et finno-ougriènnes. Vol. II (Paris, 1924), pp. 244275; Alexander, Bonkáló, “Die ungarländischen Ruthenen,” Ungarische Jahrbücher, Vol. I (Berlin, 1922), pp. 215232 and 313–341.

58 Karel, Kadlec, Valaši a valašské právo v zemich slovanských a uherskych [The Vlachs and Vlach Law in Slavic and Hungarian Territory] (Prague: Česká akademie cisaře Františka Josefa pro vědy, slovesnost a uměni, 1916) (526 pp.); Václav, Chaloupecký, Valaši na Slovensku [The Vlachs in Slovakia] (Prague: Nákladem Slovenského Ustavu, 1947) (117 pp.).

59 Petrov, Aleksej L., O podložnosti gramoty knjazja Feodora Koriatoviča 1360 g. [On the Forgery of the 1360 Document of Fedor Korjatovič, Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj Rusi, Vol. III, in Lamanskij, Vladimir I. (ed.), Stat'i po slavjanověděniju. Vol. II (St. Petersburg, 1906), pp. 270299; Petrov, Aleksej L., Drevnějšija gramoty po istorii karpatorusskoj cerkvi i ierar xii, 1391–1498 [The Oldest Documents on the History of the Carpatho-Russian Church and Hierarchy, 1391–1498]. In Knihovna sboru pro výzkum Slovenska a Podkarpatské Rusi, No. 1 (Prague: Orbis, 1930) (xix, 229 pp.).

60 Václav, Chaloupecky, “Dvě studie k dějinám Podkarpatska: 1. Sůl z Bulharska (892). 2. Kdy bylo Horni Potisi pripojeno k Uhrám” [Two Studies on the History of Subcarpathia: I. Salt Trade from Bulgaria (892); 2. When was the Mountainous Region beyond the Tisza River incorporated into Hungary?], Sbornik filosofické fakully university Komenského, Vol. III, No. 30 (Bratislava, 1925), pp. 133186.

61 Myxajlo, Hruševs'kyj, Istorija Ukrajiny-Rusy [The History of Ukraine-Rus'], Vol. I (3rd ed., Kiev, 1913), pp. 214215 and 220–226; Vol. II (L'viv, 1905), pp. 360–362, 458–461, and 485–504; Vol. III (L'viv, 1905), pp. 119–120; Vol. IV (Kiev, 1907), pp. 171–172; Lelekač, Myxajlo M., “Pro prynaležnist' Zakarpattja do Kyjivs'koji Rusi v X-XI st.” [On Kievan Rus' Possession of Transcarpathia in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries], Naukovi zapysky. Vol. II (Užhorod, 1949), pp. 2839.

62 Zdeněk, Neèdli, “Istorija Zakarpatskoj Rusi do XIV stoletija” [The History of Transcarpathian Rus' to the Fourteenth Century], Izvestija Akademii nauk SSSR. Serija istorii i filosofii, Vol. II, No. 4 (Moscow, 1945), pp. 201220; Eugen, Perfeckij, Socialněhospodářské poměry Podkarpatské Rusi ve stoleti XIII-XV [The Socioeconomic Conditions of Subcarpathian Rus' from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Centuries] (Bratislava, 1924) (148 pp.). See also Myxajlo, Lelekač, “Proces zakripačennja zakarpats'koho seljanstva v XIV-XV st.” [The Process of Enserfment of thev Transcarpathian Peasantry in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXIX (Užhorod, 1957), pp. 338.

63 Antal, Hodinka, A Kárpátalji rutének lakóhelye, gazdaságuk és multjuk [The Habitation, Economy, and Historical Past of the Carpatho-Ruthenes] (Budapest: Apostol-nyomda Rt. nyomása, 1923) (48 pp.). See also the references to Hodinka and Bonkáló in note 57.

64 For religious developments before the establishment of the 1646 Union, see Evgenij, Perfeckij, “Religioznoe dviženie v XVI-om i načale XVII-ogo věka v Ugorskoj Rusir” [Religious Movements in Hungarian Rus' in the Sixteenth and early Seventeenth Centuries], Izvěstija oldělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj akademii nauk, Vol. XX, No. 1 (Petrograd, 1915), pp. 2477; and Ignác, Rath, Náboženské dějiny Podkarpatské Rusi do r. 1498 [The Religious History of Subcarpathian Rus' to 1498] (Prague, 1933) (44 pp.). On the general impact of the Reformation, see Petrov, Aleksej L., “Otzvuk reformacii v russkom Zakarpat'i XVI v.: Njagovskija poučenija na Evangelie” [The Repercussion of the Reformation in Russian Transcarpathia during the Sixteenth Century: The Njagovskij Sermons on the Gospels], Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj (Zakarpaiskoj) Rusi, Vol. VIII (Prague: Věstnik královské české společnosti nauk, 1923) (123 pp.); and Vasylij, Hadžega, “Vplŷv reformaciî na podkarpatskyx rusynov” [The Influence of the Reformation on the Subcarpathian Rusyns], Zorja-Hajnal, Vol. III, No. 1–4 (Užhorod, 1943), pp. 550.

65 Antal, Hodinka, A munkácsi górög-szertartásu püspökség okmánytára, 1458–1715 [The Archives of the Greek-Rite Bishopric in Mukačevo] (Užhorod, 1911) (lvi, 668 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., “Pamjatniki cerkovno-religioznoj žizni Ugrorussov XVI-XVII vv.: 1. Pounčenija na Evangelie po Njagovskomu spisku 1758 g. 2. lereja Mixaila, ‘Obrona věrnomu člvku.’ Teksty” [Monuments from the Ecclesiastical-Religious Life of the Ugro-Russians in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: 1. Sermons on the Gospels according to the 1758 Niagovskij Text. 2. The Priest Michael,‘In Defense of the Faithful Man.’ Texts], Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj Rusi, Vol. VII. In Sbornik otdělenija jazyka i slovesnosti Rossijskoj akademii nauk. Vol. XCVII, Pt. 2 (Petrograd, 1921)(vi, 295 pp.). See also several documents regarding the Mukačevo diocese in Monumenta Ucrainae Historica (13 vols., Rome: Editiones Universitati Catholicae Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, 19641974), especially Vol. IV (1671–1701); Vol. V (1702–1728); and Vol. XI, supplementum (1633–1659).

66 Michael, Lacko, Unio Uzhorodensis Ruthenorum Carpaihicorum cum Ecclesia Catholica. In Orientalia Christiana Analecia, No. 143 (Rome, 1955; 2nd ed., 1965) (xviii, 276 pp.) (full bibliography and 60 documents); Michael, Lacko, “The Union of Užhorod,” Slovak Studies, Vol. VI, Historica, No. 4 (Cleveland and Rome, 1966), pp. 7190 (English translation of the above study which contains no documents); Michael, Lacko, “Die Užhoroder Union,” Ostkirchliche Studien, Vol. VIII, No. 1 (Würzburg, 1959), pp. 330. See also Alexander, Baran, Metropolia Kioviensis et eparchia Mukačoviensis. In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 1, Vol. X (Rome, 1960) (III pp.); Oleksander, Baran, “Cerkva na Zakarpatti v rr. 1665–1691” [The Church in Transcarpathia in the Years 1665–1691], Bohoslovija, Vol. XXXII (Rome, 1968), pp. 77145 and note 41.

67 See the reference to Kolomiec in note 42. Zakarpatskij, D. G., “Pravoslavnoe Mukačevskoe episkopstvo do zaključenija Užgorodskoj unii” [The Orthodox Mukačevo Episcopate up to the Formation of the Union of Užhorod], Ežegodnik Pravoslavnoj cerkvi v Čexoslovakii (Prague, 1968), pp 720; llija, Kačur, Stručný prehl'ad histórie pravoslávnej cirkvi v bývalom Uhorskua v Československu[A Brief Survey of the History of the Orthodox Church in Former Hungary and in Czechoslovakia] (Prešov: Pravoslávna bohoslovecka fakulta, n. d.) (178 pp.); Evhenij, Perfec'kyj, “Uhors'ka Rus'-Ukrajina v peršij polovyni XVII-ho viku” [Hungarian Rus'-Ukraine in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century], Ukrajina, Vol. III–IV (Kiev, 1917) (21 pp.).

68 Volodymyr, Hrabovec'kyj, Antyfeodal'na borot'ba karpats'koho opryškivstva XVI-XIX st. [The Anti-Feudal Struggle of the Carpathian Brigands from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1966) (251 pp.).

69 Antal, Hodinka, Gens fidelissima: II. Rákóczi F. beregmegyei rutén jobbágyai az 1704–1711–i szabadságharczban [Ferenc Rákóczi II's Rusyn Serfs from Bereg Comitat during their Struggle for Freedom] (Ungvar: Unio könyvnyomda részv. társaság, 1915) (29 pp.); Antal, Hodinka, Gens Fidelissima. In Felvidéki tudományos társaság kiadványai, 1st ser., No. 4 (Budapest, 1937) (64 pp.).

70 František, Gabriel, “Poddanské poměry na užhorodském panství ke konci XVII stoleti” [Conditions of the Serfs in the Užhorod Domain toward the End of the Seventeenth Century], Naukovýj zbornyk tovarystva “Prosvîia,” Vol. X (Užhorod, 1934), pp. 153184; František, Gabriel, “Die wirtschaftliche Lage Karpatorusslands von 16. bis 18. Jahrhundert,” Prager Rundschau. Vol. V, No. 2 (Prague, 1935), pp. 99114.

71 See the references to Kolomiec in note 42. See also Mel'nyk, V. M., “Posylennja klasovoji borot'by na Zakarpatti v druhij polovyni XVII i na počatku XVIII st.” [Intensification of the Class Struggle in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Seventeenth and the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXIX (Užhorod, 1957), pp. 3962; Ja. I. Šternberh, “Z istoriji spil'noji borot'by uhors'kyx i ukrajins'kyx seljan pid čas vyzvol'noji vijny 1703–1711 rr.”[From the History of the Joint Struggle of the Hungarian and Ukrainian Peasantry during the 1703–1711 War of Liberation], ibid., Vol. XXXVIII (Užhorod, 1959), pp. 97–120.

72 Andrij, Šaš, “Narys socijal'noji i hospodars'koji istoriji Šenborns'koji latyfundiji Mukačvs'ko-Čynadijevs'koji v peršij polovyni XVIII st.” [Outline of the Social and Economic History of Schönborn's Mukačevo-Čynadijevo Latifundia in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century], Naukovŷj zbornyk tovarystva “Prosvîta,” Vol. IX (Užhorod, 1932), pp. 101134. For documents dealing with serfdom from the Schönborn archives, see Markov, Osip O., “Materijaly dlja socijal'noj istoriji Podkarpatskoj Rusi v XVIII včkě” [Materials on the Social History of Subcarpathian Rus' in the Eighteenth Century], Karpatorusskij sbornik (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 137145.

73 František, Gabriel, “Hospodars'ke položenja podkarp. Rusi na počatku XVIII stolîtja” [The Economic Situation in Subcarpathian Rus' at the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century], Podkarpalska Rus', Vol. X, No. 1–10 (Užhorod, 1933), pp. 227; František, Gabriel, “Pohyb obyvatelstva v bývalé užské župě v prvni polovici 18. stoleti” [The Movement of Population in the Former Ung Comitat in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century], Naukovŷj zbornyk tovarystva “Prosvila,” Vol. XI (Užhorod, 1935), pp. 185231; František, Gabriel, “Selský stav v užhorodskėm komornim panství na sklonku XVIII stoleti” [The Condition of the Peasantry in the Ung Comitat Domain at the Turn of the Eighteenth Century], in Jan, Vondráček (ed.), Sbornik zemské musejní společnosti (Učhorod, 1932), pp. 3357. See also Šul'ha, Illja H., Social'no-ekonomične stanovyšče Zakarpattja v druhij polovyni XVIII st. [Socioeconomic Conditions in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century] (Užhorod: Užhorods'kyj deržavnyj universytet, 1962) (181 pp.). See the reference to Mycjuk in note 38, to Kolomiec in note 42, and to Hodinka in note 57.

74 Petrov, Aleksej L., Pervyj pečatnyj pamjalnik ugro-russkago narěčija. Urbar i inye svjazannye s krest'janskoj Marii Terezy reformoj dokumenty. Tekst i izslědovanie [The First Printed Relic in the Ugro-Russian Dialect: The Urbarium and Other Reform Documents of Maria Theresa related to the Peasantry—the Text and an Analysis], Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj Rusi, Vol. V. In Sbornik oldělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj akademii nauk, Vol. LXXXIV, No. 2 (St. Petersburg, 1908) (139 pp.).

75 Andor, Sas, Egy kárpáti latifundium a hũbéri világ alkonyán: a munkácsi Schönbornuradalom társadalmi és gazdasági viszonyai a XIX. század elsõ felében [One Carpathian Latifundium during the Twilight of the Feudal Order: Social and Economic Conditions on Count Schönborn's Mukačevo Estate in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century] (Bratislava: Czehszlovákiai magyar könyvkiadó, 1955) (136 pp.); Šul'ha, Illja H., Social'no-ekonomični vidnosyny i klasova borot'ba na Zakarpatti v kinci XVIII-peršij polovyni XIX st. [Socioeconomic Relations and the Class Struggle in Transcarpathia at the End of the Eighteenth and the First Half of the Nineteenth Century] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1965) (267 pp.); Endre, Kovács, “Zakarpattja naperedodni buržuaznoji revoljuciji 1848 r.” [Transcarpathia on the Eve of the 1848 Bourgeois Revolution], in Ukrajins'ko-uhors'ki istoryčni zv'jazky (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo “Naukova dumka,” 1964), pp. 229240.

76 Kálmán, Zsatkovics, “Az egri befolyás és az ez ellen vívott harcz a munkácsi görög szertartású egyházmegye történelmében” [The Influence of Eger and the Struggle against this Influence in the History of the Greek Rite Diocese], Századok, Vol. XVIII (Budapest, 1884), pp. 680696, 766–786, and 839–877. A Rusyn translation by Zeedick, Peter I. and Smor, Adalbert M. also appeared: Koloman, Žatkovič, Jagerskoje vl'ijanije:bor'ba protiv toho v istorii mukačevskoj grečeskoho obrjada diocezii (Homestead, Pa.: “Amerikansky Russky Viestnik,” n. d.) (79 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., “Kanoničeskija vizitacija 1750–1767 gg. v varmedjax Zemplinskoj, Šarišskoj, Špišskoj i Abaujskoj” [The Canonical Visits in the Comitats of Zemplén, Sáros, Szepes and Abauj, 1750–1767], Naukovŷj zbornyk tovarystva “Prosvîta.” Vol. III (Užhorod, 1924), pp. 104135.

77 Basil, Boysak, Ecumenism and Manuel Michael Olshavsky, Bishop of Mukachevo, 1743–1767 (Montreal: University of Montreal Faculty of Theology, 1967) (xxii; 223 pp.). See also Michael, Lacko, “The Pastoral Activity of Manuel Michael Olšavsky, Bishop of Mukačevo,” Orientalia Christiana Periodica, Vol. XXVII (Rome, 1961), pp. 150161; and Michael Lacko, “Documenta spectantia regimen episcopi Mukačevensis Michaelis Manuelis Olšavsky, 1743–1767,” ibid., Vol. XXV(Rome, 1959), pp. 53–90(11 documents); and Alexander, Baran (ed.), De Processibus Canonicis Ecclesiae Calholicae Ucrainorum in Transcarpathia ab 1771 usque 1853. In Monumenia Ucrainae Historica (13 vols., Rome: Editiones Universitatis Catholicae Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, 19641974), Vol. XIII (xv, 281 pp.) (29 documents).

78 Eduard, Winter, “Die Kämpfe der Ukrainer Oberungarns um eine nationale Hierarchie im Theresianischen Zeitalter,” Kyrios, Vol. XI (Königsberg, 19391940), pp. 129141; Pekar, Athanasius B., De erectione canonica eparchiae Mukačoviensis (anno 1771). In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 1, Vol. VII (Rome, 1956) (136 pp.).

79 Oleksander, Baran, Jepyskop Andrej Bačyns'kyj i cerkovne vidrodžennja na Zakarpatti [Bishop Andrij Bačyns'kyj and the Religious Revival in Transcarpathia]. In Bibliotheca Logos, Vol. XXXIII (Yorkton, Saskachewan, 1963) (63 pp.); Andrij, Šlepec'kyj, “Mukačivs'kyj jepiskop Andrij Fedorovyč Bačyns'kyj ta joho poslannja” [The Mukačevo Bishop Andrij Fedorovyč Bačyns'kyj and his Epistles], Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. III (Bratislava-Prešov, 1967), pp. 223241 (documents).

80 Sándor, Cziple, A mármarosi püspökség kérdése [The Question of the Bishopric of Máramaros] (Budapest, 1910); Alexander, Baran, Eparchia Maramorosiensis eiusque Unio. In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 1, Vol. XIII (Rome, 1962) (xii, 107 pp.).

81 Petrov, Aleksej L., “Duxovno-polemičeskija sočinenija Iereja Mixaila Orosvigovskago Andrelly protiv katoličestva i unii: Teksty” [The Spiritual-Polemical Works of the Priest Mixail Andrella of Rosvigovo against Catholicism and the Union: Texts], Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj Rusi, Vol. IX (Prague: Nákladem Královské české společnosti nauk, 1932) (viii, 300 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., “‘Staraja věra’ i unija v XVII-XVII vv.” [The “Old Faith” and the Union in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries], Materialy dlja istorii ugorskoj Rusi. Vols. I–II. In Lamanskij, Vladimir I. (ed.), Novyj sbornik statej po slavjanověděniju (St. Petersburg, 1905), pp. 183257, and Sbornik statej posvjaščennyx počitateljami V. I. Lamanskomu, Pt. 2 (St. Petersburg, 1908), pp. 9411028 (documents).

82 Petrov, Aleksej L., “K istorii ‘russkix intrig’ v Ugrii v XVIII veke” [On the History of the “Russian Intrigues” in Hungary in the Eighteenth Century], Karpatorusskij Sbornik (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 123136; Anton V. Florovskij, “Karpatoross I. A. Zejkan—nastavnik imperatora Petra II-go” [The Carpatho-Russian I. A. Zejkan, Tutor of Emperor Peter II], ibid., pp. 112–122; Florovskij, Anton V., “I. A. Zejkan—pedagog iz Zakarpat'ja: stranica iz istorii russko-zakarpatskix kul'turnyx svjazej pri Petre Velikom” [I. A. Zejkan, a Pedagogue from Transcarpathia: A Chapter in the History of Russian-Transcarpathian Cultural Relations during the Reign of Peter the Great], in Russkaja literatura XVIII veka i slavjanskie literatury (Moscow: Akademija nauk SSSR, 1963), pp. 105122; Florovskij, Anton V., “Russo-Austrian Conflicts in the Early Eighteenth Century,” Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. XLVII (London, 1969), pp. 94119.

83 Svěncickij, Ilarion S., Materialy po istorii vozroždenija Karpatskoj Rusi: I. Snošenija Karpatskoj Rusi s Rossiej v l-oj polovině XIX-ago věka [Materials on the History of the National Revival in the Carpathian Rus': I. Relations of Carpathian Rus' with Russia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century] (2 vols., L'viv, 19051909), Vol. I (212 pp.) (documents); Myxajlo, Teršakovec (ed.), “Do istoriji moskofil'stva v Uhors'kij Rusy” [On the History of Muscophilism in Hungarian Rus'], Ukrajins'ko-rus'kyj arxiv Naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, Vol. III (L'viv, 1907), pp. 267285 (6 documents).

84 Tamara, Bajcura, Zakarpatoukrainskaja intelligencija v Rossii v pervoj polovine XIX veka [Transcarpathian Ukrainian Intelligentsia in Russia during the First Half of the Nineteenth Century] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1971) (227 pp. and a full bibliography). See also Tamara, Bajcura's biography of Jurij Ivanovyč Venelin (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1968) (172 pp., full bibliography); and Myxajlo, Lelekač, “Kul'turni zv'jazky Zakarpattja z Ukrajinoju i Rossijeju v XVII-XVIII st.” [The Cultural Relations of Transcarpathia with the Ukraine and Russia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries], Naukovi zapysky. Vol. IX (Užhorod, 1954), pp. 141164; Svěncickij, Ilarion S., “Obzor snošenij Karpatskoj Rusi s Rossiej v l-oj polovine XIX v.” [Survey of the Relations of Carpathian Rus' with Russia in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century], Izvěstija oldělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj akademii nauk. Vol. XI, No. 3 (St. Petersburg, 1906), pp. 257367; Fatěev, Arkadij N., “Akademičeskaja i gosudarstvennaja dejatel'nost' M. A. Baludjanskago v Rossii” [The Academic and Political Activity of M. A. Baludjanskij in Russia], Karpatorusskijsbornik(Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 146208 (reprinted in Izdanie Kul'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 76. Užhorod, 1931) (64 pp.); Lajos, Tardy, Balugyánszky Mihály [Mixail Baludjanskij] (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1954) (256 pp.); Kosačevskaja, Evdokija M., Mixail Andreevič Balug'janskij i Peterburgskij universitet pervoj četverti XIX veka [Mixail Andreevič Baludjanskij and St. Petersburg University during the First Quarter of the Nineteenth Century] (Leningrad: Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo universiteta, 1971) (272 pp.).

85 Vasylij, Hadžega, “Myxayl Lučkaj, žytjepys y tvorŷ” [Myxayl Lučkaj, His Life and Work], Naukovŷj zbornyk tovarystva “Prosvîta,” Vol. VI (Užhorod, 1929), pp. 1128; Ivan Pan'kevyč, “Xto buv Ivan Berežanyn—Myxajlo Lučkaj čy Ivan Fogarašij?” [Who Was Ivan Berežanyn—Myxayl Lučkaj or Ivan Fogarašij?], ibid., Vol. VII-VIII (Užhorod, 1931), pp. 168–188; Vasylij, Hadžega, “Joan Fogarašij,” Podkarpatska Rus', Vol. V, No. 10 (Užhorod, 1928), pp. 207224; Rusak, Julij P. [Julij Gadžega], “Mukačevskaja eparxija i jea bor'ba za prava russkago jazyka i narodnosti vo vremja episkopa Vasilija Popoviča” [The Mukačevo Eparchy and its Struggle for the Russian Language and National Rights during the Era of Bishop Vasilij Popovič], Karpatorusskij sbornik (Učhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 5068.

86 Kemény, Gábor G. (ed.), Iratok a nemzetiségi kérdés történetéhez Magyarországon a dualizmus korában [Documents on the History of the Nationality Question during the Period of Dualism], Vol. I: 1867–1892; Vol. 11: 1892–1900; Vol. III: 1900–1903; Vol. IV: 1903–1906; Vol. V: 1906–1913 (Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 19521971).

87 A magyar korona orszagaiban az 1891. év elején végrehajtott népszámlálás eredményei [Results of the Census taken in the Lands of the Hungarian Crown at the Beginning of 1891), Pt. 1. In Magyar statisztikai közlemények, new ser, Vol. I (Budapest, 1893); A magyar korona országainak 1900 évi népszámlálása [Census of the Population in the Lands of the Hungarian Crown in 1900], 10 parts. In Magyar statisztikai közlemények, new ser., Vols. I, II, V, IX, XI1-XVI, XVIII, and XXVII (Budapest, 19021909); A magyar szent korona országainak 1910 évi népszámlálása [Census of the Population in the Lands of the Hungarian Holy Crown in 1910], 6 parts. In Magyar statisztikai közlemények, new ser., Vols. XLII, XLVIII, LII, LVI, LXI, and LXIV (Budapest, 19121920). See also Pál, Balogh, A népfajok Magyarorszagon [The Races of Hungary] (Budapest: Kiadja a m. kir. vallás és közoktatásudyi ministerium, 1902) (vii, 1, 113 pp.); and the criticism of the above works by S. Tomašivs'kyj in reference 36.

88 József, Perényi, Iz istorii zakarpatskix ukraincev 1849–1914 [On the History of the Transcarpathian Ukrainians (1849–1914)]. In Studia Historica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. XIV (Budapest, 1957) (159 pp.).

89 Kolomiec, Ivan G., Social'no-ékonomičeskie otnošenija i obščestvennoe dviženie v Zakarpat'e vo vtoroj polovine XIX stoletija [Socioeconomic Relations and Social Movement in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century] (2 vols., Tomsk: Izdatel'stvo Tomskogo universiteta, 1962) (404 and 667 pp.) (full bibliography).

90 Ivan, Žeguc, Die nationalpolitischen Bestrebungen der Karpato-Ruthenen 1848–1914. In Veröffentlichungen des Osteuropa-Institutes München, Vol. XXVIII (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1965) (145 pp.) (full bibliography).

91 Mel'nikova, Irina N., “Zakarpatskaja Ukraina v revoliucii 1848 goda” [Transcarpathian Ukraine in the 1848 Revolution], Učenye zapiski Instituta slavjanovedenija, Vol. I (Moscow-Leningrad, 1949), pp. 241292 (reprinted in Prešov by Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx in 1952) (152 pp.); Georgij, Vernadskij, “Ugorskaja Rus' i eja vozroždenie v seredině XIX věka” [Hungarian Rus' and its Revival in the Mid-Nineteenth Century], Golos minuvšago, Vol. III, No. 3 (Moscow, 1915), pp. 517; Mixal, Danylak, Halyc'ki, bukovyns'ki, zakarpats'kiukrajinci v revoljuciji 1848–1849 rokiv [Galician, Bucovinian, and Transcarpathian Ukrainians in the Revolution of 1848—1849] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1972) (216 pp.).

92 On the favorable effect of the Russian military presence, see Panas, I. O., “Karpatorusskie otzvuki russkago poxoda v Vengriju 1849 goda” [The Carpatho-Russian Response to the Russian Campaign in Hungary in 1849], Karpatorusskij sbornik (Užhorod: lzdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 209229.

93 Stepan, Doboš, Adol'f Ivanovič Dobrjanskij: očerk žizni i dejatel'nosti [Adol'f I. Dobrjanskij: A Sketch of His Life and Activities] (Bratislava: Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatury, 1956) (167 pp.); Florian, Zapletal, A. I. Dobrjanskij a naši Rusíni r. 1849–51 [A. I. Dobrjanskij and Our Rusyns, 1849–1851] (Prague, 1927) (96 pp.).

94 L'udovit, Haraksim, “Die Russinen und der Ausgleich,” in Der österreichischungarische Ausgleich 1867 (Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, 1971), pp. 746763; Mykola, Rusynko, “Vyslanstva Rusyniv Uhors'kyx u Vidni 1849 r.” [The Hungarian Rusyn Delegation in Vienna in 1849], Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. VI, Pt. 1 (Bratislava-Prešov, 1972), pp. 6395; Vergun, Dimitrij N., “Opatřeni rakouského ministra Alexandra Bacha k ochromení karpatského obrozeni r. 1849–50 (Na základě nových dokumentů)” [The Measures of Austrian Minister Alexander Bach to paralyze the Carpathian Revival in 1849–50. Based on New Documents], Zapiski naučno-izslědovatel'skago ob'edinenija Russkago svobodnago universiteta, Vol. VIII (Prague, 1938), pp. 227240.

95 Miklós, Bartha, Kazár földön [The Khazar's Land] (Kolozsvár, 1901) (328 pp.) (a Czech edition was published under the title of V zemi Chazarů [In the Land of the Khazars] [Mukačevo: Novotný a Bartošek, 1927] [175 pp.]); Victor, Aradi, “Tanulmányok a nemzetiségi kérdés köréböl” [Studies concerning the Race Question], Huszadik század, Vol. XXVIII (Budapest, 1913), pp. 263276 and 378–391.

96 Edmund, Egan, Ekonomične položenje rus'kyx seljan v Uhorščyni [Economic Conditions of the Rusyn Peasants in Hungary] (L'viv, 1901) (40 pp.) (reprinted in Ukrainian and in Czech under the title Hospodářský Stav rusínských venkovanů v Uhrách [Economic Conditions of the Rusyn Peasants in Hungary] [Prague: Ustředni jed noty hospodářských družstev, 1922] [95 pp.]). See also Frigyes, Paris, Tájékoztató a ruthén actiónál való működésem felől [On My Activities in Regard to the Ruthenian Action] (Budapest, 1904) (54 pp.).

97 Il'ko, Vasyl' I., “Z istoriji obezzemelennja seljan Zakarpattja v druhij polovyni XIX St.” [On the History of the Land Deprivation of the Transcarpathian Peasants in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century], Naukovi zapysky. Vol. XXIX (Užhorod, 1957), pp. 6390; Vasyl' I. Il'ko, “Z istoriji seljans'kyx ruxiv na Zakarpatti v druhij polovyni XIX st.” [On the History of the Peasant Movements in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century], ibid., Vol. XXXVI (1958), pp. 19–29; Vasyl' I. Netočajev, “Z istoriji formuvannja robitnyčoho klasu na Zakarpatti v 2-ij polovyni XIX i na začatku XX st.” [On the History of the Formation of the Working Class in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth and the Beginning of the Twentieth Century], ibid. Vol. XLIII (1960); Mária, Mayer, “A XIX. századvégi kárpátukrán agrárnépesség társadalmi szerkezetének statisztikai abrázolása” [A Statistical Description of the Social Structure of the Carpatho-Ukrainian Peasantry at the End of the Nineteenth Century], Történelmi szemle, Vol. IV, No. 3 (Budapest, 1961), pp. 330346; Smijan, Petro K., Revoljucijnyj la nacional'no-vyzvol'nyj rux na Zakarpatti kincja XIX—počatku XX st. [The Revolutionary and National Liberation Movement in Transcarpathia at the End of the Nineteenth and Beginning of the Twentieth Century] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1968) (209 pp.); II'ko, Vasyl' I., Zakarpats'ke selo na počaiku XX st.: 1900–1919 rr. [The Transcarpathian Village at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1973) (182 pp.).

98 Oleksander, Mycjuk, “Z emihraciji uhro-rusyniv pered svitovoju vijnoju” [On the Emigration of the Uhro-Rusyns before the World War], Naukovyj zbirnyk lovarystva “Prosvîta,” Vol XIII–XIV (Užhorod, 19371938), pp. 2132; Ladislav, Tajtak, “Pereselennja ukrajinciv Sxidnoji Slovaččyny do 1913 r.”[The Emigration of Ukrainians from Eastern Slovakia before 1913], Duktlja, Vol. IX, No. 4 (Prešov, 1961), pp. 97103; Ladislav, Tajtak, “Vychodoslovenské vyst'ahovalectvo do prvej svetovej vojny” [Eastern Slovak Emigration before the First World War], Nové obzory, Vol. III (Prešov, 1961), pp. 221247;Marija, Majer, “Zakarpats'ki ukrajinci na perelomi stolit'” [Transcarpathianc Ukrainians at the Turn of the Century], in Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kul'tura (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 4973.

99 Netočajev, Vasyl'; I., “Kolonial'na polityka uhors'koho buržuaznoho urjadu na Zakarpatti v kinci XIX i na počatku XX st.” [The Colonial Policy of the Hungarian Bourgeois Government in Transcarpathia at the End of the Nineteenth and Beginning of the Twentieth Century], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXXVI (Uzhorod, 1958), pp. 3054; Vasyl'; I. Netočajev, “Zakarpattja naperedodni peršoji svitovoji vijny 1908–1914 rr.” [Transcarpathia on the Eve of the First World War, 1908–1914], ibid, Vol. XXIX (1957), pp. 91–136.

100 Bobrinskij, Vladimir A., Pražskij s'ězd: Čexija i Prikarpatskaja Rus' [The Prague Congress: Bohemia and Carpathian Rus'] (St. Petersburg: Svět, 1909) (127 pp.); Byrnes, Robert F., Pobedonostsev: His Life and Thought (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1968) (xiii, 395 pp.).

101 Svěncickij, Ilarion S., Materialy po istorii vozroždenija Karpatskoj Rusi: II. Karpatorusskoe slavjanofil'slvo. Ugrorusskoe dviženie perioda vozroždenija [Materials on the History of the National Revival in Carpathian Rus': II. Carpatho-Russian Slavophilism. The Ugro-Russian Movement in the Era of Revival], In Naučno-lilerturnyi sbornik Galicko-russkoj maticy za 1908 god, Vol. VI, No. 3–4 (L'viv, 1909) (159 pp.) (documents); Olena, Rudlovčak, “Za zavisoju mynuloho: materijaly do vzajemyn Zakarpattja z Rosijeju” [Beyond the Veil of the Past: Materials on the Relations of Transcarpathia with Russia], Duklja, Vol. XVIII, No. 3–4 (Prešov, 1970), pp. 6067 and 59–68.

102 Konstantin, Beskid, Marmarošský proces: obrázky z bývalého mad'arského ráje. Monstrosniproces v Marmarošské Sihoti [The Méramaros Trial: Scenes from the Former Hungarian Paradise. The Monstrous Trial in Máramaros Sihot] (Xust, 1926) (55 pp.); Miroslav, Grabec, K istorii marmarošskago processa (Dělo 94-x) [On the History of the Máramaros Trial: The Affair of the 94] (Užhorod: Izdanie Karpatorusskoj trudovoj partii, 1934) (56 pp.); József, Rédei, “A rutének vallásos tömegmozgalmai” [The Religious Mass Movements of the Rusyns], Huszadik század, Vol. XXX (Budapest, 1914), pp. 463476;Victor, Aradi, A rutén skizmapör [The Ruthenian Schismatic Controversy]. In Nemzetiségi aktualitások könyvtára, Vol. I (Budapest, 1914) (80 pp.); Gábor, Darás, A Ruténföld elszakitásának elozményei (1890–1920) [On the Eve of the Separation of Ruthenia] (Ujpesf: Vörösmarty irodalmi társaság, 1936) (137 pp.); René, Martel, “Lapolitique slave de la Russie d'avant guerre,” Affairesétrangéres, Vol. VI (Paris, 1936), No. 10, pp. 623634; and Vol. VII (Paris, 1937), No. 1, pp. 58–64; Károly, Gulya, A magyarországi ruthén kérdés 1910–1914 közöt [The Hungarian Rusyn Question, 1910–1914]. In Ada Historica, Vol. XXXI (Szeged, 1968) (20 pp.).

103 Marija, Majer, “Stanovyšče trudjaščyx Zakarpattja v roky peršoji svitovoji vijny” [The Conditions of the Working Class of Transcarpathia in the Years of the First World War], in Ukrajins'ko-uhors'ki istoryˇni zv'jazky (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo “Naukova dumka,” 1964), pp. 217228. See also Jurij, Kačij, “Zv'jazky naselennja Zakarpattja z rosijs'kym vijs'kom v roky peršoji svitovoji vijny” [The Relations of the Inhabitants of Transcarpathia with the Russian Military during the First World War], Arxivy Ukrajiny, No. 6 (Kiev, 1965), pp. 4147.

104 Oleksandr, Duxnovyč, Tvory [Works] (2 vols., Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 19671968)(790 and 733 pp.) (two volumes are still to appear). For a critical analysis of Duxnovyč, see the historical introduction to Vol. I of the above by Olena Rudlovčak; Myxajlo, Ryčalka, O. V. Duxnovyč: pedahoh i osvitnij dijač [O. V. Duxnovyč: Pedagogue and Cultural Leader] (Bratislava: Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatury, 1959) (486 pp.) (full bibliography and documents); Oleksandr Duxnovyč: zbirnyk materijaliv naukovoji konferenciji prysvjaienoji 100 riččju z dnja smerti (1865–1965) [O. Duxnovyč.: Anthology of Materials from the Scholarly Conference dedicated to the Hundredth Anniversary of his Death, 1865–1965] (Presov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1965) (406 pp.) (full bibliography). See also Beskid, Nikolaj A., Duxnoviči [Duxnovyč] (Homestead, Pa.: Izdanie redakcii “Amerikanskogo russkogo věstnika,” 1934) (127 pp.). Hungarian writers have strongly criticized Duxnovyč for his supposed Russophilism. See especially Tivadar, Bacsinszky, Orosz-ruszin kapcsolatok a XIX szazad közepén [Russian-Rusyn Relations in the Mid-Nineteenth Century]. In Literalurno-naukova biblioteka, No. 7 (Užhorod: Vydanja Podkarpatskoho obščestva nauk, 1942) (ii, 108 pp.).

105 Julij, Gadžega, Istorija Obščestva sv. Vasilija Velikago [The History of the Society of St. Basil the Great]. In Izdanie kul'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 15 (Užhorod, 1925) (47 pp.). For a survey of the periodical press, see György, Böör, A Magyarországi időszaki sajtóa XIX században [Periodical Journals of Rusyns in Hungary during the Nineteenth Century] (Kolozsvár: A Ferenc József tudományegyetem történeti intézete, 1943) (53 pp.); and Olena, Rudlovčak, “Do pytanžurnalistyky v ukrajinciv Sxidnoji Slovaččyny,” Duklja, Vol. X, No. 3 (Prešov, 1962), pp. 6469.

106 Francev, Vladimir A., “Iz istorii bor'by za russkij literaturnyj jazyk v Podkarpatskoj Rusi v polovine XIX st.” [On the History of the Struggle for the Russian Literary Language in Subcarpathian Rus' in the Mid-Nineteenth Century], Karpatorusskij sbornik (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1930), pp. 149. See also studies on individual authors by Vergun, Dimitrij N., A. E. Fencik iego město v russkoj literature [A. E. Fencik and his Place in Russian Literature]. In Izdanie kul'turnoprosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 22 (Užhorod, 1926) (22 pp.); Nikolaj A. Beskid, Julij I.Stavrovskij-Popradov. In ibid., No. 50(Užhorod, 1929)(95 pp.); Popov, Aleksander V., Ivan Anlonovič Sil'vaj i Ivan lvanovič Rakovskij: kritikobiografičeskij očerk [Ivan A. Sil'vaj and Ivan I. Rakovskij: A Critical Biographical Survey] (Mukačevo: Izdanie Narodoprosvětitel'noj rady Nižne-Verečanskago okruga, 1929) (48 pp.); Evgenij, Nedzel'skij, “Ivan Antonovič Sil'vaj (Uriil Meteor),” in Sil'vaj, Ivan A., Izbrannye proizvedenija (Bratisjava: Slovackoe izdatel'stvo xudožestvennoj literatury, 1957), pp. 1376; Andrej, Šlepeckij, “Tvorčeskoe nasledie Aleksandra Pavloviča” [The Creative Legacy of Aleksander Pavlovič], Sborník pedagogickej fakulty univerzity P. J. Šafárika v Prešove, Vol. IV, No. 2 (Bratislava, 1965), pp. 4196 (full bibliography). See also reference 104.

107 Anatolij, Kralickij, “O sovremennom položenii russkix v Ugrii” [On the Present Situation of the Russians in Hungary], Slavjanskij sbornik, Vol. 1 (St. Petersburg, 1875), pp. 4454; Dobrjanskij, Adol'f I., O sovremennom religiozno-političeskom položenii avstro-ugorskoj Rusi [On the Present Religious and Political Situation in Austro-Hungarian Rus'] (Moscow, 1885) (52 pp.); Sil'vaj, Ivan A. (Uriil Meteor), Izbrannye proizvedenija [Selected Works] (Bratislava: Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatury, 1957) (410 pp.).

108 The Russophile viewpoint is presented in Vladimir, Terleckij, Ugorskaja Rus' i vozroždenie soznanija narodnosti meždu russkimi v Vengrii [Hungarian Rus' and the Renaissance of National Consciousness among the Russians of Hungary] (Kiev, 1874) (52 pp.); Liprandi, A. P., “Zabytyj ugolok Russkoj zemli: Ugorskaja Rus'” [A Forgotten Corner of the Russian Land: Hungarian Rus'], Russkaja beseda, Vol. 11, No. 4 (St. Petersburg, 1896), pp. 7494; “Nacional'noe dviženie v Ugorskoj Rusi” [The National Movement in Hungarian Rus'], Galicko-russkij véstnik, Vol. 1, No. 1 (St. Petersburg, 1894), pp. 1924; Putnik, [Francev, Vladimir A.], “Sovremennoesostojanie Ugorskoj Rusi” [The Present Condition of Hungarian Rus'], Russkij véstnik, Vol. CCLXV (Moscow, 1900), pp. 628655; Francev, Vladimir A., “Iz époxi vozroždenija Ugorskoj Rusi” [From the Period of Awakening in Hungarian Rus'], Naučno-literalurnyj sbornik Galickorusskoj maticy. Vol. I, No. 1 (L'viv, 1902), pp. 114; Petrov, Aleksej L., Obétnografičeskojgranicé russkago naroda v Avstro-Ugrii, o somnitel'noj ‘vengerskoj'nacii i o nedélimosti Ugrii [On the Ethnographic Boundary of the Russian People in Austria-Hungary; on the Dubiousness of a “Hungarian Nation” and the Indivisibility of Hungary] (Petrograd, 1915) (46 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., Mad'jarskaja gegemonija v Ugrii (Vengrii) i Ugorskaja Rus' [The Hungarian Hegemony in Hungary and Hungarian Rus'] (Grad sv. Petra, 1915) (24 pp.) (originally published in Slavjanskoe obozrěni, Nos. 4 and 5–6 [St. Petersburg, 1892], pp. 567572 and 160–172). The Ukrainophile viewpoint is found in Vasyl', Lukyč, Uhors'ka Rus'Jey rozv^jy teperišnij stan [Hungarian Rus', Its Development and Present State] (L'viv, 1887) (30 pp.); Ivan, Franko and Volodymyr, Hnatjuk, “I my v Jevropi: protest halyc'kyx rusyniv proty madjars'koho tysjačolittja” [We are also in Europe: A Protest by Galician Rusyns against the Hungarian Millennium], Žytja islovo, Vol. V, No. I (L'viv, 1896), pp. 19; Volodymyr Hnatjuk, “Uhrorus'ka mizerija” [Uhro-Rusyn Misery], ibid., Vol. VI, No. 1 (1897), pp. 46–62. Perhaps the most penetrating contemporary analysis was offered by the Ukrainian publicist Myxajlo, Drahomanov in his “Les paysans russo-oukrainiens sous les libéraux hongrois,” Le Travailleur, Vol. I, No. 4 (Paris, 1887); Myxajlo, Drahomanov, Spravy Uhors'koj Rusy [Reporls from Hungarian Rus'] (L'viv, 1895) (15 pp.) (originally in Narod [L'viv, 1895]); Myxajlo, Drahomanov, Avstro-rus'ki spomyny: 1867–1877 (Austro-Rusyn Memoirs] (L'viv, 18891892) (456 pp.) (reprinted in Myxajlo P. Drahomanov: literaturno-publicystyčni praci [2 vols., Kiev: Vydavnyctvo “Naukova dumka,” 1970], Vol. II, pp. 151–288). See also references 32, 33, and 36.

109 Kyrylo, Studyns'kyj, “Aleksander Duxnovyč i Halyčyna: studija” [Aleksander Duxnovyč and Galicia: A Study], Naukovŷj zbornyk tovaryslva “Prosvita,” Vol. III (Užhorod, 1924), pp. 28103; Michal, Danilák, “Styky haličských a zakarpatských Ukrajincov v 2. polovici XIX. storičia” [Relations between Galician and Transcarpathian Ukrainians in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century], in Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kui'tura (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 3548; Jurij, Bača, “Učast' zakarpats'kyx ukrajinciv u dyskusiji pro šljaxy rozvytku literatury v zaxidnyx zemljax Ukrajiny v kinci 40-x i na počatku 50-x rr. XIX stolittja” [The Participation of Transcarpathian Ukrainians in the Discussion on the Direction of the Development of Literature in the Western Lands of the Ukraine at the End of the_1840's and Beginning of the 1850's], Sbomik filozofickej fakulty univerzity Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Prešove, Vol. 1 (Bratislava, 1960), pp. 4865; Helena Rudlovčaková, “K otázkam vzájomnych kultúrnych stykov. Slovákov a zakarpatských Ukrajincov v polovici minulého storočia” [On the Question of Mutual Cultural Relations between Slovaks and Transcarpathian Ukrainians around the Middle of the Last Century], ibid.*****, Vol. V (1965), pp. 149–165; Rot, A., “Prokul'turni zv'jazky čexiv i slovakiv iz zakarpats'kymy ukrajincjamy” [On the Cultural Relations of Czechs and Slovaks with Transcarpathian Ukrainians], in Z istoriji čexoslovac'ko-ukrajins'kyx zv'jazkiv (Bratislava: Vydatel'stvo Slovenskej akadémie vied, 1959), pp. 307342;Myxajlo, Mol'nar, Slovaky i ukrajinci: pryčynky do slovac'koukrajins'kyx lileraturnyx vzajemyn z dodatkom dokumemiv [Slovaks and Ukrainians: Materials on Slovak-Ukrainian Literary Relations. With an Appendix of Documents] (Bratislava-Presov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1965) (404 pp.) (documents).

110 Avhustyn, Vološyn, Spomynŷ [Memoirs]. In Knyžky Rusyna, No. 10 (Užhorod, 1923) (95 pp.); Avhustyn, Vološyn, “Oborona kyrylyky: jak oboronjalysja pidkarp. rusyn proty ostann'oho ataku madjaryzaciji pered perevorotom?” [The Defense of the Cyrillic Alphabet: How the Subcarpathian Rusyns struggled against the Last Attack of “Magyarization” before the Revolution], Naukovyj zbirnyk tovarystva “Prosvita,” Vol. XIII–XIV (Uzhorod, 1937), pp. 85117; Mária, Mayer, “Beitráge zur Geschichte der Ruthenen (Karpatoukrainer) um die Jahrhundertwende,” Ada Historica Academiae Sciemjarum Hungaricae, Vol. XIX, No. 1–2 (Budapest, 1973), pp. 115150.

111 Československá statistika—La statistique tchécoslovaque (180 vols., 17 series, Prague, 19221948). Of the seventeen series, the most pertinent are: I. Elections; II. Education; VI. Population Census; VII. Public Finance; XII. Agriculture; XIV. Movement of the Population.

112 Macartney, Carlile A., “Ruthenia,” in his Hungary and Her Successors: The Treaty of Trianon and its Consequences, 1919–1937 (London: Oxford University Press, 1937), pp. 200250.

113 René, Martel, La Ruthénie subcarpathique (Paris: Paul Hartmann, 1935) (188 pp.).

114 Oscar, Jászi, “The Problem of Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia,” in Kerner, Robert J.(ed.), Czechoslovakia (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1940), pp. 193215; Augustin, Vološin, “Carpathian Ruthenia,” The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. XIII (London, 1935), pp. 372378. See also Zdeněk, Peška, “Podkarpatská Rus” [Subcarpathian Rus'], in Slovnik veřejného práva Československého (5 vols., Brno: Polygrafia-Rudolf M. Rohrer, 19291948), Vol. III, pp. 107115.

115 Hanak, Walter K., The Subcarpathian Ruthenian Question, 1918–1945 (Munhall, Pa.: Bishop Basil Takach Carpathian-Russian Historical Society, 1962) (48 pp.).

116 Jan, Brandejs, “Vývoj politických poměrů na Podkarpatské Rusi v období 1918–1935” [Political Developments in Subcarpathian Rus’ between 1918 and 1935], in Jaroslav, Zatloukal (ed.), Podkarpatská Rus (Bratislava:. Klub přátel Podkarpatské Rusi, 1936), pp. 7288; Oleksandr, Badan, “Klasy ta partiji na Zakarpats'kij Ukrajini” [Classes and Parties in Transcarpathian Ukraine], Prapor marksyzmu, Vol. II, No. 3 (Xarkiv, 1928), pp. 208233. Each party and faction had its own newspaper. These newspapers are valuable indicators of party policy. For a complete list of newspapers and their party affiliates, see the reference to the Žyvotko bibliography in note 20.

117 Petr, Hatalák, Jak vznikla myšlenka připojiti Podkarpatskou Rus k Československu [How the Idea arose to unite Subcarpathian Rus' with Czechoslovakia] (Užhorod: Státnítiskárna, 1935) (38 pp.); Mamatey, Victor S., “The Slovaks and Carpatho-Ruthenians,” in O'Grady, Joseph P. (ed.), The Immigrants' Influence on Wilson's Peace Policies (Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), pp. 224249; Joseph, Danko, “Plebiscite of Carpatho-Ruthenians in the United States recommending Union of Carpatho-Ruthenia with the Czechoslovak Republic,” Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. XI, No. 1–2 (New York, 19641968), pp. 184207 (6 documents); Magocsi, Paul R., “The Political Activity of Rusyn-American Immigrants in 1918,” East European Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 2 (Boulder, Colorado, 1976). See also the earlier unsigned article, “Podkarpatšti Rusíni v Americe pred v´lkou a za války” [Subcarpathian Rusyns in America before and during the War], Naše revoluce, Vol. IV (Prague, 19261927), pp. 267279.

118 Žatkovič, Gregory I., Exposé byvšeho gubernatora Podkarpatskoj Rusi, Podkarpatskoj Rusi [Exposé of the Former Governor of Subcarpathian Rus' on Subcarpathian Rus'] (Homestead, Pa.: Rusin Information Bureau, 1921) (43 pp.); Masaryk, Tom'š G., The Making of a State: Memories and Observations, 1914–1918 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1927) (518 pp.).

119 Czechoslovak, Delegation, Mémoire No. 6: Problem of the Ruthenians of Hungary (Paris, 1919) (13 pp.) (reprinted, together with other Czechoslovak memoranda, in “La documentation internationale,” La Paixde Versailles, Vol. IX: Questions territoriales, Pt. 1 [Paris: Les éditions Internationales, 1939], pp. 2–153). For a Czechoslovak view of the Peace Conference, together with texts of Beneš' proposals on Subcarpathian Rus', see Miller, David Hunter, My Diary at the Conference of Paris (21 vols., New York, 1924), especially Vols. IV, XIII, XIV, and XVII.

120 Magocsi, Paul R., “The Subcarpathian Ruthenian Decision to unite with Czechoslovakia,” Slavic Review, Vol. XXXIV, No. 1 (Seattle, Wash., 1975); Julij, Rusak [Julij Gadžega], Vospominanija [Memoirs] (Užhorod, 1938) (111 pp.). The little-known developments in Jasinja and the surrounding Hucul region are discussed by Avhustyn, Stefan in Ukrajins'ke vijs'ko v Zakarpatti [The Ukrainian Military in Transcarpathia] (Toronto and New York: “Visti Kombatanta,” 1969) (28 pp.). Independence in Jasinja is also the subject of a novel by Kuděj, Zdeněk M., Horalská republika: roman z Podkarpalské Rusi [The Mountainous Republic: A Novel about Subcarpathian Rus'] (Prague: “Sfinx” Bohumil Janda, 1932) (327 pp.).

121 Ortoskop, [Myxajlo, Tvorydlo], Deržavni zmahannja Prykarpats'koji Ukrajiny [Subcarpathian Ukraine's Aspirations for Sovereignty] (Vienna: Vydavnyctvo “Nova Hromada,” 1924) (39 pp.); Zdeněk, Peška and Josef, Markov, “Přspěvek k ústavnímdéjinám Podkarpatské Rusi” [A Contribution to the Constitutional History of Subcarpathian Rus'], Bratislava, Vol. IV–V (Bratislava, 19301931), pp. 419422 and 511–535. See also Protokoly obščago sobranija podkarpatskix russkix rad i pervyx 5-tizasědanij Cemral'noj Russkoj Narodnoj Rady [Protocols of the General Meeting of Subcarpathian Russian Councils and the First Five Sessions of the Central Russian National Council] (Užhorod: Akcijnoe tovaristvo “Unio,” 1919) (20 pp.).

122 Trojan, Myxajlo V., “Ustanovlennja radjans'koji vlady na Zakarpatti ta borot'ba zajiji zmicnennja v 1919 r.” [The Establishment of Soviet Rule in Transcarpathia and the Struggle for its Consolidation in 1919], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXXVI (Užhorod, 1958), pp. 5570; Spivak, Borys I. and Trojan, Myxajlo V., 40 nezabuinix dniv: z istoriji borot'by za vladu Rad na Zakarpaui v 1919 rod [Forty Unforgettable Days: On the Struggle for Soviet Rule in Transcarpathia in 1919] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1967) (117 pp.). For a western survey of the Soviet period, see Balogh, Eva S., “Nationality Problems of the Hungarian Soviet Republic,” in Ivan, Völgyes (ed.), Hungary in Revolution,.1918–1919 (Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press, 1971), pp. 89120. Documentary material can be found in Šljaxom Žovtnja: zbirnyk dokumentiv [On the Road to October: A Collection of Documents], Vol. 1: 1917–1923 (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1957) (555 pp.) (316 documents); and Pid praporom Velykoho Zovtnja: borol'ba trudjaščyx Zakarpattja za Radjans'ku vladu v 1919 r.: zbirnyk dokumentiv [Under the Banner of the Great October: The Struggle of the Workers of Transcarpathia for Soviet Rule in 1919. A Collection of Documents] (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1959) (208 pp.) (156 documents).

123 Usenko, Vitalij V., Vplyv Velykoji žovtnevoji socialistyčnoji revoljuciji na rozvytok revoljucijnoho ruxu v Zakarpaui v 1917–1919 rr. [The Influence of the Great October Socialist Revolution on the Development of the Revolutionary Movement in Transcarpathia in 1917–1919] (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo Akademiji nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 1955) (196 pp.); Smijan, Petro K., Žovtneva revoljucija i Zakarpattja: 1917–1919 rr. [The October Revolution and Transcarpathia, 1917–1919] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1972) (167 pp.); Vasyl', Netočajev and Myxajlo, Lelekač, “Z istoriji borot'by za vladu Rad i proty intervenciji SSA ta Antanty na Zakarpatti v 1918–1919 rr.” [On the History of the Struggle for Soviet Rule and against the Intervention of the United States and the Entente in Transcarpathia, 1918–1919], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. IX (Užhorod, 1954), pp. 261322; Klympotjuk, Mykola N., Pidstupy amerykans'kyx imperjalistiv na Zakarpatti [The Machinations of American Imperialists in Transcarpathia] (Užhorod, 1952) (72 pp.).

124 Mel'nikova, Irina N., “Kak byla vkljuˇena Zakarpatskaja Ukraina v sostav Čexoslovakii v 1919 g.” [How the Transcarpathian Ukraine was incorporated into Czechoslovakia in 1919], Učenye zapiski Institm slavjanovedenija, Vol. III (Moscow, 1951), pp. 104135; Irina N. Mel'nikova, “Ustanovlenie diktatury českoj imperialističeskoj buržuazii v Zakarpatskoj Ukraine v 1919–1920 gg.” [The Establishment of the Dictatorship of the Czech Imperialist Bourgeoisie in the Transcarpathian Ukraine, 1919–1920], ibid., Vol. IV (1951), pp. 84–114; Baženova, N. P., “Z istoriji borot'by trudjaščyx Zakarpattja proty inozemnoji vojennoji okupaciji v 1919–1920 rr.” [On the History of the Struggle of the Workers of Transcarpathia against Foreign Military Occupation in 1919–1920], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXIX (Užhorod, 1957), pp. 137163. Though literary in nature, an excellent description of conditions during the initial years of the Czechoslovak administration can be found in the novel by Ivan, Olbracht, Nikola Šuhaj loupeŽnik (Prague: “Sfinx” Bohumil Janda, 1933) (282 pp.) (French, German, and English translations are available) (225 pp.).

125 Magocsi, Paul R., “The Development of National Consciousness in Subcarpathian Rus', 1918–1945” (unpublished doctoral dissertation, Princeton University, 1972) (xx, 394 pp.) (full bibliography); Magocsi, Paul R., “The Role of Education in the Formation of a National Consciousness,” East European Quarterly, Vol. VII, No. 2 (Boulder, Colo., 1973), pp. 159165.

126 See the reference to Augustin Stefan in note 49. See also Jurij, Boržava [Sevastijan, Sabol], Vid Uhors'koji Rusy do Karpats'koji Ukrajiny [From Hungarian Rus'; to Carpatho-Ukraine] (Philadelphia, Pa.: Vydavnyctvo “Karpats'kyj Holos,” 1956) (56 pp.); Jaroslav, Orshan-Tschemerynsky, Karpathen-Ukraine (New York: Ukrainian Press Service, 1938) (67 pp.); Danko, M., “Comment I'Ukraine subcarpathique lutte pour son émancipation,” Voix despeuples, Vol. V, No. 3 (Geneva, 1938), pp. 187192; and Vincent, Shandor, “Carpatho-Ukraine in the International Bargaining of 1918–1939,” The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 3 (New York, 1954), pp. 235246.

127 Oleksandr, Badan, “Nacional'ne pytannja na Zakarpats'kij Ukrajini” [The Nationality Question in the Transcarpathian Ukraine], Červonyj šljax. Vol. VI, No. 1 (Xarkiv, 1928), pp. 130150.

128 Iosif, Kaminskij, Nacional'noe samosoznanie našego naroda [The National Selfconsciousness of Our People]. In Izdanie kui'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 13 (Užhorod, 1925) (11 pp.); Popov, Aleksander V. (ed.), Karpatorusskija dostiženija [Carpatho-Russian Achievements] (Mukačevo, 1930) (303 pp.). See also note 34.

129 For the Russophile interpretation, see Gus'naj, Igor I., Jazykovyj vopros v Podkarpatskoj Rusi [The Language Question in Subcarpathian Rus'] (Prešov, 1921) (32 pp.); and Zorkij, N., Spor ojazykě v Podkarpatskoj Rusi i Ceškaja akademija nauk. Kakosvědomljaet dr. Ivan Pan'kevič češkuju publiku o našix jazykovyx dělax [The Dispute about Language in Subcarpathian Rus' and the Czech Academy of Sciences: How Dr. Ivan Pan'kevyč informs the Czech Public about Our Language Matters] (Užhorod, 1926) (80 pp.). For the Ukrainophile viewpoint, see Avhustyn, Vološyn, Opys'mennom jazŷci podkarpatskyx rusynov [On the Literary Language of the Subcarpathian Rusyns]. In Vydavnyclvo tovarystva “Prosvila,” No. 1 (Užhorod, 1921) (42 pp.); Za ridne slovo: polemika z rusofllamy [For the Mother Tongue: A Polemic with the Russophiles], Pt. 1 (Mukačevo: Učytel's'ka Hromada, 1937) (116 pp.); Jižak, , Ukrajinec čy russkij? Lekcijidlja naroda [Ukrainian or Russian? Lectures for the People] (Mukačevo: Učytel's'ka hromada, 1938) (87 pp.).

130 Georgij, Gerovskij, “Jazyk Podkarpatské Rusi” [The Language of Subcarpathian Rus'], in Československá vlastive'da (10 vols., Prague: “Sfinx” Bohumil Janda, 19291934), Vol. III, pp. 460517; František, Tichy, Vývoj současného spisovného jazyka na Podkarpatské Rusi [The Development of the Contemporary Literary Language in Subcarpathian Rus']. In Knihovna sboru pro výzkum Slovenska a Podkarpatské Rusi, No. 11 (Prague: Orbis, 1938) (xii, 215 pp. and 10 facsimiles). On Rusyn dialects in eastern Slovakia, see Georgij, Gerovskij, “Narodnaja reč Prjaševščiny” [The National Speech of the Prešov Region], in Šlepeckij, Ivan S. (ed.), Prjaševščina (Prague: Xutor, 1948), pp. 94144.

131 Mykola, Stec', Literaturna mova ukrajinciv Zakarpattja i Sxidnoji Slovaččyny pislja 1918 [The Literary Language of the Ukrainians of Transcarpathia and Eastern Slovakia after 1918]. In Pedahohičnyj Zbirnyk, No. 1: Serija movoznavča (Bratislava: Slovac'ke pedahohnčne vydavnyctvo, 1969) (171 pp.) (full bibliography). On orthography, see Mykola, Štec', “Rozvytok ukrajins'koho pravopysu na Zakarpatti i v Sxidnij Slovaččyni” [The Development of the Ukrainian Script in Transcarpathia and in Eastern Slovakia], Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. IV, Pt. 1 (Prešov, 1969), pp. 279292.

132 Olena, Pažur, Bibliohrafija pro doslidžennja ukrajins'kyx hovoriv Sxidnoji Slovaččyny [Bibliography for Research on the Ukrainian Dialects of Eastern Slovakia] (Prešov: Deržavna naukova biblioteka, 1972) (60 pp.); Ivan, Pan'kevyč, Ukrajins'kihovory Pidkarpats'koji Rusy i sumežnyx oblastej [The Ukrainian Dialects of Subcarpathian Rus' and Adjacent Territories]. In Knihovna sboru pro výzkum Slovenska a Podkarpatské Rusi, No. 9 (Prague: Orbis, 1938)(xxxiii, 549 pp.); Ivan, Pan'kevyč, Narys istoriji ukrajins'kyx zakarpats'kyx hovoriv: Foneiyka [Historical Outline of the Transcarpathian Ukrainian Dialects: Phonetics]. In Acta Universitatis Carolinae—Philologica, Vol. I (Prague, 1958) (131 pp.). For full bibliographies and other articles on his work, see the special volume dedicated to Pan'kevyč: Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. IV, Pt. 1–2 (Prešov, 19691970) (267 and 219 pp.); Dzendzelivs'kyj, Josyf O., Unhvistyčnyj atlas ukrajins'kyx narodnyx hovoriv Zakarpats'koji oblasti URSR (Leksyka) [Linguistic Atlas of the Ukrainian Folk Dialects of the Transcarpathian Province: Vocabulary], Pt. 1. In Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XXXIV (Užhorod, 1958) (16 pp. and 133 maps); and Pt. 2. In Naukovi zapysky, Vol. XLII (Užhorod, 1960) (10 pp. and 166 maps) (full bibliography); Dzendzelivs'kyj, Josyf O., “Stan i problemy doslidžennja ukrajins'kyx hovoriv Zakarpats'koji oblasti URSR ta Sxidnoji Slovaččyny” [The Status and Problems of Research of the Ukrainian Dialects in the Transcarpathian Province of the UkrSSR and in Eastern Slovakia], Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kul'lura (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968) pp. 255283; and Laslo, D`ze, Očerki po isiorii zakarpatskix govorov [Essays on the History of the Transcarpathian Dialects] (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1967) (306 pp.) (full bibliography).

133 Parti politique ruthène de la Hongrie, Aide-mémoire adressé aux puissances alliées et associées (Vienna, 1919) (18 pp.) (reprinted with other pertinent documents in The Hungarian Peace Negotiations: An Account of the Work of the Hungarian Peace Delegation at Neuilly S/S.from January to March 1920, Vol. 1 [Budapest, 1921], pp. 458–492); Étienne de, Csáky, La question ruthène. In Questions de l'Europe orientale, No. 7 (Budapest-Paris: Ferdinand Pfeiffer and H. le Soudier, 1920) (35 pp.); La situation des minorités en Slovaquie el en Russie-Subcarpathique: Mémoire à la Société des Nations (Berlin: Carl Heymanns Verlag, 1923) (67 pp.); Ákos, Árky, A Ruszinszkói magyarság és Ruszinszkó autonomiája [Ruthenia's Hungarianism and Ruthenia's Autonomy] (Budapest, 1928) (19 pp.); Ákos, Árky, Ruszinszkó küzdelme az autonómiáért 1918–1927 [Ruthenia's Struggle for Autonomy, 1918–1927] (Budapest: A “Studium” kiadása, 1928) (55 pp.); György, Oláh, Jajkiáltás a Rutenföldröl [Cry of Anguish from Ruthenia] (Budapest: A magyar nemzeti szövetség kiadása, 1928) (62 pp.); Albert, Bereghy, Ruthén kérdés és az integritás [The Ruthenian Problem and Integrity] (Budapest, 1933) (51 pp.); Aldo, Dami, Les nouveaux martyrs: destin des minorités (Paris: Fernand Sorlot, 1936) (277 pp.); József, Illés, A Ruszinszkói kérdés [The Question of Ruthenia]. In Az Országos nemzeti klub kiadványai. No. 26 (Budapest, 1939) (20 pp.).

134 Hokky, Charles J., Ruthenia, Spearhead toward the West (Gainesville, Fla.: Danubian Research and Information Center, 1966) (78 pp.).

135 Ernst, Flachbarth, “Die volker- und staatsrechtliche Lage Karpatorusslands,” Nation und Staat, Vol. II (Vienna, 1928), pp. 228235; Philip, Paneth, Umbruch im Oslen: ein Tatsachenbericht aus Karpatorussland (Vienna: Renaissance Verlag, 1937); Félix de, Gerando, Le complot rouge en Ruthénie (Paris: Jouve et Cie., 1930) (125 pp.); Antoine, Scrimali, La Ruthénie subcarpathique et I'état tchécoslovaque (Paris: La Technique du Livre, 1938) (94 pp.); Zygmunt, Zawadowski, Ruś Podkarpalcka i jej stanowisko prawnopolityczne [Subcarpathian Rus' and its Legal-Political Status] (Warsaw: Zaktady graficzne Straszewiczów, 1931) (79 pp.).

136 Štefan, Fano, “Protičeskoslovenské ostrie pol'sko-mad'arského zbližovania v rokoch 1934–1936” [The Anti-Czechoslovak Aspect of the 1934–36 Polish-Hungarian Rapprochement], Slovanský přehled. Vol. LVI, No. 5 (Prague, 1970), pp. 342347; Štefan, Fano, “Zakarpatská Ukrajina v politike súsedov a fašistických mocnosti 1933–1939” [Transcarpathian Ukraine in the Policy of the Neighboring and Fascist Powers] (habilitation thesis) (Bratislava: Ústav dejín európskych socialistických krajín Slovenskej akadémie vied, 1971) (vii, 291 pp.). See also the earlier polemic, László, Balogh-Beéry, A magyar-Iengyel közös határ és a ruthén terület [The Hungarian-Polish Common Border and the Rusyn Territory]. In Magyar-Iengyel közlemények, No. 2 (Budapest, 1936) (63 pp.).

137 See note 118.

138 See Michael, Yuhasz, Wilson's Principles in Czechoslovak Practice: The Situation of the Carpatho-Russian People under the Czech Yoke (Homestead, Pa., 1929) (61 pp.).

139 Ministre des affaires étrangères de la République tchéchoslovaque, Mémoire concernant la Russie subcarpathique: territoire rulhène du sud des Carpathes (Prague, 1921) (39 pp.); La Russie subcarpathique au point de vue de la question des nationalités (Prague, 1922) (23 pp.). For a list of the protests to the League of Nations and the Czech responses, see the Dami reference in note 47 (pp. 231–232).

140 Eduard, Beneš, Exposé sur le problème de la Russie subcarpathique et son rapport à la République tchécoslovaque (Prague, 1934) (60 pp.). Czech, Ukrainian, and Russian editions are available.

141 Těsnopiseckě zprávy o schůzích poslanecké sněmovny Národniho shromážděni republiky Československé [Stenographic Protocols of the Sessions of the House of Deputies in the National Parliament of the Czechoslovak Republic] (45 vols., Prague, 19201938);Těsnopisecké zprávy o schůzích Senátu Národního schromáždění republiky Ceskoslovenské [Stenographic Protocols of the Sessions of the Senate in the National Parliament of the Czechoslovak Republic] (29 vols., Prague, 19201937);Tisky k těsnopiseckým zprávám o schůzích poslanecké sněmovny Národního shromážděni republiky Československé [Publications annexed to the Stenographic Protocols of the Sessions of the House of Deputìes in the National Parliament of the Czechoslovak Republic] (67 vols., Prague, 19201938);Tisky k těsnopiseckým zprávam o schůzích Senátu Národního shromáždéni republiky Československé [Publications annexed to the Stenographic Protocols of the Sessions of the Senate in the National Parliament of the Czechoslovak Republic] (32 vols., Prague, 19201938). Unfortunately no index is provided for any of the series. Several speeches by Communist members of parliament can be found in Šljaxom Žovtnja; promovy ta interpeljaciji depulativ-komunisliv u čexoslovac'komu parlamenti pro Zakarpats'ku Ukrajinu, 1921–1938 rr. [On the Road to October: Speeches and Inquiries of the Communist Representatives in the Czechoslovak Parliament about Transcarpathian Ukraine, 1921–1938] (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1959) (619 pp.) (138 documents).

142 Iosif, Kaminskij, Zakonoproekt ob avtonomii Podkarpatskoj Rusi [Law Project for an Autonomous Subcarpathian Rus'] (Užhorod, 1931) (33 pp.); Zakonoproekt Central'noj Russkoj Narodnoj Rady o konstitucii avtonomnoj Podkarpalskoj Rusi [Law Project of the Central Russian National Council for the Constitution of an Autonomous Subcarpathian Rus'] (Užhorod, 1937) (48 pp.); Petr, Sova, Zakonoproekt ob avtonomii Podkarpalskoj Rusi [Law Project for an Autonomous Subcarpathian Rus'] (Užhorod: Komissija Republikanskoj zemleděl'českoj partii, 1938) (13 pp.); Zdeněk, Pěska, Novézř´zení Podkarpatské Rusi [The New Constitution of Subcarpathian Rus']. In Národnostni otázky. No. 13 (Prague: Orbis, 1938) (25 pp.).

143 Hans, Ballreich, Karpathenrussland: ein Kapitel tschechischen Nationalitätenrechts und tschechischer Nationalitätenpolitik (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1938) (104 pp.). See also Ladislav, Suško, “Rokovania o autonómii Zakarpatskej Ukrajiny od roku 1936 do leta 1938” [The Debate about Autonomy for Transcarpathian Ukrainia from 1936 to the Summer of 1938], Nové obzory, Vol. XV (Prešov, 1973), pp. 3359.

144 Oleksandr, Baran, “Podil Mukačivs'koji Eparxiji v XIX storičči” [The Partition of the Mukačevo Diocese in the Nineteenth Century], Analecta Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 2, Vol. IV (Rome, 1963), pp. 534569; Duxnovyć, Aleksander V., lstorija prjaševskoj eparxii [A History of the Prešov Eparchy] (St. Petersburg: Izdanie peterburgskago otděla slavjanskago komiteta, 1877) (102 pp.) (reprinted in Oleksandr Duxnovyič, Tvory [Works] (2 vols., Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1967], Vol. II, pp. 451–528) (translated and annotated by Athanasius, Pekar, The History of the Eparchy of Prjašev. In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 1, Vol. XXV (2nd ed., Rome, 1971) (viii, 102 pp.).

145 Petrov, Aleksej L., Preděly ugrorusskoj rěči v 1775 g. po official'nym dannym. Izsledovanie i karty [The Boundaries of Ugro-Russian Speech in 1773 according to Official Data. Research and Maps], Materialy dlja isiorii ugorskoj Rusi, Vol. VI, Pt. 1. In Zapiski istoričeskago-filologičeskago fakul'tela Imperatorskago Sankt-Peterburgskago universiteta, Vol. CV (St. Petersburg, 1911)(x, 337 pp.); and Pt. 2. In Sbornik oidělenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperatorskoj akademii nauk, Vol. LXXXVI (St. Petersburg, 1909) (6 pp. and 7 maps); Petrov, Aleksej L., Národopisná mapa Uher podle úředního Lexikonu osad z roku 1773 [Ethnographic Map of Hungary according to the Lexicon of Settlements in the Year 1773] (Prague, 1924) (139 pp.); Petrov, Aleksej L., “Kotázce slovensko-ruské etnografické hranice” [On the Question of the Slovak-Russian Ethnographic Boundary], Česká revue, Vol. XVI (Prague, 1923), pp. 115119 and 234–243; Aleksej L. Petrov, “Národnostní hranice Slováků a Karpatorusů mezi sebou a smad'ary v XVIII st. podle současných archivních údajiů [The National Boundary between Slovaks and Carpatho-Russians and between them and the Hungarians in the Eighteenth Century according to Contemporary Archival Data], ibid., Vol. XVII (1924), pp. 82–89; Hnatjuk, Volodymyr, “Rusyny Prjašivs'koji eparxiji i jix hovory” [Rusyns of the Prešov Diocese and Their Dialects], Zapysky naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, Vol. XXXV-XXXVI, No. 3–4 (L'viv, 1900), pp. 170; Volodymyr Hnatjuk, “Slovakyčy rusyny? (Pryčynok do vyjasnenja sporu pro nacional'nist' zaxidnyx rusyniv)” [Slovaks or Rusyns: A Contribution to the Explanation of the Argument on the Nationality of the Western Rusyns], ibid., Vol. XLII, No. 4 (L'viv, 1901), pp. 1–81. See also reference 36.

146 Ján, Húsek, Národopisná hranice mezi Slováky a Karpatorusy [The Ethnographic Boundary between Slovaks and Carpatho-Russians]. In Knižnica “Prtúdov,” No. 2 (Bratislava, 1925) (512 pp.); Halaga, Ondrej R., Slovanské osidlenie potisia a východoslovenski gréckokalolíci [Slavic Settlement beyond the Tisza River and East Slovak Greek Catholics] (Košice: Východoslovenský kultúrny spolok “Svojina,” 1947) (135 pp.).

147 Ivan, Vanat, “Ukrajinská otázka na Slovensku v rokoch 1918–1929” [The Ukrainian Question in Slovakia during the Years 1918–1929] (unpublished habilitation thesis, Univerzita Komenského, [Bratislava], 1968) (349 pp.). See also Ivan, Vanat, “Do kul'turnonacional'nyx problem ukrajinciv Prjaščyny v period domjunxens'koji respubliky” [On the Cultural-National Problems of the Prešov Region Ukrainians in the Era of the Pre-Munich Republic], Družno vpered, Vol. XVII, No. 6 (Prešov, 1967), pp. 1819.

148 Šljaxom Žovtnja: zbirnyk dokumentiv [On the Road to October: A Collection of Documents], Vol. II: 1924–1929 (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1961)(574 pp.)(307 documents); Vol. III: 1950–1933 (1962)(531 pp.)(274 documents); Vol. IV: 1934–1938 (1964) (596 pp.) (217 documents).

149 Josef, Dudykevyč, Na marginesi bidy Pidkarpatskoj Rusy: sposterežennja ï zamitky [On tne Margin of Poverty in Subcarpathian Rus': Observations and Remarks]. In Vydavnyctvo “Ukrajins'koho Slova,” Pt. 2 (Užhorod, 1937) (62 pp.); Eugen, Holly, Im Lande der Kabbalisien, der Religionskämpfe und des Hungers. Quer durch Karpathorussland (Pressburg: Verlag Grenzbote, 1927) (53 pp.). For a discussion of the Jews in particular, see Jean, Mousset, “Le probleme juif en Russie subcarpatique,” Affaires étrangéres, Vol. VIII, No. 8 (Paris, 1938), pp. 501512; Yehuda, Erez (ed.), Karpalorus' [Carpathian Rus'] (Jerusalem-Tel Aviv: Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora Publishing Co., 1959) (590 pp.); Aryeh, Sole, “The Jews of Subcarpathian Ruthenia: 1918–1938,” in The Jews of Czechoslovakia, Vol. I (Philadelphia-New York: The Jewish Publication Society of America—Society for the History of Czechoslovak Jews, 1968), pp. 125154; Braham, Randolph L., “The Destruction of the Jews of Carpatho-Ruthenia,” in Hungarian-Jewish Studies (New York: World Federation of Hungarian Jews, 1966), pp. 223235; Shlomo, Rozman, Sefer zikhron kedoshim: Karpatoros-Marmorosh [Memorial Book of the Dead: Carpatho-Rus'-Máramaros] (Rehovot, Israel, 1969) (543 pp.).

150 Ivan, Olbracht, Hory a staletí [Mountains and Centuries] (Prague: Melantrich, 1935) (238 pp.) (recently republished, together with his novels entitled Nikola Šuhaj loupežnik and Golet v úidoli, in Zakarpatská trilogie [Transcarpathian Trilogy](Prague: Melantrich, 1972). See also the essays by the Czech writer Neumann, Stanislav K., Enciány s Pop Ivana [Edelweiss from Pop Ivan] (Prague: Fr. Borový, 1933) (iii, 126 pp.); Neumann, Stanislav K., “Karpatské léto” [Carpathian Summer], in his Československá cesta [A Czechoslovak Excursion] (2 vols., Prague: Fr. Borový, 19341935) (139, 269 pp.); the article of the local Grendža-Dons'kyj, Ukrainophile Vasyl', “Po Pidkarpattju” [Through Subcarpathia], in his Šljaxom ternovym: vybrani tvory (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1964), pp. 340365; the impressions of Karel, Čapek, Endre, Ady, Erskine, Caldwell, and others in Lehenda pro holod [Legend about Hunger] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1969) (239 pp.); and the travel accounts of Henry, Baerlein, Over the Hills of Ruthenia (London: Leonard Parsons, 1923) (245 pp.), and In Czechoslovakia's Hinterland (London: Hutchinson and Co., 1938) (287 pp.).

151 Gustav, Bianchi (ed.), Publikace pro zem Podkarpatská Rus 1919–1932 [Publication for the Province of Subcarpathian Rus', 1919–1932] (Užhorod, 1932) (104 pp.); Jaromír, Musil (ed.), Technická práce v zemi Podkarpatoruské 1919–1933 [Technical Work in the Province of Subcarpathian Rus', 1919–1933] (Užhorod: Odbor spolku československých inženýrů, 1933) (386 pp.); Antonín, Kubart (ed.), Vodohospodářské olázky Podkarpatské Rusi 1927–1937 [Hydrological-Economic Questions in Subcarpathian Rus', 1927–1937] (Užchorod: Meliorační svaz pro Podkarpatskou Rus, 1937) (96 pp.).

152 Jean, Brandeis. “Ce que le gouvernement tchécoslovaque avait accompli au point de vue agricole dans la Russie subcarpathique,” L'esl européen agricole. Vol. V (Paris, 1935)(44 pp.). See also Edvard, Reich, K zvelebovacímu programu zemědělstvína Podkarpatské Rusi [On the Program for the Improvement of Agriculture in Subcarpathian Rus']. In Časové spisky ministerstva zemědělslví, No. 80 (Prague: Ministerstvo zemědělství, 1936) (140 pp.).

153 Školství na Podkarpatské Rusi v přitomnosti [The Educational System in Subcarpathian Rus' at Present] (Prague: Státní nakladatelství, 1933) (51 pp.); Cyril, Kochannyj, O Podkarpatské Rusi [About Subcarpathian Rus']. In Občanská knihovna, No. 83 (Prague: Vydáváno péčí ministerstva školství a národní osvěty, 1929) (39 pp.); Antonin, Hartl, Kulturní život osvobozené Podkarpatské Rusi [Cultural Life in Liberated Subcarpathian Rus']. In Letáky “Nové Svobody,” No. 2 (Prague: Nákladem grafického, knihařského a nakladatelského družstva, 1924) (18 pp.); Antonín, Hartl, Die literarische Renaissance der Karpathoruthenen (Prague: Orbis, 1932) (27 pp.) (originally in the Prager Rundschau, Vol. VI [1931]). The Soviet view appears in Ihnat, A. M., “Stan osvity na Zakarpatti v 20–30-x rr. XX st.” [The State of Education in Transcarpathia in the 1920's and 1930's], in Velykyj Žovten' i rozkvit vozz”jednanoho Zakarpattja (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1970), pp. 212221.

154 Besides the anti-Communist tract by Gerando referred to in note 135, see the earlier history by the Subcarpathian Marxist Oleksandr Badan: Zakarpats'ka Ukrajina: social'no-ekonomičnyj narys [Transcarpathian Ukraine: A Socioeconomic Sketch] (Xarkiv, 1929) (176 pp.).

155 Pavlo, Lisovyj and Myxajlo, Babydoryč, Trybuna trudjaščyx. (Do 50-riččja “Zakarpats'koji Pravdy”) [The Workers’ Tribune: On the Fiftieth Anniversary of “Transcarpathian Truth”] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1970) (154 pp.).

156 Mel'nikova, Irina N., “Iz istorii revoljucionnogo dviženija na Zakarpatskoj Ukraine v 1921–1924 gg.” [On the History of the Revolutionary Movement in the Transcarpathian Ukraine, 1921–1924], Učenye zapiski instituta slavjanovedenija. Vol. VI (Moscow, 1952), pp. 559;Xlanta, O. V., “Komunisty Zakarpattja—orhanizatory i kerivnyky klasovoji borot'by trudjaščyx v period tymčasovoji vidnosnoji stabilizaciji kapitalizmu (1924–1929 rr.)” [The Communists of Transcarpathia—Organizers and Leaders of the Class Struggle of the Workers during the Period of the Temporary, Relative Stabilization of Capitalism, 1924–1929], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. L (Užhorod, 1963), pp. 2240; O. V. Xlanta, “Z istoriji kolonijal'noji polityky čes'koji buržuaziji na Zakarpatti v 20-x rokax XX st.” [From the History of the Colonial Politics of the Czech Bourgeoisie in Transcarpathia during the 1920's], ibid., Vol. XXXVI (1958), pp. 90–104; Slyvka, Jurij Ju., Revoljucijno-vyzvol'na borot'ba na Zakarpatti v. 1929–1937 rr. [The Revolutionary Struggle for Liberation in Transcarpathia, 1929–1937] (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo Akademiji nauk Ukrajins'koji Radjans'koji Socialistyčnoji Respubliky, 1960) (156 pp.); Bjelousov, Viktor I., Na šljaxu do peremohy: z isloriji komunistyčnoji orhanizaciji Zakarpals'koji Ukrajiny 1929–1939 rr. [On the Road to Victory: From the History of the Communist Organization in the Transcarpathian Ukraine, 1929–1939] (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1958) (238 pp.); Rotman, Mykola E., Naperedodni druhoji svitovoji: z istoriji zakarpats'koji komunistyčnoji orhanizaciji 1933–1938 rokiv [On the Eve of the Second World War: On the History of the Transcarpathian Communist Organization, 1933–1938] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1964) (139 pp.); Spivak, Borys I., Narysy istoriji revoljucijnoji borol'by trudjaščyx Zakarpaltja v 1930–1945 rokax [Short History of the Revolutionary Working Class of Transcarpathia in the Years 1930–1945] (Užhorod: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1963) (378 pp.); Narysy istoriji Zakarpats'koji oblasnoji partijnoji orhanizaciji [Short History of the Transcarpathian Provincial Party Organization], Vol. I: 1918–1945 (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1968) (336 pp.).

157 Magda, Ádám, “Zaharbannja Zakarpattja xortists'koju Uhorščynoju v 1938–1939 rr.” [The Seizure of Transcarpathia by Horthy's Hungary in 1938–1939], in Ukrajins'kouhors'ki istoryčni zv'jazky (Kiev: Vydavnyctvo “Naukova dumka,” 1964), pp. 78109. See also note 162.

158 Petro, Stercho, Karpato-ukrajins'ka deržava: do istoriji vyzvol'noji borol'by karpats'kyx ukrajinciv u 1919–1939 rokax [The Carpatho-Ukrainian State: Toward a History of the Liberation Struggle of Carpatho-Ukrainians in the Years 1919–1939] (Toronto: Naukove tovarystvo imeni Ševčenka, 1965) (288 pp.) (full bibliography). There is also a revised and expanded English version: Diplomacy of Double Morality: Europe's Crossroads in Carpatho-Ukraine, 1919–1939 (New York: Carpathian Research Center, 1971) (xxii, 495 pp.) (documents and full bibliography).

159 Slyvka, Jurij Ju., Piastupy mižnarodnoji reakciji na Zakarpalti v 1938–1939 rr. [The Machinations of the International Reaction in Transcarpathia, 1938–1939] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1966) (69 pp.).

160 Štefan, Fano, “Zakarpatská Ukrajina v politických kalkuláciách susedných štátov v období od Mníchova po marec 1939” [Transcarpathian Ukraine in the Political Calculations of the Neighboring States during the Period from the Munich Pact to March, 1939], Slovanské studie, Vol. XI, História (Bratislava, 1971), pp. 6179; Ivan, Pop, “Zakarpats'ka Ukrajina v jevropejs'kij kryzi 1938–39 rr.” [Transcarpathian Ukraine in the European Crisis, 1938–1939], Duklja. Vol. XV, No. 1 (Prešov, 1967), pp. 6266; Ladislav, Suško, “Nemecká politika voči Slovensku a Zakarpatskej Ukrajine v období od septembrovej krízy 1938 do rozbitia Československa v marci 1939” [German Policy towards Slovakia and the Transcarpathian Ukraine during the Period from the September Crisis of 1938 to the Breakup of Czechoslovakia in March, 1939], Československý časopis historický, Vol. XXI, No. 2 (Prague, 1973), pp. 161197; Andrij, Kovač, “Stanovyčše zakarpats'kyx ukrajinciv (rusyniv) i zanepad peršoji ČSR” [The Position of the Transcarpathian Ukrainians (Rusyns) and the Fall of the First Czechoslovak Republic], Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. VI, Pt. 1 (Bratislava-Prešov, 1972), pp. 737; Hoensch, Jörg K., Der ungarische Revisionismus und die Zerschlagung der Tschechoslowakei. In Tübinger Studien zur Geschichte und Politik, No. 23 (Tübingen, 1967) (ix, 324 pp.) (full bibliography).

161 Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–1945, ser. D, Vol. IV: The Aftermath of Munich, October, 1938-March, 1939; and Vol. VI: The Last Months of Peace, March-August, 1939 (Washington, D. C: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1951 and 1956).

162 Diplomáciai iratok Magyarország külpolitikájához 1936–1945 [Diplomatic Papers on Hungarian Foreign Policy], Vol. II: A Müncheniegyezmeny létrejötte és Magyaroszág külpolitikája 1936–1938 [The Formulation of the Munich Agreement and Hungarian Foreign Policy] (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1965); and especially Vol. III: Magyarország külpolitikája 1938–1939 [Hungarian Foreign Policy, 1938–1939] (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1970).

163 Maciej, Koźmiński, Polska i Węgry przed drugą wojną świalową: październik 1938-wrzesierń 1939 [Poland and Hungary before the Second World War October, 1938-March, 1939] (Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Polskiej akademii nauk, 1970) (371 pp.). For a western viewpoint, see the report by Kennan, George F.: From Prague after Munich: Diplomatic Papers, 1938–1940 (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1968), pp. 5875.

164 Lapica, Michael C., “The Rise of Carpatho-Ukraine,” The Trident, Vol. III, No. 1–2 (New York, 1939), pp. 721; Eugene Skotzko, “Mecca to Carpatho-Ukraine,” ibid., Vol. III, No. 3 (1939), pp. 6–22; Volodymyr, Levyc'kyj, Hitler, Čexy i Karpats'ka Ukrajina [Hitler, the Czechs, and Carpatho-Ukraine] (Scranton, Pa.: “Narodna Volja,” 1939) (22 pp.).

165 Julian, Revay, “The March to Liberation of Carpatho-Ukraine,” The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 3 (New York, 1954), pp. 227234; Augustin, Štefan, From Carpatho-Ruthenia to Carpatho-Ukraine (New York: Carpathian Star Publishing Co., 1954) (48 pp.); Stepan, Rosocha, “The First Diet of Carpatho-Ukraine,” The Trident, Vol. III, No. 9–10 (New York, 1939), pp. 2132; Stepan, Rosocha, Sojm Karpats'koji Ukrajiny [The Carpatho-Ukrainian Diet] (Winnipeg: “Kul'tura i Osvita,” 1949) (98 pp.); Vikentij, Sandor, “Karpats'ka Ukrajina: zfederovana deržava” [Carpatho-Ukraine: A Federated State], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeni Ševčenka, Vol. CLXXVII (New York, 1968), pp. 319339.

166 Lapica, Michael C. and Roman, Lacyk, “Republic for a Day,” The Trident, Vol. III, No. 4–5 (New York, 1939), pp. 827; Michael, Winch, Republic for a Day: An Eye Witness Account of the Carpatho-Ukraine Incident (London: R. Hale, Ltd., 1939) (286 pp.); Mykola, Galagan, “My Last Days in Carpatho-Ukraine,” The Trident, Vol. III, No. 7–8 (New York, 1939), pp. 1831; No. 9, pp. 32–40; and No. 10, pp. 33–40. The fullest account of the Hungarian occupation is Karpats'ka Ukrajina v borot'bi [Carpatho-Ukraine in Combat] (Vienna: Ukrajins'ka presova služba, 1939) (228 pp.).

167 Volodymyr, Birčak, Karpats'ka Ukrajina: spomyny i perežyvannja [Carpatho- Ukraine: Recollections and Reminiscences] (Prague: Nacija v poxodi, 1940) (91 pp.).

168 Eleanor, Perenyi, More Was Lost (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, and Co., 1946) (278 pp.).

169 Štefan, Pažur, “O vývoji národnostných pomerov na východnom Slovensku v jesenných mesiacoch roku 1938”[On the Development of Nationality Relations in Eastern Slovakia in the Autumn Months of 1938], Nové obzory, No. 10 (Prešov, 1968), pp. 1325.

170 Nicholas, Kozma, “Le problème ruthène,” Nouvelle revue de Hongrie, Vol. LXI (Budapest, 1939), pp. 314. For a fuller development of the Magyar interpretation, see Tivadar, Ortutay, Cseh világ a kárpátokban [The Czech Era in the Carpathians] (Už;horod, 1941) (250 pp.).

171 Aleksander, Bonkalo, “Rus'kyj lyteraturnŷj jazŷk—A ruszin irodalmi nyelv” [The Rusyn Literary Language], Zorja-Hajnal, Vol. I, No. 1–2 (Uzhorod, 1941), pp. 5471; József Rácz, “Kelet és nyugat a ruszin egyházi müvészetben” [The Influence of the East and the West on Rusyn Ecclesiastical Art], ibid., Vol. II, No. 1–2 (1942), pp. 43–57; Petro Myloslavskyj, “Rus'ka narodna pîsnja: puty istoryčnoho rozvytku” [The Rusyn Folk Song: The Path of Historical Development], ibid., pp. 58–97; László Balogh-Beéry, “A ruszinság rokonsági kapcsolatai” [Relations of Rusyn Families], ibid., pp. 98–107; Vilmos Balás, “Az Erdös Kárpátok és a Nagy-Alföld, ruszinok és magyarok” [The Wooded Carpathians and the Great Plain: Rusyns and Magyars], ibid., pp. 108–129; Gábor, Kemény, “Ungarn und die ruthenische Kulturgeschichte,” Donaueuropa, Vol. III (Budapest, 1943), pp. 597610.

172 In A kisebbségi intézet kiadványai [Publications of the Minority Institute]. Those dealing with Subcarpathian Rus' are Vol. IV: László, Balogh-Beéry, A ruthén autonómia [Rusyn Autonomy] (Pécs, 1937) (26 pp.); Vol. X: István, Fenczik, A kárpátaljai autonómia és a kisebbségi kérdés [Carpathian Autonomy and the Question of Minorities] (Kecskemét, 1941) (16 pp.); and Vol. XIII: Gábor, Kemény, Ez a föld Magyarország! [This Land is Hungary!] (Kecskemét, 1941).

173 A detailed account of the first years of Hungarian rule can be found in Loránt, Tilkovszky, Revizió és nemzetiségpolitika Magyarországon (1938–1941) [Revision and Nationality Policy in Hungary] (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1967) (349 pp.). See also József, Bölöny, A Kárpátaljai Vajdaságról és annak ön kormányzatáról szóló törvényjavaslat birálata [The Carpathian Territory and a Critique of the Validity of the Bill concerning its Self-Government]. In Magyar közigazgatás könyvtára, No. 12 (Budapest, 1940) (30 pp.); Vasyl, Markus, “Carpatho-Ukraine under Hungarian Occupation (1939–1944),” The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. X, No. 3 (New York, 1954), pp. 252256. The most important periodicals were the bimonthly Lyteraturna Nedîlja (Užhorod, 1941–44) and the annual Zorja-Hajnal(Užhorod, 1941–43). Articles in the latter were printed in Rusyn or Hungarian, or in parallel translation in both languages. All articles have short résumés in both French and German.

174 Báró Zsigmond, Perényi and Aleksander, Yl'nytskyi, Za narod Podkarpatja: čto stalosja dosy na Podkarpatju? [For the People of Subcarpathia: What has taken place until now in Subcarpathia?] (Užhorod: Regentckyj komyssarijat Podkarpatskoj terrytorii, 1940) (38 pp.). For basic statistical information (demography, employment patterns, land holdings), consult the special Hungarian census of June 15,1939, entered as the supplement: “The Returned Highlands and Carpathian Territory,” in Az 1930. évi népszámlálas [The Census of 1930], Pt. 6. In Magyarslatisziikai közlemények, new ser., Vol. CXIV (Budapest, 1941), pp. 237262.

175 Massalky, Prince Nicholas, “A Foreigner sees Subcarpathia,” The Hungarian Quarterly, Vol. III, No. 3 (Budapest, 1940), pp. 434448; Aldo Dami, “Ce que j'ai vu en Subcarpathie,” Nouvelle revue de Hongrie, Vol. LXII (Budapest, 1940), pp. 345–351; Jean Stark, “La reconstruction de la Subcarpathie,” ibid., pp. 352–358.

176 Ivan, Vanat, “K niektorým otázkam zahraničného odboja zakarpatských Ukrajincov počas druhej svetovej vojny” [On Certain Questions concerning the Transcarpathian Ukrainian Struggle Abroad during the Second World War], in Žovten’ i ukrajins'ka kul'tura (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 351369.

177 Ivan, Vanat, “Zakarpats'ki ukrajinci v čexoslovac'komu vijs'ku v SRSR” [Transcarpathian Ukrainians in the Czechoslovak Army in the U. S. S. R.], in Šljax do voli: zbirnyk spohadiv i dokumenliv pro nacional'no-vyzvol'nu borot'bu ukrajins'koho naselennja Čexoslovaččyny proty fašyzmu v 1939–1945 rr. In Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'iury v Svydnyku, Vol. II (Prešov, 1966), pp. 183201; Andrij Kovač, “Ukrajinci Prjašivščyny v rjadax Červonoji Armiji” [The Ukrainians from the Prešov Region in the Ranks of the Red Army], ibid., pp. 315–348.

178 See the various reminiscences in ibid.; Oni osvoboždali Zakarpat'e [They liberated Transcarpathia] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1968) (272 pp.); Myxajlo, Pytel, Borot'ba za Beskydy [The Struggle for the Beskid Mountains] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1967) (270 pp.); Myxajlo, Sabadoš, Parašutystom v Karpatax [A Parachutist in the Carpathians] (Bratislava- Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1966) (400 pp.); Ludvik, Svoboda, Z Buzuluku do Prahy [From Buzuluk to Prague] (Prague, 1961) (402 pp.) (German edition: Von Buzuluk bis Prag [Berlin: Deutscher Militärverlag, 1967] [343 pp.]); Grečko, Andrej A., Čerez Karpaty [Across the Carpathians] (Moscow: Voennoe izdatel'stvo Ministerstva oborony SSSR, 1970) (431 pp.).

179 Petro, Xalus, V bojax za volju: borot'ba trudjaščyx Zakarpattja proly inozemnyx ponevoljuvačiv za vozz”jednannja z Radjans'koju Ukrajinoju (1939–1944 rr.) [In the Battle for Freedom: The Struggle of the Workers of Transcarpathia against Foreign Oppressors and for Unification with the Soviet Ukraine, 1939–1944] (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1959) (71 pp.); Šljaxom Žovinja [On the Road to October], Vol. V: 1938–1944 (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1967) (518 pp.) (255 documents).

180 Andrij, Kovač, “Nacional'na polityka Slovac'koji Respubliky po vidnošennju do rusyniv-ukrajinciv (1938–1945)” [The Nationality Policy of the Slovak Republic with regard to the Rusyn-Ukrainians, 1938–1945], in Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kul'tura (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 132144; Andrij, Kovač, “Ukrajinci Prjašivščyny i dejaki pytannja kul'turnoji polityky Slovac'koji Respubliky” [The Ukrainians of the Prešov Region and Some Questions about the Cultural Policy of the Slovak Republic]. In Naukovyj zbirnyk muzeju ukrajins'koji kul'tury v Svydnyku, Vol. IV, Pt. I (Prešov, 1969), pp. 401412; Andrij, Kovač, “Ukrajinci Sxidnoji Slovaččyny naperedodni slovac'koho narodnoho povstannja” [The Ukrainians of Eastern Slovakia on the Eve of the Slovak National Uprising], in Z mynuloho i sučasnoho ukrajinciv Čexoslovaččyny. In Pedahohičnyj zbirnyk, No. 3 (Bratislava: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo, 1973), pp. 196216.

181 For insight into Soviet activities in the province, see the account by the former N. K. V. D. agent Nikola, Sinevirskij [Ivan Mondič]: Smerš (Kassel-Mönchehof: Vladimir Gorachek, 1948) (135 pp.). An abridged English version is also available: Smersh (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1950) (xi, 253 pp.).

181 Evseev, Ivan F., Narodnye Komiiety Zakarpatskoj Ukrainy—organy gosudarstvennoj vlasli (1944–1945) [The National Committees in the Transcarpathian Ukraine—Organs of State Power, 1944–1945] (Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo juridičeskoj literatury, 1954) (148 pp.). See also Xainas, Vasyl' V., Roky velykyx podij: borot'ba trudjaščyx Zakarpattja pid kerivnyctvom komunistyčnoji partiji za vozz”jednannja z Radjans'koju Ukrajinoju (1944–1945 rr.) [The Years of Great Events: The Struggle of the Workers of Transcarpathia under the Leadership of the Communist Party for the Unification of the Soviet Ukraine, 1944–1945] (Užhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo, 1959) (59 pp.); and the pertinent documents in Šljaxom Žovtnja: zbirnyk dokumentiv [On the Road to October: A Collection of Documents], Vol. VI: August, 1944-January, 1946 (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1965) (390 pp.; (219 documents).

181 František, Němec and Vasyl, Moudry, The Soviet Seizure of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Toronto: Wm. B. Anderson, 1955) (ix, 375 pp.) (78 documents).

184 Vasyl, Markus, L'incorporation de I'Ukraine subcarpalhique á I'Ukraine soviétique 1944–1945 (Louvain: Centre d'études ukrainiens en Belgique, 1956) (147 pp.) (12 documents). See also Vincent, Shandor, “Annexation of Carpatho-Ukraine to the Ukrainian SSR,” The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. XIII, No. 3 (New York, 1957), pp. 243254.

185 Ihnat, A. M., “Uspixy kul'turno-osvitnoji roboty v Zakarpats'kij oblasti za roky radjans'koji vlady” [The Success in Cultural Work in the Transcarpathian Province during the Years of Soviet Rule], Naukovi zapysky, Vol. IX (Užhorod, 1954), pp. 369397; Pytannja rozvytku narodnoho hospodarstva radjans'koho Zakarpattja [The Question of the Development of the National Economy in Soviet Transcarpathia], ibid., Vol. XLIV (1961) (194 pp.). For an evaluation of studies on the post-1945 period, see Miščenko, Ninel' P., “Ukrajins'ka radjans'ka istoriohrafija pro rozvytok promyslovosti robitnyčoho klasu Zakarpattja za roky Radjans'koji vlady” [Soviet Ukrainian Historiography about the Development of Industry and the Working Class in Transcarpathia during the Years of Soviet Rule], in Velykyj Žovten' i rozkvit vozz”jednanoho Zakarpattja (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1970), pp. 339347.

186 Kozlovs'ka, Ljudmyla H., Rozvytok narodnoho hospodarstva Zakarpats'kojioblasti za roky radjans'koji vlady [The Development of the National Economy of the Transcarpathian Province during the Years of Soviet Rule] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs'koho universytetu, 1959) (165 pp.). See also Narodne hospodarstvo Radjans'koho Zakarpattja: statystyčnyj zbirnyk [The National Economy of Soviet Transcarpathia: A Statistical Anthology] (Užhorod: “Karpaty,” 1969) (191 pp.).

187 10 rokiv Ukrajins'koho narodnoho teatru [Ten Years of the Ukrainian National Theater] (Bratislava: Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatury, 1958) (243 pp.); 15 rokiv na službi narodu: zbirnyk statej ta fotodokumentiv z nahody 15-riččja dijal'nosty Kul'tumoho sojuzu ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx [Fifteen Years in the Service of the People: A Collection of Articles and Photo-Documents on the Occasion of Fifteen Years of Activity of the Cultural Union of Ukrainian Workers] (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1966) (133 pp.); Hovoryt' Prjašiv: 30 rokiv ukrajins'koho radiomovlennja v Čexoslovaččyni [Prešov Speaking: Thirty Years of Ukrainian Radio Broadcasts in Czechoslovakia]. In Naukovo-populjarna biblioteka Kul'turnoho sojuzu ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, No. 3 (Prešov, 1968) (117 pp.); 25- Ukrajins'komu narodnomu teatru [Twenty-five Years of the Ukrainian National Theater] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1971) (224 pp.).

188 Ivan, Bajcura, Ukrajinská otázka v ČSSR [The Ukrainian Question in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic] (Košice: Východoslovenské vydavnyctvo, 1967) (216 pp.) (bibliography); Žovten' i ukrajins'ka kul'lura: zbirnyk materialiv z mižnarodnoho sympozijum [October and Ukrainian Culture: A Collection of Materials from an International Symposium] (Prešov: Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968) (640 pp.), especially Pt. 3, pp. 473–599; Ivan, Bajcura, “ǨSC a ukrajinská otázka” [The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the Ukrainian Question], in Z mynuloho i sučasnoho ukrajinciv Čexoslovaččyny. In Pedahohičnyj zbirnyk, No. 3 (Bratislava: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo, 1973), pp. 733; Vasyl’ Kapišovs'kyj, “Spadščyna kapitalizmu v oblasti žyttjevoho ta kul'turnoho rivnja naselennja Sxidnoji Slovaččyny” [The Hereditary Impact of Capitalism on the Social and Cultural Level of the Population in Eastern Slovakia], in ibid., pp. 34–63.

189 Pavel, Maču, “The Present State of National Consciousness among the Rusyns of Czechoslovakia,” Europa ethnica. Vol. XXXI, No. 3 (Vienna, 1974), pp. 98111; Pavel, Maču, “National Assimilation: The Case of the Rusyn-Ukrainians of Czechoslovakia,” East-Central Europe, Vol. II (Pittsburgh, Pa., 1975); Michael, Lacko, “The Forced Liquidation of the Union of Užhorod,” Slovak Studies, Vol. I, Historica, No. 1 (Rome, 1961), pp. 145185; Vasyl', Markus', “Nyščennja hreko-katolyc'koji cerkvy v Mukačivs'kij Jeparxiji v 1945–50 rr.” [The Destruction of the Greek Catholic Church in the Mukačevo Eparchy, 1945–1950], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Ševčenka, Vol. CLXIX (Paris- New York, 1962), pp. 385405; The Tragedy of the Greek Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia (New York: Carpathian Alliance, 1971) (68 pp.); Pekar, Athanasius B., “Restoration of the Greek Catholic Church in Czechoslovakia,” The Ukrainian Quarterly, Vol. XXXIX, No. 3 (New York, 1973), pp. 282296; Grey, Hodnett and Potichnyj, Peter J., The Ukraine and the Czechoslovak Crisis. In Department of Political Science, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Occasional Paper, No. 6 (Canberra, 1970) (154 pp.).

190 A comprehensive bibliography of works on Subcarpathian literary history is available in Zorja-Hajnal, Vol. II, No. 3–4 (Uzhorod, 1942), pp. 459467.

191 Ivan, Franko, “Karpato-rus'ke pys'menstvo XVII-XVIII vikiv” [Carpatho-Rusyn Literature in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, Vol. XXXVII-XXXVIII (L'viv, 1900), pp. 122, 23–91, and 91–162(the first section was republished in Ivan, Franko, Tvory, Vol. XVI [Kiev: Deržavne vydavnyctvo xudožn'oji literatury, 1955], pp. 311331); Bilen'kyj, [Hijador N. Stryps'kyj], Starša rus'ka pys'mennost na Uhorščynî [Old Rusyn Writings in Hungary] (Užhorod, 1907) (16 pp.).

192 Volodymyr, Birčak, Literaturni stremlinnja Pidkarpats'koji Rusy [Literary Endeavors of Subcarpathian Rus']. Second edition published in Vydavnyctvo Pedagogičnoho tovarystva Pidkarpats'koji Rusy, No. 45 (Užhorod, 1937) (190 pp.).

193 Myxajlo, Voznjak, Isiorija ukrajins'koji literatury [A History of Ukrainian Literature] (3 vols., L'viv: Nakladom tovarystva “Prosvîta,” 1924), Vol. III, Pt. 2, pp. 108122; Wolfango, Giusti, “La Russia subcarpatica e la sua letteratura,” Revista di letterature slave,” Vol. I, No. 1–2 (Rome, 1926), pp. 115138.

194 Petr, Feerčak, Očerk literaturnago dviženija ugorskix russkix [Outline of the Literary Movement of the Hungarian Russians] (Odessa, 1888) (42 pp.); Evmenij, Sabov, Xristomatija cerkovno-slavjanskix i ugro-russkix liieraturnyx pamjatnikov [An Anthology of Church-Slavonic and Ugro-Russian Literary Monuments] (Užhorod: Knigopečatnyj fond eparxii mukačevskoj, 1893) (236 pp.) (the first section, “Očerk literaturnoj dějatel'nosti i obrazovanija karpatorussov” [An Outline of the Literary Activity and Education of the Carpatho-Russians], was reprinted in Izdanie kul'turnoprosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 8 [Užhorod, 1925][32 pp.]). See also Aristov, Fedor F., Karpato-russkie pisaieli: Izsliědovanie po neizdannym istočnikam [Carpatho-Russian Writers: An Analysis based on Unpublished Sources], Vol. I (Moscow: Izdanie Galicko-russkago obščestva v Petrogradě, 1916) (304 pp.).

195 Evgenij, Nedzěl'skij, Očerk karpatorusskoj literatury [An Outline of Carpatho-Russian Literature] (Užhorod: Izdanie Podkarpatorusskago narodoprosvětitel'nago sojuza, 1932) (289 pp.); Pavel, Fedor, Očerki karpato-russkoj literatury so vtoroj poloviny XIX stolětija [An Outline of Carpatho-Russian Literature from the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century], In Izdanie Kul'turno-prosvětitel'nago obščestva imeni Aleksandra Duxnoviča, No. 56 (Užhorod, 1929) (76 pp.); Javorskij, Ju'jan A., “Značenie i město Zakarpat'ja v obščej sxemě russkoj pis'mennosti” [The Significance and Place of Transcarpathia in the General Scheme of Russian Literature], in Sbornik praci I. sjezdu slovanských filologů v Praze 1929, Vol. II (Prague: Orbis, 1932), pp. 7489 (full bibliography). See also Vodovozov, Nikolaj V., “Russkie pisateli v Čexoslovakii” [Russian Writers in Czechoslovakia], in Revjakin, A. I. (ed.), Russkaja literatura i narodnoe tvorcestvo. In Učenye zapiski moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogičeskogo instituta (Moscow, 1962), pp. 186218.

196 Coleman, Arthur P. and Bezinec, George B., “The Rise of Carpatho-Russian Culture,” Central European Observer, Vol. XVI (Prague, 1938), No. 17, pp. 262264 and 280; No. 18, pp. 295–296; No. 19, pp. 311–313; and No. 20, pp. 327–328.

197 Antonin, Hartl, “Pisemnictvi Podkarpatských Rusínů” [The Literature of the Subcarpathian Rusyns], in Československá vlastivéda (10 vols., Prague: “Sfinx” Bohumil Janda, 19291934), Vol. VII, pp. 273290.

198 Sándor, Bonkáló, A kárpátalji rutén irodalom és müvelödés [The Literary and Cultural History of the Carpathian Rusyns]. In Felvidéki ludományos társaság kiadványai, 1st ser., No. 2 (Pécs, 1935) (79 pp.); Ystorija Podkarpatskoî lyteraturŷ (Užhorod: Izdanie Regentskoho Komyssarijata, 1942) (64 pp.). On the so-called “chaotic” developments during the Czech regime, see József, Rácz, “A legujabb ruszin irodalom” [The Most Recent Rusyn Literature], Kisebbségi körlevél, Vol. VII, No. 4 (Pécs, 1943), pp. 219234.

199 Vyšnevs'kyj, Ivan P., Tradyciji ta sučasnist' [Traditions and the Present] (L'viv: Knyžkovo-žurnal'ne vydavnyctvo, 1963) (239 pp.) (full bibliography).

200 Mykytas', Vasyl' L., Davnja literalura Zakarpattja: narysy literatury Zakarpattja doby feodalizmu [Old Literature of Transcarpathia: Outline of Transcarpathian Literature in the Feudal Period] (L'viv: Vydavnyctvo L'vivs koho universytetu, 1968) (254 pp.); Myšanyč, Oleksa V., Literatura Zakarpattja XVII-XVIII stolit':istoryko-literaturnyj narys [The Literature of Transcarpathia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: A Historico-Literary Outline] (Kiev: “Naukova dumka,” 1964) (116 pp.); Oleksa, Myšanyč, “Pysmenstvo rusynox Zakarpatja na narodnej bešedy už od konca XVI stoljityja” [Literature of the Rusyns of Transcarpathia in the National Tongue from the End of the Sixteenth Century], Nova dumka, Vol. III, No. 7 (Vukovar, 1974), pp. 105115; Oleksa Myšanyč, “Vyršovana lyteratura Zakarpatja 17–18 st.” [The Poetic Literature of Transcarpathia in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries], ibid., Vol. III, No. 8 (1974), pp. 41–48; Mykytas', Vasyl' L., Ukrajins'kyjpys'mennyk-polemist Myxajlo Andrella [The Ukrainian Writer-Polemist, Myxajlo Andrella] (Užhorod, 1960).

201 Vasyl', Mykytas', Haluzka mohutn'oho dereva: literaturnyj narys [A Branch of a Great Tree: A Literary Outline] (Užhorod: Vydavnyctvo “Karpaty,” 1971)(208 pp.); Juryij, Bača, Literaturnyj rux na Zakarpatti seredyny XIX stolittja [The Literary Movement in Transcarpathia in the Mid-Nineteenth Century] (Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1961) (271 pp.) (bibliography); Mykytas', Vasyl' L., Literaturnyj rux na Zakarpatti druhoji polovyny XIX st. [The Literary Movement in Transcarpathia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century] (Užhorod: Užhorods'kyj deržavnyj universytet, 1965) (103 pp.); Lintur, Petro V., “Tradicii russkogo klassicizma v literature Zakarpat'ja XIX v.” [The Traditions of Russian Classicism in the Literature of Transcarpathia in the Nineteenth Century], in Russkaja literatura XVIII veka i slavjanskie literatury (Moscow: Akademia nauk SSSR, 1963), pp. 122136; Nykolaj, Lelekač, “Podkarpatskoe pys'menstvo na počatku XX vika” [Subcarpathian Literature in the Beginning of the Twentieth Century], Zorja-Hajnal, Vol. III, No. 1–4 (Užhorod, 1943), pp. 229257.

202 Jurij, Baleha, Literatura Zakarpattja 20–30-yx rokiv XX stolittja [The Literature of Transcarpathia in the 1920's and 193O's](Kiev: Radjans'kyj pys'mennyk, 1962)(245 pp.). See also the earlier excellent surveys by Antonin, Hartl, “Literárni obrozeni Podkarpatských Rusinů v letech 1920–1930” [The Literary Revival of the Subcarpathian Rusyns in the Years 1920–1930], Slovansky přehled. Vol. XXII (Prague, 1930), pp. 183199, 272–280, 319–333, 425–435, and 487–504; and Evgenij, Nedzěl'skij, “Sovremennaja karpato-russkaja literatura” [Contemporary Carpatho-Russian Literature], Central'naja Evropa, Vol. IV, No. 4 (Prague, 1931), pp. 201212; and the articles by Antonin, Hartl, Jevgenij, Nedzělskij, and Vladimir, Birčak in Jaroslav, Zatloukal (ed.), Podkarpatská Rus (Bratislava: Klub přátel Podkarpatské Rusi, 1936), pp. 181202.

203 Oleg, Grabar, Poezija Zakarpat'ja 1939–1944 [The Poetry of Transcarpathia, 1939–1944] (Bratislava: Slovenské vydavatel'stvo krásnej literatury, 1957) (316 pp.). For this period see the bimonthly Lyteraturna Nedîlja (referred to in note, 173). Vasyl', Mykytas' and Olena, Rudlovčak, Poety Zakarpattja:antolohija zakarpatoukrajins'kojipoeziji (XVI st.-1945 r.) [The Poets of Transcarpathia: An Anthology of Transcarpathian Ukrainian Poetry from the Sixteenth Century to 1945] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1965) (661 pp.); Evgenij, Nedzěl'skij, Ugrorusskij teatr [The Ugro-Russian Theater] (Užhorod, 1941) (112 pp.).

204 Duklja, , žurnal dlja literatury, publicystyky ta mystectva [Duklja, a Journal of Literature, Journalism, and Art] (Prešov, 1953-); Olena, Rudlovčak, “Literaturni stremlinnja ukrajinciv Sxidnoji Slovaččyny u 20–30-x rokax načoho stolittja” [The Literary Endeavors of the Ukrainians of Eastern Slovakia in the 1920's and 1930's], in Žovten'i ukrajins'ka kul'tura (Prešov. Kul'turnyj sojuz ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, 1968), pp. 145172; Orest, Zilyns'kyj (ed.), Literatura čexoslovac'kyx ukrajinciv 1945–1967: problemy i perspektyvy [The Literature of the Czechoslovak Ukrainians, 1945–1967: Problems and Perspectives] (Bratislava-Prešov: Slovac'ke pedahohične vydavnyctvo. Viddil ukrajins'koji literatury, 1968) (156 pp.); Orest, Zilyns'kyj, “Naša literaturna sytuacija” [Our Literary Situation], Duklja, Vol. XVIII, No. 2 (Prešov, 1969), pp. 17; Il'ja, Vološčuk, Sovremennaja ukrainskaja literatura v Čexoslovakii [Contemporary Ukrainian Literature in Czechoslovakia] (Bratislava: Slovenske vydavatel'stvo krásnej litejatury, 1957)(221 pp.); Fedir, Kovač, Dejaki problemy rozvytku ukrajins'koji literatury v Čexoslovaččyni (pisljavojennyj period)[Certain Problems in the Development of Ukrainian Literature in Czechoslovakia]. In Naukovo-populjarna biblioteka Kul'turnoho sojuza ukrajins'kyx trudjaščyx, No. 6 (Prešov, 1973) (159 pp.).

205 See the Tomašivs'kyj studies referred to in footnote 36; Hiador, Sztripszky, “A magyarországi ruténség néprajzi térképe” [An Ethnographic Map of Hungary's Rusyns], Néprajzi értesíiö, Vol. XI (Budapest, 1910); Petrov, Aleksej L., “Kdy vznikly ruské osady na uherské Dolní zemi a vůbec za Karpaty?—K demografii zakarpatské Rusi” [When did the Russian Settlements on the Hungarian Plain and, in General, those beyond the Carpathians originate. On Demography in Transcarpathian Rus'], Česky časopis historický, Vol. XXIX, No. 3–4 (Prague, 1923), pp. 411442.

206 Gyula, Polyánszky, A görög kalholikusok Zemplén varmegyében: Adalékok Zempleé varmegye történetéhez [Greek Catholics in Zemplén Comitat: A Contribution to the History of Zemplén Comitat] (Sátoraljaújhely, 1897); Jenö, Szabó, A görögkatholikus Magyarország utolsó kalvária útja [The Greek Catholics of H ungary on Their Last Road to Calvary] (Budapest, 1913) (520 pp.); János, Karácsonyi, A görögkatholikus magyarok eredete [The Origin of the Greek Catholic Magyars] (Budapest: Stephanium nyomda és könyvkiadó, 1924) (24 pp.).

207 Attila, Paládi-Kovács, “Ukrán szórványok a 18–19. században a mai Magyarország északkeleti részén” [The Scattered Few Ukrainian Settlements of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries in the Northeastern Part of Contemporary Hungary], in Gyula, Ortutay (ed.), Népi kuliúranépi társadalom. In A Magyar tudományos akadémia néprajzi kutató csoportjának évkönyve. Vol. VII (Budapest: Akadémiai kiadó, 1973), pp. 327367 (translated into Bačka Rusyn under the title: “Ukrajinsky ostrova u syverovostočnej čascy Madjarskej u XVII1-XIX vyku” [Ukrainian Islets in Northeastern Hungary in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries], Novadumka, Vol. III, Nos. 7 and 8 (Vukovar, 1974), pp. 107112 and 157–160.

208 Èmil', Baleckij, “O jazykovoj prinadležnosti i zaselenii sela Komloška v Vengrii” [On the Linguistic Affiliation and Population of the Village of Komloska in Hungary], Studia slavica. Vol. II (Budapest, 1956), pp. 345364; Èmil' Baleckij,“Vengerskie zaimstvovanija v lemkovskom govore sela Komloška v Vengrii” [On Hungarian Loanwords in the Lemkian Dialect of the Hungarian Village of Komloska], ibid., Vol. IV (1958), pp. 23–46.

209 Cerović, Emilija V., “Ogled bibliografije radova o jugoslovenskim rusinima i ukrajincima” [Survey of a Bibliography of Works on the Rusyns and Ukrainians of Jugoslavia], in Tradycyjna kultura jugoslavjanskyx rusynox (Novi Sad: “Ruske Slovo,” 1971), pp. 288310. This bibliography includes only works published on the territory of Jugoslavia. It has 432 entries arranged under the following topics: general works; historical past; population; economy; social life; national customs; medicine; intellectual life, religion, beliefs; culture, language, theater; folk culture; literature; and index.

210 On demographic developments, see the Hungarian statistical works referred to in note 87; and the Jugoslav census reports: Popis sianovištva 1961 [Population Census 1961] (16 vols., Belgrade: Savezni zavod za statistiku, 19651971); Popis sianovištva i stanova 1971 [Population and Housing Census of 1971], Stanovištvo (II vols.) and Stanovi (7 vols.) (Belgrade: Savezni zavod za statistiku, 1972–1974). See also “Kel'o nas jest y dze žyjeme?” [How Many of Us are Here and Where do We Live?], Nova dumka. Vol. I, No. 2 (Vukovar, 1972), pp. 2832.

211 István, Frankl, “Ruthének” [Ruthenes], in Bács-Bodrogh vármegye egyetemes monografiája. Vol. II (Zombon: Bitterman Nándor és fia könyv és könyvnyomdája, 1886), pp. 406411; Jan, Auerhan, Československá větev v Jugoslavii[The Czechoslovak Branch in Jugoslavia]. In Knihovna československého ústavu zahraničniho. No. 1(Prague, 1930), especially pp. 80–86; “Rusini u Jugoslaviji” [Rusyns in Jugoslavia], in Malorusi i Ukrajina (Zagreb, 1939), p. 84; Myxajlo, Marunčak, Ukrajinci v Rumuniji, Cexo-slovaččyni, Pol'šči, Jugoslaviji [Ukrainians in Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Jugoslavia] (Winnipeg: General Library, 1969), especially pp. 43–56; Oleksa, Horbach, “Ukrainians Abroad: in Yugoslavia,” in Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia (2 vols., Toronto: University of Toronto for the Ukrainian National Association, 19631971), Vol. II, pp. 12481253.

212 The recent Tradycyjna kultura jugoslavjanskyx rusynox [The Traditional Culture of Jugoslavia's Rusyns] (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1971) (320 pp.) contains twenty articles (with resumés in French), most of which deal with ethnographic problems.

213 The works which became the source of controversy are Volodymyr Hnatjuk, “Rus'ki oseli v Batčci” [Rusyn Settlements in the Bačka], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeny Ševčenka, Vol. XXII, No. 2 (L'viv, 1898), pp. 158; Volodymyr Hnatjuk, “Slovaky čy Rusyny?: pryčynok do vyjasnenja sporu pro nacional'nist' zaxidnyx rusyniv” [Slovaks or Rusyns? A Contribution to the Debate concerning the Nationality of the Western Rusyns], ibid., Vol. XLII, No. 4 (1901), pp. 1–81. The folk songs and tales from the Bačka and Banat were published in Volodymyr, Hnatjuk, Etnografični materijaly z Uhors'koji Rusy [Ethnographic Material from Hungarian Rus'], Vols. III, Pt. 2, IV, V, VI. In Etnografičnyj zbirnyk (40 vols., L'viv: Etnografičina komisija Naukovoho tovarystva im. Ševčenka, 18951929), Vols. IX, XXV, XXIX, XXX. The tales and songs from these collections have been transcribed back into Bačka, Rusyn and published in Djura, Latjak (ed.), Narodny prypovidky bačvan'skyx Rusynox po etnografyčnyx materyjalox Volodymyra Hnatjuka [Folk Tales of the Bačka Rusyns from the Ethnographic Material of Volodymyr Hnatjuk] (Ruski Krstur: “Ruske slovo,” 1967) (326 pp.); and Djura, Latjak (ed.), Rusky narodny pysnji u zapysox V. M. Hnatjuka [Rusyn Folk Songs in the Writings of V. M. Hnatjuk] (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1972) (276 pp.). On Hnatjuk's activities in the Voivodina, see Myxajlo Jacenko, “Volodymyr Hnatjuk y bačvansky rusnacy” [Volodymyr Hnatjuk and the Bačka Rusnaks], in ibid., pp. 239–265; and Mykola, Mušynka, “Volodymyr Hnatjuk: peršyj doslidnyk žyttja i narodnoji kul'tury rusynivukrajinciv Jugoslaviji” [Volodymyr Hnatjuk, the First Researcher on the Life and National Culture of the Rusyn-Ukrainians of Jugoslavia], in Djura, Latjak (ed.), Narodny prypovidky bačvan'skyx Rusynox po etnografyčnyx materyjalox Volodymyra Hnatjuka(Ruski Krstur: “Ruske slovo,” 1967), pp. 769.

214 František, Pastrnek, “Rusini jazyka slovenského: odpověd' panu Vlad. Hnatjukovi” [Slovak-Speaking Rusyns: An Answer to Mr. Volodymyr Hnatjuk], in Lamanskii, Vladimir I. (ed.), Stat'i po slavjanověděniju (2 vols., St. Petersburg: Izdanie vtorogo otdělenija Imperatorskoj akademij nauk, 1906), Vol. II, pp. 6078; Sobolevskij, Aleksej I., “Ne Russkie, a Slovaki” [Not Russians but Slovaks], Etnografičeskoe obozrěnie, Vol. X, Book 39, No. 4 (Moscow, 1899), pp. 147149; Olaf, Broch, “Aus der ungarischen Slavenwelt,” Archiv für slavische Philologie, Vol. XXI (Berlin, 1899), pp. 5461.

215 Georgyj, Besermynji, “Nasel'ovanje Rusnacox do Šydu” [The Settlement of Rusyns in Šid], Rusky kalendar 1938 (Ruski Krstur, 1937), pp. 3642; Slavko, Gavrilović, “Prilog istoriji Rusina u Bačkoj sredinom XVIII veka” [A Contribution to the History of the Rusyns in the Bačka in the Mid-Eighteenth Century], Zbornik za društvene nauke Matica srpska. Vol. XLVIII (Novi Sad, 1967), pp. 106113; Onufrij Timko, “Naseljenici Ruskog Krstura i Kucure” [The Population of Ruski Krstur and Kocur], ibid., Vol. L(1968), pp. 129–142; Onufrij, Timko, “Naseljency Kerestura y Kocura” [The Population of Ruski Krstur and Kocur], Švetlosc, Vol. VII, No. 2 (Novi Sad, 1969), pp. 143163; Miljana, Radovanović and Breda, Vlahović, “Prilog proučavanju migracionih kretanja rusina u Bačkoj [A Contribution to the Study of Migratory Movements of Rusyns in the Bačka], in Tradycyjna kultura jugoslavjanskyx rusynox (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1971), pp. 1830.

216 Vlado, Kostelnyk, “Rusyny u Sryme i Slavonyi—už u XIII stolityju”[Rusyns in Srem and Slavonia as Early as the Thirteenth Century], Nova dumka, Vol. II, No. 5 (Vukovar, 1973), pp. 8996.

217 Pekar, Atanasij V., Narysy isloriji cerkvy Zakarpattja: jerarxične oformlennja[Essays on the History of the Church in Transcarpathia: Formation of the Hierarchy]. In Analecta Ordinis Sancti Basilii Magni, 2nd ser., Sect. 2, Vol. XXII, Pt. 1 (Rome, 1967), pp. 177180; Havriil, Kostel'nyk, “Kryživs'ka eparxija” [The Križevci Eparchy], Nyva, Vol. XXX (L'viv, 1932), pp. 134139, 168–179, and 209–215; and Vol. XXXI(1933), pp. 143–147 and 175–181.

218 On this important figure, see Djura Papharhaji, “Havryjil Kostel'nyk: začatnjik umetnjickej lyteratury jugoslavjanskyx rusnacox” [Havryjil Kostel'nyk: The Founder of Belles-Lettres among the Jugoslav Rusnaks], in Havryjil, Kostel'nyk, Poezyja na bačvansko-srymskym ruskym lyteraturnym jazyku (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1970), pp. 787.

219 On the sociological context of this development, see Duličenko, Aleksander D., “Stanovlenie i razvitie rusinskogo literaturnogo jazyka v Jugoslavii”[The Formation and Development of the Rusyn Literary Language in Jugoslavia], Sovetskoe slavjanovedenie, Vol. VIII, No. 3 (Moscow, 1972), pp. 3850; Duličenko, Aleksander D., “Z ystoriyi formovanja ruskoho lyteraturnoho jazyka” [On the History of the Formation of the Rusyn Literary Language], Nova dumka, Vol. II, No. 4 (Vukovar, 1973), pp. 4647; and Oleksa, Horbač, “Literaturna mova bačvans'ko-srims'kyx ukrajinciv (‘rusyniv’)” [The Literary Language of the Bačka and Srem Ukrainians (Rusyns)], Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva im. Ševčenka, Vol. CLXIX (Paris-New York-Munich-Toronto-Sydney, 1962), pp. 265282. For a linguistic analysis, see ibid.; Kočyč, Mykola M., Pravopys ruskoho jazyka [Orthography of the Rusyn Language] (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1971) (160 pp.); and Bidwell, Charles E., “The Language of the Bačka Ruthenians in Yugoslavia,” The Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. X, No. 1 (Madison, Wisconsin, 1966), pp. 3245.

220 The weekly Rusky novyny (Ruski Krstur, 19221941) and the annual Rusky kalendar (Ruski Krstur, 19211940) represented the Rusynophile and occasionally Ukrainophile tendencies, while the biweekly Russkaja Zarja (Novi Sad, 19341940) and the annual Rusky narodnij kalendar “Zarja” (Novi Sad, 19351940) supported a Russophile orientation.

221 For the Rusynophile point of view see Gabor, Kostel'nyk, “Značenje Kerestur” [The Importance of Ruski Krstur], Rusky kalendar 1925 (Ruski Krstur, 1924), pp. 5872; and Gabor, Kostel'nyk, “O nas”[About Us], Rusky kalendar 1929(Ruski Krstur, 1928), pp. 8589. For the Ukrainophile viewpoint see Myxajlo, Kovač, “Zoz ystoryi y nacyonal'noho žyvota rusynox u Srymey Slavonyji”[On the History and National Life of the Rusyns in Srem and Slavonia], Rusky naroclny kalendar 1948 r. (Ruski Krstur, 1947); and Myxajlo, Kovač, “Ryšme už raz tot problem otvoreno y temel'no”[Let Us Resolve Once and for All This Problem Openly and in Depth], Šveilosc, Vol. III, No. 4 (Novi Sad, 1954). For the Russophile view, see Djura, Sabadoš, “Dze teraz našo Ukrajinaše” [Where Are Our Ukrainianizers Now], Rusky kalendar “Zarja” 1940 (Novi Sad, 1939), pp. 8788; and Djura Sabadoš, “Naš narod y joho školovany synove, yntelygencyja” [Our Peopleand Its Educated Sons, the Intelligentsia], ibid., pp. 91–93. See also the less polemical Janko, Sabadoš, “Problemi na liniji opredeljivanja rusin-ukrajinac kod ove narodnosti u SFRJ” [Problems concerning the Basis for defining Rusyn-Ukrainian among the Members of This Nationality in the Federal Republic of Jugoslavia], in Tradycyjna kultura jugoslavjanskyx rusynox (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1971), pp. 239287; and Myxajlo, Kovač, “Jak zme še otrymaly” [How We Have Still Survived], Nova dumka, Vol. I, No. 2 (Vukovar, 1972), pp. 4344.

222 Djura, Latjak, “Rusnacy u NOB” [Rusnaks in the National War of Liberation], Švetlosc. Vol. VIII, Nos. 1–4 (Novi Sad, 1970), pp. 5663, 136–145, 226–231, and 335–343; Vlado, Kostelnyk, Pod červenu zasiavu: xronjika o učaslvovanju rusnacox-ukrajincox u narodnoošljebodytel'nej borby Jugoslavyji [Under the Red Flag: A Chronicle about the Participation of Rusyn-Ukrainians in the National Struggle for Liberation in Jugoslavia] (Novi Sad: “Ruske slovo,” 1971) (320 pp.).

223 See note 98.

224 These and numerous other Rusyn-American periodicals are presently being microfilmed by the Immigration History Research Center at the University of M innesota.

225 See also Edward, Kasinec, “The Carpatho-Ruthenian Immigration in the United States: A Preliminary Note on Sources in Some United States Repositories,” Queens Slavic Papers. Vol. II (Flushing, N. Y., 1975).

226 Warzeski, Walter C., Byzantine Rite Rusins in Carpatho-Ruthenia and America (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Byzantine Seminary Press, 1971) (x, 332 pp.). See also Warzeski, Walter C., “The Rusin Community in Pennsylvania,” in John, Bodnar (ed.), The Ethnic Experience in Pennsylvania (Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press, 1973), pp. 175215.

227 Petr, Koxanik, “Načalo istorii Amerikanskoj Rusi” [The Early History of American Rus] (reprinted in Filipp I. Svistun, Prikarpatskaj Rus'pod vladeniem Avstrii[2nd ed., Trumbull, Conn.: Peter S. Hardy, 1970], pp. 473496); Alex, Simirenko, Pilgrims, Colonists, and Frontiersmen: An Ethnic Community in Transition (New York: The Glencoe Free Press, 1964) (232 pp.).

228 See the Pekar studies referred to in note 41; and those by Warzeski listed in note 226; and Athanasius, Pekar, Our Past and Present: Historical Outlines of the Byzantine Ruthenian Metropolitan Province (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Byzantine Seminary Press, 1974), especially pp. 3660.

229 Gulovich, Stephen C., “The Rusin Exarchate in the United States,” Eastern Churches Quarterly, Vol. VI (London, 1946), pp. 459485; Renoff, Richard M., “Celibacy and Schism: The Loss of Community among the American Carpatho-Ruthenians” (unpublished doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1971) (207 pp.).

230 Russin, Keith S., “Father Alexis G. Toth and the Wilkes-Barre Litigations,” St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly. Vol. XVI, No. 3(Crestwood, N. Y., 1972), pp. 128149; Procko, Bohdan P., “Soter Ortynsky: First Ruthenian Bishop in the United States, 1907–1916,” Catholic Historical Review. Vol. LVIII, No. 4 (Washington, D. C, 1973), pp. 513533; Magocsi, Paul R., “Immigrants from Eastern Europe: The Carpatho-Rusyn Community of Proctor, Vermont,” Vermont History, Vol. XLII, No. 1 (Montpelier, Vt., 1974), pp. 4852.

231 Magocsi, Paul R., “Subcarpathian Immigrant Literature,” Queens Slavic Papers, Vol. II (Flushing, N. Y., 1975).

232 Michael, Roman, “Istorija Greko Kaft. Sojedinenija” [A History of the Greek Catholic Union], in Zoloto-Jubilejnyj Kalendar' Greko Kaft. Sojedinenija v S. S. A., Vol. XLVII (Munhall, Pa.: Greko Kaftoličeska Sojedinenija, 1942), pp. 3974; John, Masich, “Highlights in the Glorious History of the Greek Catholic Union of the U. S. A.,” in Jubilee Almanac of the Greek Catholic Union of the U. S. A., Vol. LXXI (Munhall, Pa.: Greek Catholic Union, 1967), pp. 3395 and 258–263; “Osnovanie Russkago narodnago sojuza, Russkago pravoslavnago obščestva vzaimopomošči, i Obščestva russkix bratstv” [The Establishment of the Russian National Union, the Russian Orthodox Mutual Aid Society, and the Society of Russian Brotherhoods] (reprinted in Filipp I. Svistun, Prikarpatskaja Rus'pod vladeniem Avstrii [2nd ed., Trumbull, Conn.: Peter S. Hardy, 1970], pp. 497514); Joann, Petach, “Organizacija Greko Kaft. Karpatorusskich Spomahaj. Bratstv Svobody” [The Organization of the Greek Catholic Carpatho-Russian Benovolent Association Liberty], in Kalendar' organizacii “Svobody” na hod 1935, Vol. IX (Perth Amboy, N. J.: Vostok Publishing Co., 1934), pp. 7073.

233 See note 117.

234 The introductory chapter, “Zadaci karpatorusskoj istoriografii” [The Tasks of Carpatho-Russian Historiography], in Petrov, Aleksej L., Drevnějšija gramoty po isiorii karpatorusskoj cerkvi i ierarxii 1391–1498g. In Knihovna sboru pro výzkum Slovenska a Podkarpatské Rusi, No. I (Prague: Orbis, 1930), pp. vxix.

235 For a detailed review of Šljaxom Žovtnja: zbirnyk dokumentiv [On the Road to October: A Collection of Documents] (6 vols., Uzhorod: Zakarpats'ke oblasne vydavnyctvo and Vydavnyctvo “Karpaty,” 19571967), see Magocsi, Paul R., “Recent Documentary Publications,” Recenzija, Vol. II, No. 2 (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), pp. 5886.

236 László, Dezsö, A kárpátalja hivatos írásbeliség emlékei—Pamjatniki delovoj pis'mennosti Zakarpat'ja [Examples of Urbarial Contracts in Transcarpathia]. In A Budapesti egytemi könyvtar kiadványai. No. 26 (Budapest, 1965) (III pp.); Laslo, Dèže, “U rbarial'nye zapisi s Maramoroškoj Verxoviny”[Urbarial Records from the Máramaros Highlands], Studiá slavica, Vol. III (Budapest, 1957), pp. 235260; Laslo Dèže, ”O jazyke urbarial'nyx zapisej 1771–1774 gg.” [The Language of Urbarial Records from the Years 1771–1774], ibid., Vol. XI (1965), pp. 70–93; Jožef, Peren'i and Emil', Baleckij, “Ukrainskaja gramota Sofii Batori 1674 g.” [The Ukrainian Charter of Szófia Báthory], Studia Slavica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Vol. V, No. 1–2 (Budapest, 1959), pp. 75104.

1 The author wishes to express his appreciation to the International Research and Exchange Board for support in 1969–1970 and to the staffs of numerous libraries, institutes, and museums in Europe and the United States who provided him with the materials discussed in this study.