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The Dollfuß Ministry: The Democratic Prelude

  • R. John Rath
Extract

The typical dictator of the interwar period was, like Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, already a convinced fascist or authoritarian when he first came to power. This was not the case in Austria, where Engelbert Dollfuß, the semifascist dictator of 1934, was seemingly a genuine democrat when he was appointed chancellor in May 1932. Even his appointment was accidental. Had the Social Democrats accepted Ignaz Seipel's and Karl Buresch's overtures in 1931 to join the Christian Socials in a coalition government, Dollfuß might never have become chancellor. And had they not rejected a second effort by Buresch in April 1932 and demanded new elections, democratic government in Austria would have been strengthened rather than weakened.

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1 On Seipel's and Buresch's overtures, see Rath, R. John, “The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927–1932,” Austrian History Yearbook 27 (1996): 238–39, 242. On Buresch's second effort, see Franz, Schausberger, Letzte Chance für Demokratie. Die Bildung der Regierung Dollfuβ I im Mai 1932. Bruch der österreichischen Proporzdemokratie (Vienna, 1992), 6668;  Franz, Goldner, Dollfuβ im Spiegel der US-Akten. Aus den Archiven des Secretary of State, Washington—bisher unveröffentlichte Berichte der US-Botschaften Wien—Berlin—Rom—London—Paris—Prag (St. Pölten, 1979), 16;  Everhard, Holtmann, “Sozialdemokratische Defensivpolitik vor dem 12. Februar 1934,” in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz. Studien und Dokumentationen 1927 bis 1938, ed. Ludwig, Jedlicka and Rudolf, Neck (Vienna, 1975), 114. On the demand for new elections, see Bauer's May Day speech at Rotterdam, in Otto Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Hugo, Pepper, 9 vols. (Vienna, 19751980), 6:706;  Oskar, Helmer, 50 Jahre erlebte Geschichte (Vienna, [1957]),130; and Schausberger, , Letzte Chance, 119. Later, when he was in exile, Bauer admitted that his call for new elections in April 1932 was a grave mistake;  Otto, Bauer, Austrian Democracy under Fire (London, [1934]), 4142;  originally published as Der Aufstand der österreichischen Arbeiter. Seine Ursachen und seine Wirkungen (1934), which was also published in Bauer, ed. Pepper, 3:953–97.

2 Gulick, Charles A., Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2 vols. (Berkeley, Calif., 1948), 2:994.  See also Rath, R.John, “The Molding of Engelbert Dollfuß as an Agrarian Reformer,” Austrian History Yearbook  28 (1997), esp. 213–14.

3 Otto, Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik. Wie es zum österreichischen Bürgerkrieg kam (Vienna, 1964), 145–46.

4 Gerhard, Jagschitz, “Engelbert Dollfuß 1892 bis 1934,” in Die österreichischen Bundeskanzler. Leben und Werke, ed. Friedrich, Weissensteiner and Erika, Weinzierl (Vienna, 1983), 197.

5 See Anton, Staudinger, “Christlichsoziale Partei und Errichtung des ‘autoritären Ständestaates’ in Österreich,” in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck, 67; and especially Isabella Ackerl, “Das Ende der christlichsozial-großdeutsche Regierungskoalition,” in ibid., 85–92; and idem., Die großdeutsche Volkspartei 1920–1934” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1967), 284–85.

6 Ernst, RudigerPrince, Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini (New York, 1942), 86.

7 Eduard, Ludwig, Österreichs Sendung im Donauraum. Die letzten Dezennien österreichisches Innen- und Aussenpolitik (Vienna, 1954), 102.

8 How prophetic that warning turned out to be!

9 Julius, Deutsch, Ein weiter Weg. Lebenserinnerungen (Vienna, 1960), 184–86.

10 Gordon, Brook-Shepherd, Dollfuss (London, 1961), 88.

11 See the charts in Rot-Weiss-Rot-Buch. Gerechtigkeit für Österreich! Darstellungen, Dokumente und Nachweise zur Vorgeschichte und Geschichte der Okkupation Österreichs, pt. 1: (nach amtlichen Quellen) (Vienna, 1946), 28; and Schausberger, , Letzte Chance, 38.

12 Otto, Bauer, May Day speech at Rotterdam, as printed in the May 5, 1932, issue of the Graz Arbeiterwille, reprinted in Bauer, ed. Pepper, 6:705; and idem., “Der 24. April,” Der Kampf 25 (1932), reprinted in Bauer, ed. Pepper, 9:295.

13 Helmer, , 50 Jahre erlebte Geschichte, 130.

14 Bauer, , May Day speech at Rotterdam, in Bauer, ed. Pepper, 6:706.

15 Rath, , “Molding,” 211;  Ulrich, Kluge, Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit. Studien zur Agrargesellschaft und -Wirtschaft der Republik Österreich 1918 bis 1938 (Stuttgart, 1988), 392.

16 Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 86–87, 72–73.  On Rintelen, see Barbara, Berger, “Ernst Rüdiger Fürst Starhemberg. Versuch einer Biographie” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1967), 77.  On Jakoncig, see Fritz, Braun, “Der politische Lebensweg des Bürgermeisters Richard Schmitz. Beiträge zur Innenpolitik der Ersten Republik Österreich und zur Geschichte der Christlichsozialen Partei” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1968), 230.

17 Eva, Dollfuß, Mein Vater, Hitlers erstes Opfer (Vienna, 1994), 89.

18 Berger, , “Starhemberg,” 76–77;  Kurt, Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich (Vienna, 1937), 182–84;Schausberger, , Letzte Chance, 94–99;Edmondson, C.Earl, The Heimwehr and Austrian Politics, 1918–1936 (Athens, Ga., 1978), 159–60.

19 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 24, 1932, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser. (hereafter, Documenti), vol. 12 (Rome, 1987), doc. no. 57, p. 74.

20 Franz, Langoth, Kampf um Österreich. Erinnerungen eines Politikers (Wels, 1951), 70.

21 Miklas to Dollfuß, Vienna, May 20, 1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna) (hereafter, AVA), Bundeskanzleramt, Präsidium (hereafter, Präs.), no. 3830-Pr./32.

22 See Rath, , “Deterioration of Democracy,” 231–34.

23 Miklas to Dollfuß, Vienna, May 20, 1932 (a second letter), AVA, Präs., no. 3830-Pr./32; Dollfuß to president of the Nationalrat, May 20, 1932, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates (hereafter Nationalrat), 81st session, May 27, 1932, 4th legislative period (1930–32), 4:2147–48.See also Theodor, Veiter, “Das 34er Jahr.” Bürgerkrieg in Österreich (Vienna, 1984), 9496.

24 See Adam, Wandruszka's introduction to the Protokolle des Ministerrates der Ersten Republik, pt. 8: 20. Mai 1932 bis 25. Juli 1934 (Kabinett Dr. Engelbert Dollfuβ), ed. Gertrude, Enderle-Burcel, 7 vols. (Vienna, 19801986), l:xv. Hereafter, Ministerrat, Dollfuβ; all citations are from vol. 1.

25 Eva, Nicoladoni-Dollfuß, “Engelbert Dollfuß—Agrarpolitiker und Staatsmann,” in Engelbert Dollfuβ, Politiker, Mensch, CV'er. Zeitschrift des Wiener Cartellverbandes, no. 105, 1984, p. 8.

26 Brook-Shepherd, Dollfuss, 86.See also Josef, Leb, “Der Cartellverband katholischer Österreichischer Studentenverbindungen (OCV),” in Kirche in Österreich 1918–1965, ed. Erika, Weinzierl, 2 vols. (Vienna, 19661967), 2:1213; and Peter, Kraus, “CV und Politik in Österreich 1918–1938,” in Geistiges Leben im Österreich der Ersten Republik. Auswahl der bei den Synposien in Wien vom 11. bis 13. November 1980 und am 27. und 28. Oktober 1982 gehaltenen Referate (Vienna, 1986), 109–11.

27 As quoted in Ursula, Benedikt, “Vinzenz Schumy 1877–1962; eine politische Biographie” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1966), 168.

28 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 24, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 57, p. 75.

29 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 30, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 69, p. 95. On the situation in 1929–30, see Rath, , “Deterioration of Democracy,” 225–34.

30 Ludwig, Reichhold, Opposition gegen den autoritären Staat. Christlicher Antifaschismus 1934–1938 (Vienna, 1964), 16;  Julius, Eder, Kanzler Dollfuβ. Seine österreichische Sendung (Vienna, 1933), 13.

31 Dollfuß's speech declaring his government's policies, May 27, 1932, Nationalrat, 81st session, 4th legislative period, 4:2148. Subsequent quotations are from 2149–52.

32 Bauer's speech in the Nationalrat on May 27, 1932, ibid., 2152. Subsequent quotations are from 2152–60.

33 See Ministerrat, Dollfuß, no. 796 of May 24, 1932, para. 7, pp. 711; and the circular letter to the provincial governors dated May 19, 1932, ibid., appendix F, pp. 16–17.

34 For a discussion of the Pfrimer putsch, see Rath, , “Deterioration of Democracy,” 240–41.

35 Straffner's speech in the Nationalrat on May 31, 1932, Nationalrat, 82nd session, 4th legislative period, 4:2180–81.

36 Nationalrat, 82nd session, May 31, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4:2205–6.

37 Renner to Alfred, Gürtler, Vienna, June 1, 1932, in Karl Renner in Dokumenten and Erinnerungen, ed. Siegfried, Nasko (Vienna, 1982), 121.

38 Rieth, to Bülow, Vienna, Feb. 18, 1933, Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–1945, ser. C (1933–34), The Third Reich: First Phase, 3 vols. (Washington, D.C., 19571959), vol. 1, doc. no. 25, p. 53.

39 Ulrich, Kluge, “Engelbert Dollfuß. Agrarpolitiker in der Krisenzeit 1922–1934. Versuch einer biographischen Annährung,” Christliche Demokratie, 3. Jahrgang, no. 2 (06 1985), Agrarpolitik Österreichs im 20. Jahrhundert, 130.

40 Note by Orme Sargent to Campbell, R. H., Foreign Office, July 4, 1933, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1929–1939, 2nd ser., vol. 5 (1933) (London, 1956), doc. no. 233, p. 397.

41 Franz, Thoma's speech in the Nationalrat on May 31, 1932, Nationalrat, 82nd session, 4th legislative period, 4:2194. For a list of these concessions, see Angela, Feldmann, “Landbund für Österreich. Ideologie—Organisation—Politik” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1967), 169–72.

42 Franz, Kolb's speech in the Nationalrat on May 27, 1932, Nationalrat, 81st session, 4th legislative period, 2170–74.

43 Hueber's speech in the Nationalrat on May 31, 1932, Nationalrat, 82nd session, 4th legislative period, 2186–89.

44 Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 69.

45 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 2, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 35, p 46.

46 Morreale to Auriti, n.d., appended to Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, June 2, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 74, p. 102.

47 Ghigi to Auriti, Rome, June 15, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 98, p. 130.

48 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, June 2, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 74, p. 100.

49 Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 90.

50 Grandi to Auriti, Rome, July 19, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 159, p. 234. See also Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, June 20, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 106, p. 142.

51 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 25, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 175, p. 254.

52 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 24, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 57, p. 75.

53 Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, June 2, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 74, p. 99.

54 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, June 27, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 127, p. 170; emphasis added. A similar account based on Hungarian documents can be found in Lajos, Kerekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie. Mussolini, Gömbös und die Heimwehr (Vienna, 1966), 108. The Hungarian and Italian documents were not available for use by Edmondson, C. Earl, the author of The Heimwehr and Italian Politics, 1918–1936, and Pauley, Bruce F., who wrote Hahnenschwanz and Hakenkreuz. Steirischer Heimatschutz und österreichischer Nationalsozialismus 1918–1934 (Vienna, 1972). Starhemberg wrote nothing about this and other conspiracies. Since the usual aim of a memoir is to leave the impression on the reader that the author wants him to have, Starhemberg certainly did not want his readers to know how he secretly conspired to overthrow his friend's government at the same time he was publicly pretending to be its strong supporter.

55 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, June 27, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 127, pp. 170–71.

56 Starhemberg had gone to Rome to confer with Mussolini during the first half of June. For details of the visit, which dovetail only in part with Geisser Celesia's account, see Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 89–94.

57 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, June 30, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 131, p. 176.

58 Ibid., 177.

59 Ibid., 178.

60 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, July 7, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 144, p. 207.

61 Kerekes, , Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 106–7; Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 90–93; Grandi to Auriti, Rome, July 19, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 159, p. 234; Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 21, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 169, pp. 247–48.

62 Ministerratsprotokol no. 782 of Apr. 9, 1932, AVA, Carton 148, para. 4, fols. 1–14; Buresch to Eric Drummond, Vienna, May 9, 1932, annex A of para. 1 of no. 793 of May 9, 1932, fols. 1–6. For a solid study of the Lausanne loan, see Grete, Klingenstein, Die Anleihe von Lausanne. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ersten Republik in den Jahren 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1965).

63 Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 795 of May 20, 1932, para. 1, p. 1.

64 Leopold, Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934 (Vienna, 1934), 154.

65 Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 798 of May 30, 1932, pp. 2122, and the annex to it, pp. 2325. On Schüller, see Auriti to Grandi, Vienna, May 7, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 40, p. 52.

66 Kunschak, , Österreich 1918–1934, 155; Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 809 of June 23, 1932, para. 2, p. 263.

67 Grandi to Auriti, Lausanne, June 22, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 109, p. 146; Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 813 of July 4, 1932, para. 1, pp. 297–99.

68 For a detailed description of the tortuous last-minute negotiations before the completion of the protocol, see Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 816 of July 12, 1932, para. 3, pp. 342–45. See also ibid., no. 817 of July 19, 1932, para. 1, p. 372.

69 Preamble of the Lausanne protocol, Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1932, 5. Stuck, no. 12, pp. 2930 (quotations); p. 35 (amounts); article 2, para. 4, pp. 3132 (length of loan). A copy of the protocol and its annexes is printed in Klingenstein, Die Anleihe von Lausanne, appendix A, 133–40. On amounts, see also report of Eduard Heinl, minister of commerce and trade, on Aug. 17, 1932, Nationalrat, 98th session, 4th legislative period, 4:2508.

70 Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1932, 5. Stück, no. 12, articles 4–7, pp. 3233; annexes, pp. 36–41; quotation is article 6, para. 2, p. 33.

71 Minutes of the July 7, 1932, meeting of the Nationalrat's chief committee, AVA, Christlichsoziale Partei, Parlaments Klub, Carton 63: Staatskorrespondenz, no number given.

72 Klingenstein, , Die Anleihe von Lausanne, 78–79.

73 Schumy, , Nachlaβ, Landbund (manuscript in the Vienna Institut für Zeitgeschichte), 132; Benedikt, “Vinzenz Schumy 1878–1962,” 169.

74 Kerekes, , Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 111.

75 Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, July 19, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 158, pp. 233–34.

76 Grandi to Geisser Celesia, Rome, July 20, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 160, p. 238.

77 As quoted in Berger, “Starhemberg,” 82–83.

78 Clauzel to Herriot, Vienna, Aug. 20, 1932, Documents diplomatiques français 1932–1939, 1st ser. (1932–35), vol. 1 (Paris, 1964), doc. no. 113, p. 201.

79 Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, official minutes, para. 1, p. 428. See also ibid., no. 819 of July 28, 1932, rough draft, para. 1, p. 445. Subsequent quotations are from official minutes, pp. 428–29.

80 Ibid., 429–32; rough draft no. 819, pp. 445–48. The unofficial draft copy contains the following statement that has been omitted in the official minutes: “The chairman [Dollfuß] reported that legal press regulations that would be satisfactory to the Heimatblock had once been prepared on the basis of the economic enabling act. He requests the council of ministers to authorize the submission of the provisions that were laid aside at that time for approval in the next session of the chief committee. The council of ministers gave the requested authorization”; ibid., 445.

81 Dollfuß to Starhemberg, Vienna, July 28, 1932, AVA, Präs., no. 5886-Pr./32. The minutes of the council of ministers housed in the Verwaltungsarchiv contain a resolution certifying that “the Heimwehr's wishes in the writing lying before us are in accord with the program of the government, which is resolved under all circumstances to carry it out. It empowers the federal chancellor to reply to the above letter in this sense.” Beschlussprotokoll of the 819th session of the Ministerrat on July 28, 1932, AVA, Carton 151, p. 2.

82 Berger, , “Starhemberg,” 83–84.

83 Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 819 of July 28, 1932 (afternoon session), para. 6, p. 437.

84 Berger, , “Starhemberg,” 84.

85 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 31, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 184, pp. 265–66; emphasis added.

86 Dollfuß's speech in the Nationalrat on July 28, 1932, Nationalrat, 94th session, 4th legislative period, 4:2425-26. The entire speech is on pp. 2520–26.

87 Minutes of the meeting of the Social Democratic Party's executive committee on July 28, 1932 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters in Vienna), fols. 2335–36.

88 Ellenbogen's speech in the Nationalrat on July 28, 1932, Nationalrat, 94th session, 4th legislative period, 4:2426, 2432.

89 Straffner's speech in the Nationalrat on July 28, 1932, ibid., 2433–40; continued on July 29, 1932, ibid., 2441–43.

90 Kunschak's speech in the Nationalrat on July 29, 1932, ibid., 2445.

91 Foppa's speech in the Nationalrat on July 29, 1932, ibid., 2462. For the entire speech, see 2449–62.

92 Renner's speech in the Nationalrat on Aug. 2, 1932, Nationalrat, 96th session, 4th legislative period, 4:2476. See also 2484 (vote).

93 Klingenstein, , Die Anleihe von Lausanne, 88–89.

94 Clauzel to Herriot, Vienna, Aug. 5, 1932, Documents diplomatiques français 19321939, 1st ser., vol. 1, doc. no. 89, p. 147.

95 Nationalrat, 96th session, Aug. 2, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4:2484; minutes of the Aug. 20, 1932, session of the chief committee of parliament, AVA, Christlichsoziale Partei, Parlaments-Klub, Carton 63, no number given; report of Minister Eduard Heinl to the Nationalrat on Aug. 17, 1932, Nationalrat, 98th session, 4th legislative period, 4:2508–9.

96 Nationalrat, 98th session, Aug. 17, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4: 2527–28. See also Klingenstein, , Die Anleihe von Lausanne, 91; Schuschnigg, , Dreimal Österreich, 188; and Berger, , “Starhemberg,” 85.

97 Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 188–89.

98 Haubenberger's speech in the Bundesrat on Aug. 19, 1932, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Bundesrat (hereafter, Bundesrat), 179th session, 4th legislative period, p. 1877. For all the debates on Aug. 19, 1932, see 1857–1,905. Vote, on 1905.

99 Schuschnigg, , Dreimal Österreich, 189; Orsini Baroni to Mussolini, Berlin, Aug. 22, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 212, p. 298.

100 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aug. 16, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 205, p. 288. See also Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aug. 12, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 184, p. 265.

101 See the letter and telegrams from Vinzl and Renner's report in regard to what he did about them in Nationalrat, 101st session, Aug. 23, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4:2625–26.

102 Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 190–91.

103 Foppa's speech in the Nationalrat on Aug. 23, 1932, Nationalrat, 101st session, 4th legislative period, 4:2629–32.

104 Minutes of the Aug. 23, 1932, session of the Verband der sozialdemokratischen Abgeordneten und Bundesräte (housed in the archives of the Association for the History of the Labor Movement [Vienna]).

105 Glöckel's speech in the Nationalrat on Aug. 23, 1932, Nationalrat, 101st session, 4th legislative period, 4:2628. For the entire speech, see 2628–30.

106 Aigner's and Hainzl's speechs in the Nationalrat on Aug. 23, 1932, ibid., 2632–39.

107 Nationalrat, 101st session, Aug. 23, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4:2640–41.

108 Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 192.

109 Clauzel to Herriot, Vienna, July 27, 1932, Documents diplomatique français 1932–1939, vol. 1, doc. no. 71, p. 114.

110 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Sept. 22, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 277, p. 383.

111 Veiter, , “Das 34er Jahr,” 102.

112 In the new elections held in November 1932, the National Socialists, however, elected only 196 deputies, and their percentage of the popular vote fell to 33.1 percent.

113 The information about conditions in Germany was drawn largely from Craig, Gordon A., Germany, 1866–1945 (New York, 1978), passim; and Hajo, Holborn, A History of Modern Germany, 1840–1945 (New York, 1969), passim. For Robert Hecht's life and work, see Peter, Huemer, Robert Hecht und die Zerstörung der Demokratie in Österreich. Eine historisch-politische Studie (Munich, 1975).

114 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Sept. 22, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 277, p. 382–83.

115 Ibid.

116 On Ach's resignation, see Miklas to Dollfuß, Vienna, Sept. 28, 1932, AVA, Präs., no. 7194-Pr./32. On Dollfuß assuming the portfolio, see Ministerrat, Dollfuß, no. 826 of Sept. 29, 1932, para. 1, p. 566.

117 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party, Oct. 20, 1932, in Protokolle des Klubvorstandes der Christlichsozialen Partei 1932–1934, ed. Walter, Goldinger (Vienna, 1980), 20, 23;  Langoth, , Kampf urn Östemich, 88–89;  Franz, Winkler, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich (Zurich, 1935), 22;  Ludwig, , Österreichs Sendung im Donauraum, 108;  Franz, Oswald, “Die Stellung von Major a. D. Emil Fey in der Politik der Ersten Republik und des Ständestaates” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1964), 55.

118 Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 99.

119 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party, Oct. 20, 1932, in Protokolle des Klubvorstandes, ed. Goldinger, , 20, 21; Miklas to Dollfuß, Vienna, 10. 17, 1932, AVA, Präs., no. 3830-Pr./32;Dollfuß to the president of the Nationalrat, Oct. 17, 1932, Nationalrat, 102nd session, Oct. 20, 1932, 4th legislative period, 4:2644.

120 Dollfuß to Fey, Oct. 24, 1932, AVA, Präs., no. 3830-Pr./32.

121 Winkler, , Die Diktatur in Oesterreich, 22.

122 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party, Protokolle des Klubvorstandes, ed. Goldinger, 21–22.

123 Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini, 98–99.

124 Clauzel to Herriot, Vienna, Aug. 20, 1932, Documents diplomatiques français 1932–1939, 1st ser., vol. 1, doc. no. 113, p. 201.

125 On the seizure of property, see Leichter, , Clanz und Ende der Ersten Republik, 153;  Friedrich, Scheu, Der Weg ins ungewisse. Österreichs Schicksalskurve 1929–1938 (Vienna, 1972), 108; and Gulick, , Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2:997. For debate in cabinet, see Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 827 of Sept. 30, 1932, including especially appendix B, 579–95. On the government decree, see Verordnung des Bundesministers für Justiz im Einvernehmung mit dem Bundesminister für Finanzen vom 1. Oktober 1932 über die Geltendmachung der im 7. Credit-Anstalts-Gesetze angeführten Haftungen, Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1932, 79. Stück, dated Oct. 1, 1932, no. 303, 1103–4.

126 Schuschnigg's remarks at the Sept. 30 meeting of the council of ministers, Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 827, p. 582.

127 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Sept. 22, 1932, Documenti, vol. 12, doc. no. 277, p. 383; Dollfuß to the chairman of the Bundesrat, Oct. 7, 1932, Bundesrat, 181st session on Dec. 20, 1932, 4th legislative period, p. 1962.

128 Ministerrat, Dollfuβ, no. 829 of Oct. 13, 1932, para. 10, p. 608, and no. 830 of Oct. 18, 1932, para. 5, pp. 614–15; Kunschak, , Österreich 1918–1934, 170;Gregory, J. D., Dollfuss and His Times (London, 1935), 185.

129 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 27, 1933, Documenti, vol. 13 (Rome, 1989), doc. no. 142, p. 142.

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