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Post-Austrian Lemberg: War Commemoration, Interethnic Relations, and ban Identity in Lľviv, 1918-1939

  • Anna Veronika Wendland
Extract

East and east central European cities are a neglected field of research in urban history. While a certain number of publications exist on select urban phenomena such as urban Jewry, only recently have attempts been made to focus research on entire cities. Studies published in the last decade have tried to discover the unknown urban world of multiethnic societies in countries such as Russia, Poland, Ukraine, and the Baltic states. Researchers must cope with specific problems. General city histories are very rare, with the exception of several “city biographies” dating from the 1920s and 1930s. Archival sources are rather poorly documented in inventories, and holdings (especially on the territory of the former Soviet Union) suffered wartime losses and are often scattered. Multilingual skills and knowledge of “exotic” languages such as Ukrainian, Lithuanian, or Yiddish are mandatory. And finally, the usual approaches do not lead to satisfactory results. “Traditional” urban history deals with Western European and North American urban societies that were shaped by a special set of social, economic, and juridical circumstances, in which longstanding city autonomy, rapid modernization since the eighteenth century, a powerful city bourgeoisie, and highly developed and differentiated public spheres played important roles. When one applies the standards of Western city development to the multinational Central and Eastern European cities during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the latter appear to be underdeveloped and lacking in many of the institutional preconditions that make a mere urban agglomeration a city. Such considerations may even be applied to a city such as Lemberg (L'viv in Ukrainian, Lwow in Polish), which belonged to Austria-Hungary until 1918, and was always regarded as a stronghold of “Vienneseness” and “Europeaness” in the “East.”

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1 See, for example, Vladimir, Melamed, Evrei vo Ľvove, Xlll-pervaja polovina XX veka. Sobytija—obščestvo—ljudi (The Jews of Ľviv from the thirteenth to the middle of the twentieth century) (Ľviv, 1994);Henri, Minczeles, Vilna, Vilno, Vilnius, La Jérusalem de la Lithuanie (Paris, 1992);Leyzer, Ron, Jerusalem of Lithuania (New York, 1978);Gabriela, Zalewska, Ludność żydowska w Warszawie w okresie miedzywojennym (The Jewish population in Warsaw in the interwar era) (Warsaw, 1996); Steven J. Zipperstein, The Jews of Odessa: A Cultural History, 1794–1881 (Stanford, 1986). For a literature survey, see Christoph, Schmidt, “Neue Literatur zur Geschichte der Juden in Litauen,Zeitschrift für Ostmitteleuropa-Forschung 50 (2001): 448–49.

2 Selected recent works about cities in Eastern and Central Europe include Hofmann, Andreas R. and Anna Veronika, Wendland, eds., Stadt und Öffentlichkeit in Ostmitteleuropa. Beiträge zur Entstehung moderner Urbanität zwischen Berlin und Charkiv, Tallinn und Triest (Stuttgart, 2002);Gerhard, Melinz and Susan, Zimmerman, eds., Wien, Prag, Budapest. Urbanisierung, Kommunalpolitik, gesellschaftliche Konflikte (1867–1918) (Vienna, 1996);Václav, Ledvinka and Jiff, Pešek, Dějiny českých měst, vol. 1, Praha (History of Czech cities, vol. 1, Prague) (Prague, 2000);Jacek, Purchla, Krakau unter österreichischer Herrschaft 1846–1918. Faktoren seiner Entwicklung (Vienna, 1993);Harald, Heppner, ed., Czernowitz. Die Geschichte einer ungewöhnlichen Stadt (Cologne, 2000);Hamm, Michael F.Kiev: A Portrait, 1800–1917 (Princeton, 1995);Patricia, Herlihy, Odessa: A History, 1794–1914 (Cambridge, 1991);Guido, Hausmann, Universität und städtische Gesellschaft in Odessa 1865–1917. Soziale und nationale Selbstorganisation an der Peripherie des Zarenreiches (Stuttgart, 1998);Tanja, Penter, Odessa 1917: Revolution an der Peripherie (Cologne, 2000);Wladimir, Berelovitch, Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg (Paris, 1996);Solomon, Volkov, St. Petersburg: A Cultural History (London, 1996);Ruble, Blair A., Leningrad: Staging a Soviet City (Berkeley, 1990);Karl, Schlögel, Jenseits des Grofien Oktober: Das Laboratorium der Modeme. Petersburg 1909–1921 (Berlin, 1988);Chase, William J., Workers, Society, and the Soviet State: Labor and Life in Moscow, 1918–1929 (Urbana, 1990);David Lloyd, Hofmann, Peasant Metropolis: Social Identities in Moscow, 1929–1941 (Ithaca, 1994).New literature referring to Ľviv's history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries includes Kazimierz, Karolczak and Henryk, Zaliriski, eds., Lwów. Miasto — społeczeiistwo—kultura (Ľviv: City—society—culture), vols. 1–4 (Cracow, 1995-2002);Christoph, Mick, “Nationalisierung in einer mula'ethnischen Stadt. Interethnische Konflikte in Lemberg 1890–1920,Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 40 (2000): 113–46;Isabel, Röskau-Rydel, Kultur an der Peripherie des Habsburgerreiches. Die Geschichte des Bildungswesens und der kulturellen Einrichtungen in Lemberg von 1772–1848 (Wiesbaden, 1998);Anna Veronika, Wendland, “Stadt zwischen zwei Kriegen. Lemberg in der Zweiten Republik, 1918–1939,” in Lemberg—Lwów—Ľviv. Eine Stadt im Schnittpunkt europäischer Kulturen, ed. Thomas, Held (Cologne, forthcoming);Wendland, , “Nachbarn als Verräter. Nah'onalisierungsprozesse, Erinnerungspolitik und städtische Öffentlichkeiten im Lemberg der Zwischenkriegszeit,” in Hofmann, and Wendland, , Stadt und Öffentlichkeit, 149–69.

3 Later, I will use today's name of the city, Ľviv.

4 Marian, Tyrowicz, Wspomnienia o życiu kulturalnym i obyczajowym Lwowa 1918–1939 (Remembrances on the cultural and everyday life of Ľviv) (Wroclaw, 1991), mentions wiedenszczyzna as a distinct style of Lw6w city culture before and after 1918 (p. 43).

5 Urbane Identität und rationale Integration: Lemberg und Wilna, 1900–1939 (Geisteswissenschaftliches Zentrum für Geschichte und Kultur Ostmitteleuropas, Leipzig).

6 Jay, Winter and Jean-Louis, Robert, Capital Cities at War: Paris, London, Berlin, 1914–1919, Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare, 2 (Cambridge, 1997), 324; Benedict R. Anderson, Imagined Communities (London, 1991).

7 For a short introduction to the history of the Uniate (from 1774, Greek Catholic) Church,see John, Paul Himka, Religion and Nationality in Western Ukraine: The Greek Catholic Church and the Ruthenian National Movement in Galicia, 1867–1900 (Montreal, 1999), 58.

8 Between 1869 and 1910, Ľviv's population grew from 87,109 to 195,796; 68.3 percent of this growth was due to immigration. See Stanistaw, Hoszowski, Ekonomiczny rozwdj Lwowa (The economic development of Ľviv) (Ľviv, 1935), 6465.Of the 154,481 inhabitants of Ľviv in 1900, only 68,414 were bom in the city; the rest (81,059) were bom elsewhere, mostly in Galicia. See Die ortsansassige Bevölkerung der Grossstädte nach der Gebürtigkeit,” Österreichische Statistik (hereafter OSt) 63, no. 2. (1903): 4852,table 4. Between 1900 and 1910, Ľviv's population grew at a rate of 28.92 percent, 17.20 percent of it due to immigration and 11.72 percent from natural growth. SeeTable 2, Zunahme und Abnahme der anwesenden Bevölkerung,” ÖSt, Neue Folge 1 (1917): 3536.

9 Alexander, Granach, Da geht tin Mensch. Roman eines Lebens (Munich, 1987), 174f.

10 According to the last Austrian census (1910), Ľviv had an overall population of 206,113 inhabitants, of whom 51 percent were Roman Catholic, 19 percent Greek, Catholic, and 28 percent “Israelite” (Jewish).Almost 86 percent of Ľviv inhabitants with Austrian citizenship spoke Polish as their Umgangssprache, 11 percent spoke Ruthenian (Ukrainian), and 3 percent spoke German. See “Die ortsanwesende Bevölkerung und Wohnbevolkerung,” 43;“Die anwesende Bevölkerung nach der Religion,” 80, table 3; andUmgangssprache von je 100 anwesenden österreichischen Staatsbürgern,” 63, all in ÖSt, Neue Folge 1 (1917).According to the first Polish census (1921), Ľviv had an overall population of 219,392 inhabitants, of whom 51.3 percent were Roman Catholic, 12.1 percent were Greek Catholic, 35 percent were "of mosaic confession” (Jewish). See Ľviv Magistrate statistics, 1928, Derzhavnyi Archiv Ľvivskoii Oblasti (DALO), fond 2/opys 26/ sprava 2048/arkuš5.

11 Stanisraw, Vincenz, Po stronie dialogu (Toward dialog), vol. 2 (Warsaw, 1983), 109–31, especially 120–28;Everett, Leila P., “The Rise of Jewish National Politics in Galicia, 1903–1907,” in Nation-Building and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia, ed. Andrei, Markovits and Sysyn, Frank F., 149–77; and, in the same volume, Ezra, Mendelsohn, “Jewish Assimilation in Ľviv:The Case of Wilhelm Feldman,” 94–110.

12 On city development and the competition between Ľviv and Cracow, see Orton, Lawrence D., “The Formation of Modern Cracow (1866–1914),Austrian History Yearbook 19–20, Part 1 (1983-1984), 105–17;Jacek, Purchla, Jak powstat nowoczesny Kraków (The emergence of Cracow) (Cracow, 1990), 8182;Purchla, , Matecznik Polski (Poland's refuge) (Cracow, 1992);Hoszowski, , Ekonomiczny, 5564.

13 Already in 1910, the national-democratic (Endecja) press had its biggest success in Ľviv, not in traditionally conservative Cracow. See Harald, Binder, “Politische Öffentlichkeit in Galizien: Lemberg und Krakau im Vergleich,” in Hofmann and Wendland, Stadt und Öffentlichkeit, 259–80.On the Polish-Ukrainian conflict up to 1914, see Kosť, Levytskyi, Istoriia politychnoii dutnky halyts´kych ukraiintsiv 1848–1914 na pidstavi spomyniv (History of the political thought of the Galician Ukrainians based on memoirs) (Ľviv, 1926);Wilhelm, Feldman, Geschichte der politischen Idem in Polen seit dessen Teilungen (1795–1914) (1917; reprint, Osnabriick 1964), 123–28,206–208,210–12; 215–309,313–24,401–06,416–22;Marian, Mudry, “Od Austrii do Polski: Problem uniwersytetu ukraińskiego we Lwowie w pierwszej ćwierci XX w.” (From Austria to Poland: The Ukrainian university problem in Ľviv during the first quarter of the twentieth century), in Lwów, ed. Karolczak, and Żaliński, , 4:291–310.

14 Winter, and Robert, , Capital Cities, 20, 22.

15 Manfried, Rauchensteiner, Der Tod des Doppeladlers. Österreich-Ungarn und der Erste Weltkrieg (Graz, 1993);Anna Veronika, Wendland, Die Russophilen in Galizien. Ukrainische Konservative zwischen Österreich und Ruβiland, 1848–1915 (Vienna, 2001), 512–62.

16 As an example, see the paintings of Wojdech, Kossak, which were popular in interwar Poland, Młody obronca (The young defender) and Orleta—obrona cmentarza (The Eaglets—Defense of the cemetery), reproduced on the dust jackets of Obrona Lwowa. Zródfa do dziejów walk o Lwów i województwa pohtdniowo—zvschodnie 1918–1920. Relacje uczfstników (The Defense of Lwów. Sources on the history of the struggle over Lwów and the southeastern voyvodships, 1918–1920. Records of participants), vols. 1 and 2 (1933–36, reprint, Warsaw, 1991);for an example of sentimental Obrona Lwowa lyrics, see Henryk, Zbierzchowski, “Lwowski Listopad,” in Lwów. Wspomnienie lat szcześiwych (Lwów: Memory of happy years), ed. Janina, Augustyn-Puziewicz (Wrocraw, 1994), 119–20:I wtedy zjawia znów w pamieci ten ajłnierz mały/Który obronł Lwów dlą Polski chwały./Czapka wieksza od głowy, pod która widać Włos płowy/I twarz rumieni świeża. Karabin dłuższy od żotnierza…. Czyli potrafi ono obroničpolski gród?/Ale w tym dziecku jakiś duch, który starczy za dwóch!/Ale w tym dziecku jakiś głód, by walki otrzymać chrzest. (And then again in one's mind appears that little soldier/Who defended Lwów for Poland's glory. /A czapka too big for his head, not covering his wild flaxen hair/And a fresh face, blushing. The rifle longer than the soldier…. And how was he able to defend the Polish bastion?/But there is spirit in that child enough for two!/But there is eagerness in that child to receive his baptism of fire.)

17 On Obrona Lwowa events, see Ludwik, Mroczka, Spór o Galicjpwschodnią 1914–1923 (The conflict over Eastern Galicia) (Cracow, 1998), 90125;Melamed, , Evrei vo Ľvove, 134r-35;Wacław, Wierzbieniec, “Związek Zydów Uczestników Walk o Niepodległrośč Polski we Lwowie (1932–1939)” (The Association of Jewish Veterans of the War for Poland's Independence in Ľviv), in Lwów, ed. Karolczak and Zaliński, 2:287–88;Jerzy, Tomaszewski, “Lwów, 22. listopada 1918r.” (Ľviv, November 22,1918), Przegląd historyczny 75, no. 2 (1984): 279–85;Henryka, Kramarz, “Ze sceny walk polsko-ukraińskich o Lwów. Życie mieszkańców w warunkach wojny polsko-ukraińiskiej” (From the theater of the Polish-Ukrainian struggles over Ľviv. Everyday life at war), in Galicja ijej dziedzictwo (Galicia and its heritage), vol. 1 (Rrzeszów, 1994), 99115; testimonies of combatants in a magistrate file concerning alleged cooperation of a Greek Catholic city employee, Julia, Pikas, with the Ukrainians, 1935–36,

18 “Eaglets,” an allusion to the Polish heraldic animal, the white eagle.

19 “Lwów's children,” originally a quotation from a pre-World War I popular song about Ľviv recruits sent to Bosnia, “Marsz lwowskich dzieci,” in Jerzy, Habela and Sofja, Kurzowa, eds., Lwowskie piosenki uliczne, kabaretowe i okolicznokiowe do roku 1939 (Ľviv cabaret, street and occasional songs to 1939) (Cracow, 1989), 239.

20 See programs of November holidays in the Ľviv City Magistrate records: Związek Obrońiców Lwowa, Projekt programy uroczystości obchodu 10-lecia Obrony Lwowa (Association of the Defenders of Ľviv. Program outline of the festivities on occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Defense of Ľviv), May 1928, DALO f. 2/26/384/7f.;Program uroczystosci 10-tej rocznicy Obrony Lwowa: w czasie od 31. X.-22. XI. 1928 r. (Program of the festivities on occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Defense of Ľviv, Oct. 31-Nov. 2,1923), DALO f. 2/26/384/ 33ff.;Projekt programu uroczystosci obchodu 10-lecia Obrony Lwowa, DALO f. 2/26/384/35v.;Program uroczystosci I. Okregowych Zawodów Strzeleckich z broni matokalibrowej we Lwowie (Program of the festivities of the First District Competitions of the Small Caliber Rifle Association in Ľviv) (Nov. 3, 1928), DALO f. 2/26/384/37–39;November celebration programs, 1936, DALO f. 2/26/1135/28, 31.In 1920, the city was even awarded a high military decoration “for defending the polskošć” of the borderlands. See Józeí Białynia, Chołodecki, Lwów kawalerem krzyta “Virtuti militari” (Ľviv, a city awarded the Virtuti Militari Cross) (Ľviv, 1922).Records of the Zwiazek Obrońiców Lwowa that illustrate the society's cultural and lobbyist activities are in DALO, f. 266 op. 1, records of the Society for the Investigation of the History of the Defense of Lwów in DALO, f. 257, op. 1.The society published the above cited source compilation Obrona Lwowa.

21 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia; and idem, W poszukiwaniu siebie…. Wspomnienia i refleksje (In search of myself…. Memoirs and considerations), vol. 1, Pod lwowskim niebem (Under the sky of Ľviv) (Lublin, 1988).

22 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 22, 24, 39, 44, refers (among other authors) to Artur Schröder and his short story collection titled Orleta; and Augustyn-Puziewicz, Lwów, 117–20.

23 For the use of the slogan Semper fidelis, see note 24, city guides and texts on Ľviv history; Anna Veronika, Wendland, “Semper fidelis: Lwów jako narodowy mit Polaków i Ukraińców (1867–1939)” (Semper fidelis: Ľviv as a national myth of Poles and Ukrainians, 1867–1939), in Lwów, ed. Karolczak and Żaliński, 4:263–74.

24 For images in memories and city guides of the interwar era, see Medyifeki, A., Lwów. Ilnstmwany przewodnik dla zwiedzajacych miasto (Ľviv. Illustrated guide for visitors) (Ľviv, 1937), preface; Mieczysław, Orłowicz, Ilustrowany przewodnik po Lwowie (Illustrated guide to Ľviv) (Ľviv, 1920 and 1925);Józef, Piotrowski, Lemberg und Umgebung. Handbuchfiir Kunstliebhaber und Reisende (Leipzig, 1916), preface If.;German draft of city public relations text for twenty-year jubilee of Zwiázek Miast Polskich, 1932 or 1933, DALO f. 2/26/817/7.They all offer more information on Ľviv's “Golden Age” (its medieval and early modem history), than on nineteenth- and twentieth-century events. “Kronika Lwowa, jego zabytki i osobliwośri” (A chronicle of Ľviv, its memorials and attractions), in M.Sonnenscheina Lwowski Skorowidz Adresowy unedów, handlu i przemyshi oraz wolnych zawodów (M. Sonnenschein's address book of administration, commerce, industry, and the professions in Ľviv), ed. Sonnenschein, M., R. 3 (Ľviv, 1927), 511,describes war events of 1918–19 rather laconically: The “Polish army” drove out the “military party of Ukraine,” but the Defense of Lwów is not explicitly mentioned. For special mention of the conservation of Ľviv's polskość, see tcucja Charewiczowa, , Historiografia i mitośnictwo Lwowa (Historiography and amateur local history in Ľviv), Biblioteka Lwowska, 107 (Ľviv, 1938), 6; and Hoszowski, , Ekonomiczny. The book is a comprehensive version of several lectures on the economic history of Ľviv that Hoszowski delivered for Związek Obrońiców Lwowa in spring 1934.

25 Czesław, Mirosz, Wyprawa w dwudziestolecie (Departure to the interwar period) (Cracow, 1999), 7879;Edward, Horwarth, ed., Kajet dziecka Iwowskiego z przeżyć w czasie oblezenia Lwowa od listopada 1918 do kwietnia 1919 (Essays of Ľviv children on the period of siege from November 1918 up to April 1919) (Ľviv, 1921);Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 121.

26 For a document of the Ukrainian martyr cult around the Eastern Galician conflict, see Bohdan, natkevych, Lev, Lepkyi, AND Ivan, Nimchuk, “USS. Ukraiins'ki Sichovi Stril'tsi 1914–1920” (USS. The Ukrainian Sich Riflemen 1914–1920) (1935, reprint Ľviv, 1991), 129–44.Miłosz, , Wyprawa w Dwudziestolecie, offers similar observations concerning interwar urban life in Vilnius and Warsaw.A document on Ukrainian city pride is Ivan, Krypiakevych, Istoryˇni prochody po Ľvovi (Historical promenades in Ľviv) (1932, reprint, Ľviv, 1991).

27 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 34–35. For an example of Ľviv's structural problems, see “City council resolution against the move of Polski Bank Przemysixnvy to Warsaw,” Sept. 22,1923, and City Council to Polski Bank Przemystvwy, Sept. 20,1923, DALO f. 2/26/17/84–38;on interwar ˇL'viv, see Wendland, “Stadt zwischen zwei Kriegen.”

28 For general tendencies of Ľviv image-making, concentrating on Ľviv as a “frontier” city, see city guides cited above; for special focus on Obrona, Lwowa, see the program of a trip the Związek Miast Polskich organized for Members of the International City Federation, Sept. 6–16, 1929, July 14, 1929 DALO f. 2/26/484/7, 16f., 20, 26;Excursion Committee of the Associated Business Clubs/Biuro Wycieczkowe Zjednoczonych Klubów Handlowych Polskich to City Presidency, Chicago, Feb. 1,1929, with program of a trip to Polish cities, including Ľviv, May 14-July 20,1929, DALO f. 2/26/392/184–86;Excursion program of Amis de la Pologne, Aug. 25–27,1931, DALO f. 2/26/658/19, 23;City Public Relations and Tourist Office, Wytyczne prac propagandowych referenta propagandy (Guidelines for the public relations executive's propaganda efforts), July, 26,1935, DALO f. 2/26/658/39–44.Plans include production of short films about heroic Ľviv, November celebration trips for tourists from other cities, brochures about the city history with a chapter “about how Ľviv defended itself.” Here the presentation of Ľviv as “city of the Orleta” is mentioned as well; circular of City President Stanisraw Ostrowski, Nov. 25, 1938, DALO f. 2/26/1631/2–5, with exhibition plans to commemorate the 600th anniversary of the city in 1940,titled Lwów historyczny, wspótozesny i przyszły (Historical, modern and future Ľviv).According to the source, the Obrona Lwowa has to be a separate part of the exhibition; program of the President's visit in Ľviv, September 5–7, 1924, DALO f. 2/26/6/19,22–27.

29 This is what my colleagues Hofmann, Andreas R. and Tomicka-Krumrey, Ewa assumed when discussing this article. It may be interesting to investigate the question whether the post-World War II Warsaw memorial of Mały powstaniec (The Little Insurrectionist) that was erected in honor of the young participants of the Warsaw Insurrection (August-October 1944) has been inspired by the iconography of Ľviv's Orleta.

30 Joseph, Roth, ” in Joseph Roth: Werke, vol. 2, Das journalistische Werk, 1924–1928 (Cologne, 1990),285–99, especially 288–99;Józef, Wittlin, Mój Lwów (My Ľviv) (Warsaw, 1991);Stanisław, Lem, Wysoki Zamek (Castle Hill) (Cracow, 1991);Andrzej, Kuśniewicz, Znaki zodiaku (Signs of the zodiac) (Warsaw, 1977);Kuśniewicz, , Mieszaniny obyczajowe (Miscellaneous impressions from everyday life) (Warsaw, 1985);Lew, Kaltenbergh, Odłnmki stłiczonego lustra (Fragments of a broken chandelier) (Warsaw, 1991);Stanisław, Machowski, Bernardyński mijam plac (Crossing the Bernardines´ square) (Wroctaw, 1989);Kornel, Makuszyński, Kartki z Kalendarza (Calendar pages) (Warsaw, 1939);Jan, Parandowski, Lużne kartki (Loose-leaf miscellanea) (Wrocraw, 1967);Kazimierz, Schleyen, Lwowskie gawedy (Ľviv chats) (London, 1967).

31 Batiar is a dialect word of Hungarian origin denoting underclass youngsters.

32 “Synzacja, bu kinu gra,” in Habela and Kurzowa, Lwowskie piosenki uliczne, 144–45.

33 See the texts quoted in note 28;Witold, Szolginia, Tamten Lwow, vols. 1–6 (Wroctaw, 1991-1994);Augustyn-Puziewicz, , Lwów; Vincenz, Po stronie dialogu, 132–33.Stryi is a town located in the south of Ľviv. The park was named Stryiski because of its location near the highway to Stryi.

34 In the above-mentioned programs of the November celebrations, schools, scouts, sports associations, and the Catholic Church are often mentioned as organizers of events (see note 20).

35 See the anonymous popular songs about the Obrona Lwowa, especially “Mamo najdrozsza badzzdrowa,” a song about a fourteen-year-old fighter named Jurek, Bitschan, in Habela, and Kurzowa, , Lwowskie piosenki uliczne, 258.

36 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 17, 40.

37 Ibid., 199.

38 Iurii, Vinnychuk, Knaipy Ľvova (Ľviv taverns) (Ľviv, 2000), 3384, 141–70;Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 53–54, 83,108,184–98, 204.

39 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 43.

40 Ibid.,40,57.

41 In prewar times, the newspaper bore the additional title Lemberger Zeitung and was partly published in German.

42 This information comes from more detailed research about Ľviv's press and public sphere within the above-mentioned research project. For further information, see Binder, , “Politische Öffentlichkeit”; and Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 85,87,89.

43 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 92, 95,113–14.

44 Ibid., 48–49, 53–54.

45 Ibid., 205.

46 Ibid.,96.

47 Vincenz, , Po stronie dialogu, 106–107,133–39. For left-wing handbills and brochures about strikes, demonstrations, and riots in 1936, see Bryk, M. V. et al. , eds., Istoriia Ľvvoa v dokumentach i materialach. Zbimyk dokumentiv i materialiv (Kiev, 1986), 178, 180–84, 196204;Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 59–71.

48 Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 47, 52, 202–3.

49 Ibid., 55–56, 94.

50 Ibid., 201.

51 Ibid., 199–200.

52 See the series Biblioteka Lwowska, edited by the association, vols. 1–107 (Ľviv, 1906-1938).For further information about the Association, which was founded in 1906, see Charewiczowa, , Historiografia, 148–72; and Tyrowicz, , Wspomnienia, 46–47.

53 Charewiczowa, , Historiografia,6.

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