Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Thr Dollguß Ministry: The Intensification of Animosities and the Drift toward Authoritarianism

  • R. John Rath
Extract

When Engelbert Dollfuss became chancellor of Austria in May 1932, no one dreamed that he would become a fascist dicator.1 Even his bitter opponents in 1933 and 1934 admitted that he was genuine democrat when he became chancellor. He had friendly relations with the leaders of the Social Democratic Party. In May 1932, the Social Democratic Party leader Otto Bauer felt that when the time was ripe Dollfuß intended to form a coalition with his party.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 Despite considerable research on various aspects of the history of the first Austrian Republic and the Ständestaat, the current generation of scholars has devoted surprisingly little attention to the crucial half year prior to Dollfufiß's abolition of parliament. For writings about the Dollfuß regime in general, see Laura, Gellott, “Recent Writings on the Ständestaat, 1934–1938,” Austrian History Yearbook 26(1995): 207–38, and Rath, R. John, “Writings on Contemporary Austrian History, 1918–1934,” in The Austrian Socialist Experiment: Social Democracy and Austromarxism, 1918–1938 ed. Anson, Rabinbach (Boulder, Colo., 1985), 4755. For the most part, modern scholarship has concerned itself only with specific aspects of Dollfuß's democratic prelude. Hungarian historian Lajos, Krekes, Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie. Mussolini, Gömbös und die Heimwehr (Vienna, 1966), makes a significant new contribution to our understanding of Dollfuß's handling of the Heimwehr. The substantial Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz. Studien und Dokumentationen 1927 bis 1938, ed. Ludwig, Jedlicka and Rudolf, Neck (Vienna, 1975), contains just two articles on the subject: Anton, Staudinger, “Christlichsoziale Partei und Errichtung des ‘Autoritären Ständestaates’ in Österreich,” which briefly discusses Emil Fey's appointment to the ministry in October 1932, and Rudolf, Neck, “Simmering 16. Oktober 1932 - Vorspiel zum Bürgerkrieg.”Peter, Huemer, Sektionschef Robert Hecht und die Zerstörung der Demokratie in Österreich (Vienna, 1975), analyzes Dollfuß's employment of the 1917 wartime emergency decree in October 1932 and the resulting protests by the Social Democrats. Grete, Klingenstein, Die Anleihe von Lausanne. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ersten Republik in den Jahren 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1965), focuses on an important phase of the early months of Dollfuß's ministry, which I have discussed in an earlier article, “The Dollfuß Ministry: The Democratic Prelude,” Austrian History Yearbook 29 (1998). Siegfried, Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ. Britische Österrtichpolitik zwischen Containment und Appeasement 1931–1934 (Vienna, 1988), includes a lengthy discussion of the Hirtenberg weapons affair, based largely on British documents. Both Ulrich, Kluge, Bauern, , Agrarkrise und Volksernährung in der europäischen Zwischenkriegszeit, Studien zur Agrargesellschaft und Wirtschaft der Republik Osterreich 1918 bis 1938 (Wiesbaden, 1988), and Miller, James W., Engelbert Dollfuβ als Agrarfachmann. Erne Analyse bauerlicher Fuhrungsbegriffe und österreichischer Agrarpolitik 1918-1934 (Vienna, 1989), treat Dollfuß's agricultural policies immediately after he became chancellor. Gordon, Brook-Shepherd, Dollfuβ (London, 1961)—simultaneously published in New York as Prelude to Infamy: The Story of Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria—remains the only biography in the past half-century, but gives short shrift to the period between the summer of 1932 and March 1933, as do Anson, Rabinbach, The Crisis of Austrian Socialism: From Red Vienna to Civil War, 1927-1934 (Chicago, 1983), and Emmerich, Táalos and Waltr, Manoschek, “Zum Konstituierungsprozeß des Austrofaschismus,” in “Austrofaschismus”. Beiträge über Politik, Ökonomie und Kultur 1934-1938, ed. Emmerich, Tálos and Wolfgang, Neugebauer, 3rd ed. (Vienna, 1985).

2 Gulick, Charles A.Austria from Hasburg to Hitler 2vols.(Berkeley, Calif, 1948), 2:994. See also Otto, Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik. Wie es zum österreichischen Bürgerkrieg kam (Vienna, 1964), 145–46.

3 Rath, , “ Democratic Prelude,” 165, 173-78, 181-84.

4 Rath, R. John, “The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927” Austrian History Yearbook 27(1996), 254–55.

5 SeeKarl, Strieβnigg's speech in the Nationalat on Feb. 22, 1933 Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates (hereafter, Nationalat), 122nd session of the 4th legislative period (1930-32), 4:3269.

6 From a speech in Vienna on May 21, 1932, as excerpted in Ss sprach der Kanzler. Dollfuβ' Vermächtnis, comp. Anton Tautscher (Vienna, 1935), 125.

7 As printed in Edmund, Weber, Dollfuß an Oesterreich. Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel(Vienna, 1935), 150.

8 For examples, seeBundesgeslzeblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1932, 53 Stück, dated July 16, 1932, no. 189, pp.647-48;Ibid., 58. Stück, dated Aug. 3, 1932, no. 209, p. 668; Ibid., 65. Stück, dated Aug. 22, 1932, no. 23, p. 705-6;; ibid., 70 Stück, dated Aug. 30, 1932, no. 263, p. 855; and ibid., 76. Stuuml;uck, dated Sept. 28, 1932, no. 297, p. 1095.

9 SeeSiegfried, Mattl, “Die Finanzdikktatur. Wirstchaftspolitik in Österreich 1933-1938,” in “Austrofaschismus”. Beiträge über Politik, Öknonomie und Kultur 1934-1938, ed. Emmerich, Tálos and Wolfgang, Neugebauer, 150-51.

10 Gertrude, Enderle-Burcel, ed.,Protokolle des Ministerrates der Ersten Republik. Kabinett Engelbert Dollfuβ (hereafter, Kabinett Dollfuβ), 7vols. (Vienna, 1980–86), vol. 1, no. 796, dated May. 24, 1932, para. 6. pp. 58-6; Ibid., no 799, dated June. 1, 1932, para. 10. pp.33 43; Ibid., no. 802, dated 06 8, 1932, para. 15 pp. 118-23; and Ibid., no. 804, dated 06 11, 1932, para. 3, p. 153; Nationalrat, 88th session, June. 30, 1932, 4:2332-35.

11 Minister Resch's recommendation on how to deal with the unemployment situation, Kabinett Dollfuβ vol.1, no 815, dated July 7, 1932, appendix B, p.331; Ibid., no. 802, dated June. 8, 1932, para. 8. pp.113-15.

12 Ibid., no. 802, dated June 8, 1832, para. 7, pp. 111-13, and appendix F. pp. 123-25.

13 Ibid., no. 115, dated July 7, 1932, para. 3. p. 328; Ibid., appendix B. p.331

14 Bachinger to Dollfuβ, Vienna, July 8, 1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna) (hereafter, AVA), Präsidium, no. 5475- Pr./32.

15 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol.1, no. 816, dated July 12, 1932, para. 10, pp. 352-54.

16 Federal law of Aug. 18, 1932, concerning voluntary labor service, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahragang 1932, 80. Stück, dated Oct. 14, 1932, no. 304, pp. 1105-7. See also the note of the federal ministry of social administration in regard to voluntary labor serivce dated Oct 18, 1932, in Ibid., 81. Stück, dated Oct10 20, 1932, no. 311, pp. 1112-13. for debate surrounding the issue, see Josef Reach's speech in the Nationalrat on July 1, 1932, Nationalrat, 89th session, 4:2341-42; Adolf Müller's and Johann Böhm's responses, Ibid., 2343-52; Viktor Stein' speech on Aug 17. 1932, Ibid., 98th session, 4:2565-74. See also minutes of the metting of the executive committe of the Social Democratic Party on June 18, 1932 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fol. 2336.

17 Resch's speech in the Nationalrat on July 1, 1932, Nationalrat, 89th session, 4:2242-43.

18 Aug. 18, 1932, law concerning the crisis tax on wines, Bundesgesetzblatt, 64. Stück, dated Aug. 21, 1932, no. 228, p. 701; Aug. 18, 1932, law over levying a crisis supplement to the valueadded tax, Ibid., no. 227, p. 700; Aug 18, 1932, law concerning an increase in duties for colonial wares, Ibid., no. 229, pp. 701-3; ministry of finance order dated Aug. 21, 1932, concerning the levying of supplementary duties for colonial wares, Ibid., 65. Stück, dated Aug. 22, 1932, no. 231, pp. 708-9.

19 Aug. 18, 1932, law on changing the unemployment insurance law and on extraordinary measures for unemployment relief, Ibid., no. 226, p.698.

20 Resch's,speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 24, 192, Nationalrat, 106th session,4:2773–74.

21 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 839, dated Jan. 4, 1933, para. 17. 183;Ibid., no. 840, dated Jan. 11, 1933, paras. 10 and 11, pp. 197–99; Ibid., para. 15. pp. 202–3.

22 Ibid., vol. 3, no. 869, dated Apr. 25–26, 193, para. 2, pp. 231–32.

23 Schorsch's, Johann speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16 193, Nationalrat, 119th session, 4:3120. See also Emmy Freundlich's speech on Aug. 17, 1932,ibid., 98th session, 4:2542.

24 Johann, Schorsch's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 9, 1932,Ibid., 105th session, 4:2730;Pius Schneeberger's speech on Nov. 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768; Johann B:hm' speech on . 17, 1932, Ibid., 98th session, 4:2532.

25 Paul Richter' speech in the Nationalrat on July 14, 1932,Ibid., 92nd session, 4:2395.

26 Pius Schnneberger's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768.

27 Michael Fr's speech in the Nationalrat on Jan. 26, 1933., Ibid., 114th session, 4:2933.

28 Johann Böhm's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 15, 1933., Ibid., 118th session, 4:3044.

29 Paul Richter's speeches in the Nationalrat on July 14, 1932, Ibid., 92nd session, 4:2392, and on Nov. 24, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2777.

30 Johann, Schorschi's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16, 1933,Ibid., 119th session, 4:3120-21.

31 Stenographiche Protokolle ü die sitzungen des Bundesrates, 179th session on Aug. 19, 1932, of the 4th legislative period, p.1915. See also Emmy Freundlich' speech in the Nationalrat on Aug. 19, 1932, Ibid., 106th session, 4:2768.

32 Nationalrat, 92nd session, July 14, 1932, 4:2400.

33 Julius Deutsch's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 30, 1932, Ibid., 108th session, 4:2817.

34 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Sept. 22, 1932, I documenti diplomatici italiani (hereafter, Documenti), 7th ser., vol.12 (Rome, 1987), doc. no. 277, p.383.

35 Hugues de Barthou, de Montbas to Herriot, , Vienna Nov. 11, 1932, Documents diplomatiques franqais 1932-1939 (hereafter, DDF), 1st ser. (1932-35) vol.1 (Paris,1964), doc. no. 322, p. 695

36 Karl Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Nov. 24, 1932. Nationalrat, 106th session, 4:2780.

37 Otto, Bauer, “Die grofie Mission der oumlsterreichischen Arbeiter,” Arbeiterwille (Graz), 11. 1, 1932, as reprinted in Otto Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Hugo, Pepper, 9 vols. (Vienna, 1975–80), 6:842.

38 Raimund Sussik's speech in the Nationalrat on Dec. 22, 1932, Nationalrat, 113th session,4:2911-12.

39 Johann Polzer's speech in the Nationalrat on June 30, 1932, Ibid., 88th session, 4:2329.

40 Ibid., 2331; Raimund Sussik's speech in the Nationalrat on Dec. 22, 1932, Ibid., 113th session, 4:2911; Laurenz, Genner's speech on Feb. 22, 1933,Ibid., 122nd session, 4:3271.

41 Minutes of the meeting of the party representatives in the Nationalrat and Bundesrat together with the free-trade unions and the club's executive committee of the Social Democratic Party on July 9, 1932, in minutes of the meetings of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fols.2332-33

42 Eva, Dollfufbeta, Mein Vater, Hitlers erstes Opfer (Vienna, 1994), 122–26.

43 Theo, Habicht, ed., Das Dienstbuch der NSDAP Oesterreichs. Hitlerbewegung (Wels, [1932]), 1,as translated in Kindermann, Gottfried-Karl, Hitler's Defeat in Austria, 1933–1934: Europe's First Containment of Nazi Expansion, trans. Sonia, Brough and David, Taylor (Boulder, Colo., 1988), 10

44 Rath, , “Democratic Prelude,” 173-74; and Ernst Rudiger, Prince Starhemberg, Between Hitlerand Mussolini: Memoirs (New York, 1942), 7784

45 Auriti, to Grandi, , Vienna, 05 28, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 65, 12:8586

46 Undated anonymous report, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv (Vienna) (HHStA), Neue Poiitische Akten (NPA), carton 247 (Hornbostel Akten), fol. 540

47 Gerhard, Botz, Gewalt in der Politik. Attentate, Zusammenstoumlbetae, Putschversuche, Unruhen in Oumlsterreich 1918 bis 1934 (Munich, 1976), 187.

48 197-99.

49 Guido, Zernatto, Die Wahrheit uumlcber Oumlsterreich (New York, 1939), 68; Rudolf, Brandstoumltter, “Dr.Walter Riehl und die Geschichte der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung in Ouml;sterreich” (D.Phil,diss., University of Vienna, 1969), 294.

50 Botz, ,Gewalt in der Politik, 200-201;Leichter, , Glanz und Ende, 149-50; Rudolf, Neck, “Simmering—16. Oktober 1932 (Symptom und Auftakt der österreichischen Tragödie),” in Beitrauml;gezur Zeitgeschichte. Festschrift Ludwig Jedlicka zum 60. Geburtstag, ed.Rudolf, Neck and Adam, Wandruszka (St. Pölten, 1976), 9899 (a somewhat shorter version is “Simmering—16. Oktober 1932. Vorspiel zum Buumlrgerkrieg,” in Vom Justizpakst zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck,94-102 [here, 95–96]). On brawls at the University of Vienna, see especially Simon, Joseph T., Augenzeuge (Vienna, 1979), 8183.

51 As quoted in Botz, Gewalt in der Politik, 202

52 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (headquarters office in Vienna), fol.2357.

53 Alfred, Frauenfeld, Und trage keine Reu'. Vom Wiener Gauleiter zum Generalkommissar der Krim.Erinnerungen und Aufzeichnungen (Leoni am Starnberger See, 1978), 7981; Botz, , Gewalt in der Politik, 202-6;Leichter, , Glanz und Ende, 149-50;Neck, , “Simmering—16. Okotober 1932,” 100-103 (or 97-99 in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz).

54 As quoted in Franz, Oswald, “Die Stellung von Major a. D. Emil Fey in der Politik der ErstenRepublik und des Staumlndestaates” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1964), 56“Democratic Prelude,” 184, 191-92

55 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 1, no. 830, dated Oct. 18,1932, para. 12, pp. 639-40.

56 Nationalrat, 102nd session, Oct. 20, 1932, 4:2643

57 Dollfuβ, Kabinett, vol.1, no. 828, dated Oct. 5, 1932, paras. 2 and 3, pp. 596-98. For details,see Rath, , “Democratic Prelude,” 193-94.

58 Minutes of the Verband der sozialdemokratischen Abgeordneten und Bundesraumlte, Oct. 5 and 18, 1932 (housed in the archives of the Association for the History of the Labor Movement,Vienna).

59 Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 20, 1932, Nationalrat, 102nd session, 4: 2656-59 (quote, 2659). At this juncture Dollfuβ interrupted Seitz's speech to remark: “A very interestingconfession, Mr. Mayor”.

60 Ibid., 2660-61. Subsequent quotations from 2662ndash;70.

61 Nationalrat, 102nd session, Oct. 20, 1932, 4:2670-71.

62 Schuschnigg's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932, Ibid., 2673-76; Dollfuß's and Fey's speeches,Ibid., 2676.

63 Two days after Dollfuß referred to Bauer as a Bolshevik, Bauer published an article entitled “Wir Bolschewiken. Eine Antwort an Dollfuß” in the Arbeiter-Zeitung, which has been reprinted in Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 7:485-89, and in Julius, Braunthal,Otto, BauerEine Auswahlaus seinem Lebenswerk (Vienna, 1961), 306–10. Bauer asserted that he had nothing but contempt for “everyone who uses ‘Bolshevik’ as an adjective” (Bauer, Werkausgabe, 7:485). “What separates me from Bolshevism,” he explained, “is something much more important on which the development of human culture is founded: my assessment of the irreparable worth of individual,intellectual freedom” (Ibid., 486). “For the sake of intellectual freedom I am a democrat. For me democracy is something more important than parliamentarianism, more a sum of judicial institutions. For me it is the state's constitution, which gives the best possible guarantee of individual, intellectual freedom” (Ibid., 487).

64 Nationalrat, 103rd session, Oct. 21, 1932, 4:2677.

65 Seitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932, Ibid., 2678-79, 2681.

66 Richard, Schmitz's speech in the Nationalrat on Oct. 21, 1932, Ibid., 2681-82, 2654.

67 Nationalmt, 103rd session, Oct. 21,1932, 4:2695-96. See also Deutsch's speech, Ibid., 2693.

68 Otto, Bauer,“Die grobetae Mission der oumlsterreichischen Arbeiter,” Arbeiterwille (Graz), as rereprinted in Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, , 6:841–44, 847–48

69 Bauer's speech at the Social Democratic Party congress on Nov. 13-15, 1932, as reprinted in Ibid., 5:648. The entire speech is on 641-67.

70 Kurt, Schuschnigg, Dreimal Oumlsterreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1937), 197.

71 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Oct. 18, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 351,12:451.

72 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 1, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 494, p. 608. See also Auriti's letter to Mussolini on Nov. 25, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 469, p. 586.

73 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aig. 31, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 234, p. 332; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Oct. 20, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 360, pp. 458-59; Mussolini to Auriti, Rome, Nov. 28, 1932, Ibid.,doc.no.480, p.594.

74 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 12, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 537, p. 646; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Dec. 19, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 561, p. 675.

75 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Aug. 29, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 227, pp. 327-28; Aloisi to Mussolini,Rome, Nov. 5, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 395, p. 511; Buti to Mussolini, Rome, Nov. 9, 1932, Ibid., doc.no. 408, p. 524.

76 Minutes of a conference between the Italian undersecretary of state, Suvich, and the Hungarian minister in Rome, Hory, Rome, Oct. 10, 1932,Ibid., doc. no. 317, p. 419.

77 Colonna to Mussolini, Budapest, Nov. 5, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 392, p. 502.

78 Kerekes, , Abenddiimmerung einer Demokratie, 117.

79 Minutes of a conference between Mussolini and Goumlmboumls, Rome, Nov. 10, 1932, Documenti,doc. no. 414,12:532-36.

80 Suvich to Mussolini, Rome, Nov. 17, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 437, pp. 554-55.

81 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Nov. 25, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 469, pp. 586-87. See also Colonna to Mussolini, Budapest, Nov. 22,1932, Ibid., doc. no. 451, p. 568.

82 See Rath, , “Deterioration,” 223-24, 24-46.

83 Rath, , “Democratic Prelude,” 178; Geisser Celesia to Grandi, Vienna, July 7, 1932, Documenti,doc. no. 144, 12:207-8; summary of a conference between Minister of War Gazzera and Aurition July 6, 1932, sent to Auriti from Rome on Kuly 20, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 166, p. 245.

84 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, July 21, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 169, pp. 247-50; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Nov. 23, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 483, pp. 596-97; Buti to Mussolini, Rome, 11. 9, 1932, Ibid., doc. no. 408, p. 525.

85 Federal police commissioner at Wiener-Neustadt to the general director of public security in Vienna, Wiener-Neustadt, Jan. 8, 1933, AVA, Bundeskanzleramt. General Direktion fuumlr oumlffentliche Sicherheit, carton 4884, 22/gen, no. 106, 794-33.

86 Circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, 3. 13, 1933, Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945, ser. C (1933-37): The Third Reich: First Phase (hereafter, DGFP), 3 vols. (Washington, D.C., 1957-59), doc. no. 81,1:156.

87 Kerekes, , Abenddammerung einer Demokratie, 121-22. A good discussion of the Hirtenbergweapons affair based largely on British documents can be found in Beer, Der ”Anschluβ, 155–80.

88 Rainer, Stepan, “Dollfubeta, die Parlamentsausschaltung 1933 und das Jahr 1934,” Christliche Demokratie, 2. Jahrgang (2 1984): 1934-1984. Konflikt und Versoumlhnung, 122-23.

89 Baron, Aloisi, Journal (25 juillet 1932-14 juin 1936), translated from Italian to French by Maurice Vaussard (Paris, 1957), 47, entry of 01. 8,1933.

90 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, 8:00 PM. Jan. 9, 1933, Documenti 7th ser., vol. 13 (Rome, 1989), doc. no. 16, pp. 14-15; Auriri to Mussolini, Vienna, 10:00 P.M., Jan. 9, 1933, Ibid., doc. no. 17, p.15.

91 Clauzel to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Jan. 14, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 14, 2:437.

92 Mussolini to the ambassadors at Berlin, Brussels, London, Madrid, Moscow, and Warsaw and the ministers at Bern, Belgrade, Bucharest, Budapest, Prague, and Sofia, Rome, Jan. 13. 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 27, 13:31-32; circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, Mar.13, 1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:157; secret Amtsvermerk, n.d., HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol. 9.

93 Amtserinnerung, foreign office section of the federal chancellery, Vienna, Jan. 16, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), Ms. 409 and 497.

94 preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Jan. 21, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 32,13: 38-39.

95 De Fleuriau to Paul-Boncour, London, Jan. 20, 1933. DDF, doc. no. 216,2:486. See also Beer,Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ, 157-61.

96 As quoted in Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschluβ, 162 The wording of the list is slightly different but the contents are essentially the same in the note that Paul-Boncour sent to De Fleuriau from Paris on Jan. 23, 1933, as published in DDF, doc. no. 225, 2:498. For a copy in German translation, see HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol. 450.

97 De, Vienne to Paul-Boncour, Budapest, Jan. 28, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 248, 2:540; Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar. 8, 1933, Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939 (hereafter, DBFP), 2nd ser., vol. 5 (London, 1956), doc. no. 38, p. 58.

98 Suvich to Colonna, Preziosi, and the Italian delegation in Geneva, Rome, Jan. 30, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 58,13:60-61; Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar.. 8, 1933, DBFP, doc. no.38, 5:58; Aloisi diary, entry for Jan. 30, 1933, Aloisi, Journal, 58

99 Montbas to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Jan. 28, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 249, 2:540; Preziosi to Mussolini,Vienna, Jan. 29, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 53, 13:55.

100 Montbas to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Feb. 1, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 252, 2colon; 544-45; Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar. 8, 1933, DBFP, doc. no. 38, 5:58.

101 Circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, Mar. 13, 1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:158.

102 Massigli to Paul-Boncour, Geneva, Feb. 4, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 259, 2:559-60; ministry of foreign affairs to De Fleuriau, Paris, Feb. 7, 1933, ibid., doc. no. 268, p. 572; minister of foreign affairs to the French diplomatic representatives at Prague, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Vienna,Paris, Feb. 10, 1933 , Ibid., doc. no. 283, pp. 601-2; council of the League of Nations to the Austrian government, Mar. 2, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fols. 411-12.

103 Amtsvermerk, Bundeskanzleramt, Auswartige Angelegenheiten, Vienna, Feb. 11, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol. 470.

104 A copy of the French note can be found in Clauzel to the Austrian foreign ministry, Vienna, Feb. 11, 1933, Ibid., fols. 424-25. A German translation of the note can be found in Kabinett Dollfubeta, vol. 2, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, appendix A, pp. 266-67. A copy of the British note is in Beer, Der “unmoralischerdquo; Anschlubeta, 165-66. See also ministry of foreign affairs to its diplomatic representatives at Prague, Belgrade, Bucharest, and Vienna, Feb. 10, 1933, DDF, doc.no.283,2:601–3.

105 Aloisi, , Journal, 61, entry for 02. 12, 1933.

106 Secret telegram, Egger to general secretary, Rome, Feb. 12, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol.461.

107 Mussolini to Grandi, Rome, Feb. 13, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 84, 13:89 (quote); Aloisi,Journal, 62, entry for Feb. 13, 1933.

108 Amtsvermerk, Peter, Vienna, Feb. 14, 1933, HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hornbostel 1933), fol.462; telegram, Egger to general secretary, Rome, Feb. 15, 1933,Ibid., fol. 455; Suvich to Grandi, Rome, 2. 18, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 100,13:111-12.

109 Aloisi, , Journal, 65-66, entry for Feb. 17, 1933; circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, 3. 13, 1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:157-58; Beer, Der “unmoralische” Anschlubeta, 167; Pignatti, the Italian ambassador in France, to Mussolini, Paris, Feb. 22, 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 124,13:126;Clauzel to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Fen. 20, 1933, DDF, doc. no. 323, 2:661-62.

110 Amtsvermerk, n.d., HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hombostel 1933), fol. 431. A copy can also be found in Kabinett Dollfubeta, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, 2:251.

111 Kabinett Dollfubeta, no. 844, dated Feb. 21, 1933, 2:250-52.

112 Amtserinnerung, Bundeskanzleramt, Auswartige Angelegenheiten, Vienna, Feb. 20, 1933 ,HHStA, NPA, carton 247 (Hombostel 1933), fol. 429; Amtserinnerung of the same office, Vienna, Feb. 21, 1933, Ibid., fol. 430; Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 20, 1933, Documenti, doc. no 116, 13:120.

113 Beer, Der “unmoralischerdquo; Anschluβ, 170; Kabinett Dollfuβ, doc. no. 844, dated Feb. 21,1933,2:256-57,266.

114 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party on Feb.20, 1933 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters in Vienna), fol. 2403; minutes of the meeting of the chief committee of the Nationalrat on Feb. 21, 1933, AVA, Chr. Soz. Partei,Parlaments Klub, carton 63 (Hauptausschubeta, Staats-Korrespondenz), no. 17a.

115 Simon to Graham, foreign office, Mar. 8,1933, DBFP, doc. no. 38, 5:58. See also Massigili to the ministry of foreign affairs, Geneva, Feb. 22,1933, DDF, doc. no. 330, 2:673–75.

116 See Julius Deutsch–s speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 24, 1933, Nationalrat, 124th session,3339-41; Kabinett Dollfubeta, doc. no. 845, dated Feb. 23,1933, para. 1, 2:281-82; and circular of the German foreign ministry, Berlin, Mar. 13,1933, DGFP, doc. no. 81,1:158.

117 De Fleuriau to Paul-Boncour, London, Feb. 24 and Feb. 25,1933, DDF, doc. no. 341, 2:692, and doc. no. 342, p. 693; minister of foreign affairs to Clauzel, Paris, Feb. 24, 1933,Ibid., doc.no. 340, p. 691; Clauzel to Paul-Boncour,Vienna, Feb. 25,1933, Ibid., doc. no. 344, p. 695.

118 Kerekes, Abenddaumlmmerung einer Demokratie, 125.

119 Auriti to Mussolini, Vienna, Dec. 7, 1932, Documenti, doc. no. 520, 12:630; Auriti to Mussolini,Vienna, Dec. 12,1932,Ibid., doc. no. 537, pp. 645-46.

120 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 8,1933, Ibid., doc. no. 75,13:80-81.

121 Minutes of a conference between Suvich and Starhemberg at Rome on Feb. 16,1933, Ibid.,doc. no. 98, pp. 101-2.

122 Minutes of a conference between Suvich and Starhemberg at Rome on Feb. 17,1933, Ibid.,doc. no. 103, pp. 109-10.

123 Clauzel to Paul-Boncour, Vienna, Feb. 20,1933, DDF, doc. no. 323, 2:662.

124 Aloisi, , Journal, 96-97, entry of Mar. 18,1933.

125 Rieth to Bulow, Vienna, Feb. 15,1933, DGFP, doc. no. 25,1:54.

126 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 27,1933, Documenti, doc. no. 142,13:141.

127 See especially Karl, Pick's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 16, 1933, Nationalrat, 119th session, 3123-27; Hermann Fischner's speech on the same day,ibid., 3090-92; Laurenz Genner's speech on the same day, Ibid., 3108; Koloman Wallisch's speech on Feb. 15, 1933, Ibid., 3080-83.

128 Ernst, Koref's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 14,1933, Ibid., 117th session, 3021-27 (quote, 3021).

129 Seitz, 's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 14,1933, Ibid., 106th session, p. 2782.

130 Rosa, Mauser, “Die Genesis des politischsozialen Ideengutes des Bundeskanzlers Dr. Engelbert Dollfuβ” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1959), 28. See also Montbas to Herriot,Vienna, Nov. 11, 1932, DDF, doc. no. 322,1:694-95.

131 Aloisi, Journal, 64.

132 DGFP, doc. no. 25, 1:53.

133 Fritz, Braun, “Der politische Lebensweg des Bumlrgermeisters Richard Schmitz. Beitraumlge zur Innenpolitik der Ersten Republik Österreich und zur Geschichte der Christlichsozialen Partei” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1968), 246.

134 Schumy, Nachlaβ: “Landbund” (unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), p 134.

135 Ibid.

136 Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 197.

137 Preziosi to Mussolini, Vienna, Feb. 27 1933, Documenti, doc. no. 142, 13:142.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Austrian History Yearbook
  • ISSN: 0067-2378
  • EISSN: 1558-5255
  • URL: /core/journals/austrian-history-yearbook
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed