Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 396
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina de Oliveira, Ricardo da Silva, Juliana Almeida Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon dos Roncon, Camila Marroni Corrado, Alexandre Pinto Zangrossi, Hélio and Coimbra, Norberto Cysne 2016. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus connected to dorsal raphe nucleus inputs modulate defensive behaviours and mediate innate fear-induced antinociception. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 532.


    Biggs, Emma E. Meulders, Ann and Vlaeyen, Johan W.S. 2016. Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion.


    Chester, David S. DeWall, C. Nathan and Pond, Richard S. 2016. The push of social pain: Does rejection’s sting motivate subsequent social reconnection?. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 541.


    Hunt, Pamela S. Burk, Joshua A. and Barnet, Robert C. 2016. Adolescent transitions in reflexive and non-reflexive behavior: Review of fear conditioning and impulse control in rodent models. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews,


    Lloyd, Kevin and Dayan, Peter 2016. Safety out of control: dopamine and defence. Behavioral and Brain Functions, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,


    Nasser, Helen M. and Delamater, Andrew R. 2016. The Wiley Handbook on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Learning.


    Rhudy, Jamie L. 2016. Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion.


    Wei, Ran Li, Qi Lam, Sylvia Leung, Jana Cheung, Charlton Zhang, Xiaofan Sham, Pak Chung Chua, Siew Eng and McAlonan, Grainne Mary 2016. A Single Low Dose of Valproic Acid in Late Prenatal Life Alters Postnatal Behavior and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Levels in the Mouse. Behavioural Brain Research,


    Baptista-de-Souza, Daniela Nunciato, Ana C. Pereira, Barbara C. Fachinni, Gabriel Zaniboni, Caroline R. and Canto-de-Souza, Azair 2015. Mice undergoing neuropathic pain induce anxiogenic-like effects and hypernociception in cagemates. Behavioural Pharmacology, Vol. 26, p. 664.


    Brown, Marilyn J. and Winnicker, Christina 2015. Laboratory Animal Medicine.


    Gibson, Barry J. Boiko, Olga V. Baker, Sarah R. Robinson, Peter G. Barlow, Ashley P.S. Player, Tess and Locker, David 2015. Dentine Hypersensitivity.


    Isosaka, Tomoko Matsuo, Tomohiko Yamaguchi, Takashi Funabiki, Kazuo Nakanishi, Shigetada Kobayakawa, Reiko and Kobayakawa, Ko 2015. Htr2a-Expressing Cells in the Central Amygdala Control the Hierarchy between Innate and Learned Fear. Cell, Vol. 163, Issue. 5, p. 1153.


    Key, Brian 2015. Fish do not feel pain and its implications for understanding phenomenal consciousness. Biology & Philosophy, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 149.


    Kim, Eun Joo Park, Mijeong Kong, Mi-Seon Park, Sang Geon Cho, Jeiwon and Kim, Jeansok J. 2015. Alterations of Hippocampal Place Cells in Foraging Rats Facing a “Predatory” Threat. Current Biology, Vol. 25, Issue. 10, p. 1362.


    Lang, Annie and Bailey, Rachel L. 2015. Understanding Information Selection and Encoding from a Dynamic, Energy Saving, Evolved, Embodied, Embedded Perspective. Human Communication Research, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 1.


    Lovibond, Peter F. Satkunarajah, Michelle and Colagiuri, Ben 2015. Extinction Can Reduce the Impact of Reward Cues on Reward-Seeking Behavior. Behavior Therapy, Vol. 46, Issue. 4, p. 432.


    Maren, S. 2015. Facing our fears. Science, Vol. 349, Issue. 6243, p. 39.


    Mascarenhas, Diego Cardozo Gomes, Karina Santos and Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz 2015. Role of TRPV1 channels of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the modulation of nociception and open elevated plus maze-induced antinociception in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 292, p. 547.


    Mobbs, Dean and Kim, Jeansok J 2015. Neuroethological studies of fear, anxiety, and risky decision-making in rodents and humans. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 5, p. 8.


    Pellman, Blake A. Kim, Earnest Reilly, Melissa Kashima, James Motch, Oleksiy de la Iglesia, Horacio O. and Kim, Jeansok J. 2015. Time-Specific Fear Acts as a Non-Photic Entraining Stimulus of Circadian Rhythms in Rats. Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, p. 14916.


    ×

A perceptual-defensive-recuperative model of fear and pain

  • Robert C. Bolles (a1) and Michael S. Fanselow (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0000491X
  • Published online: 01 February 2010
Abstract
Abstract

A model of fear and pain is presented in which the two are assumed to activate totally different classes of behavior. Fear, produced by stimuli that are associated with painful events, results in defensive behavior and the inhibition of pain and pain-related behaviors. On the other hand, pain, produced by injurious stimulation, motivates recuperative behaviors that promote healing. In this model injurious stimulation, on the one hand, and the expectation of injurious stimulation, on the other hand, activate entirely different motivational systems which serve entirely different functions. The fear motivation system activates defensive behavior, such as freezing and flight from a frightening situation, and its function is to defend the animal against natural dangers, such as predation. A further effect of fear motivation is to organize the perception of environmental events so as to facilitate the perception of danger and safety. The pain motivation system activates recuperative behaviors, including resting and body-care responses, and its function is to promote the animal's recovery from injury. Pain motivation also selectively facilitates the perception of nociceptive stimulation. Since the two kinds of motivation serve different and competitive functions, it might be expected that they would interact through some kind of mutual inhibition. Recent research is described which indicates that this is the case. The most important connection is the inhibition of pain by fear; fear has the top priority. This inhibition appears to be mediated by an endogenous analgesic mechanism involving the endorphins. The model assumes that fear triggers the endorphin mechanism, thereby inhibiting pain motivation and recuperative behaviors that might compete with effective defensive behavior.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. Amsel (1958) The role of frustrative non-reward in non-continuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 55:102119. [JAG]

S. J. Bird & M. J. Kuhar (1977) Iontophoretic application of opiates to the locus coeruleus. Brain Research, 122:523533. [JAG]

R. J. Blanchard , & D. C. Blanchard (1971) Defensive reactions in the albino rat. Learning and motivation, 2:351362. [RCB]

R. J. Blanchard , & D. C. Blanchard (1977) Aggressive behavior in the rat. Behavioral Biology, 21:197224. [DCB]

R. J. Blanchard , D. C Blanchard , & L. K. Takahashi (1977) Reflexive fighting in the rat: Aggressive or defensive behavior? Aggressive Behavior, 3:145155. [RCB]

R. J. Bodnar , D. D. Kelly , A. G. Spiaggia , C. Ehrenberg , & M. Clusman (1978) Dose-dependent reductions by naloxone of analgesia induced by cold-water stress. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 8:667672. [RCB]

R. C. Bolles (1970) Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review, 77:3248. [DCB, RCB]

L. J. Botticelli , and R. J. Wurtman (1980) Endorphin and corticotropin regulate the activity of septal-hippocampal cholinergic neurons. In: E. L. Way (ed.). Endogenous and exogenous opiate agonists and antagonists. Oxford, Pergamon, in press. [YFJ]

M. E Bouton , & R. C. Bolles (1979) Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear. Learning and Motivation, 10:445466. [RCB]

W. T. Chance , A. C. White , G. M. Krynock , & J. A. Rosecrans (1978) Conditioned fear-induced antinociception and decreased binding of [3H] N-Leuenkephalin to rat brain. Brain Research, 141:371374. [RCB]

M. M. Clark , and B. G. Galef (1977) The role of the physical rearing environment in the domestication of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Animal Behaviour, 25: 298316. [DBA]

R. L. Conner , J. M. Stolk , J. D. Barchas , and S. Levine (1970) Parachlorophenylalanine and habituation to repetitive auditory startle stimuli in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 5:12151219. [BE]

H. Corrodi , K. Fuxe , P. Lidbrink , & L. Olson (1971) Minor tranquilizers, stress and central catecholamine neurons. Brain Research, 29:116. [JAC]

K. D. Craig (1975) Social modeling determinants of pain processes. Pain, 1:375378. [RCB]

W. R. Crowley , J. P. Rodriquez-Sierra , & B. R. Komisaruk (1977) Analgesia induced by vaginal stimulation in rats is apparently independent of a morphine-sensitive process. Psychopharmacology, 54:223225. [RCB]

D. Dubuisson , and R. Melzack (1976) Classification of clinical pain descriptors by multiple group discriminant analysis. Experimental Neurology, 51:480487. [RM]

B. R. Dworkin , R. J. Filewich , N. E. Miller , N. Craigmyle , & T. G. Pickering (1979) Baroreceptor activation reduces reactivity to noxious stimulation: Implications for hypertension. Science, 205:12991301. [RWH]

B. Eichelman (1971) Effect of subcortical lesions on shock-induced aggression in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 74:331339. [BE]

W. K. Estes , & B. F. Skinner (1941) Some quantitative properties of anxiety. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29:390400. [RCB]

M. S. Fanselow (1979) Naloxone attenuates rat's preference for signaled shock. Physiological Psychology, 7:7074. [RCB)

M. S. Fanselow , & R. C. Bolles (1979b) Naloxone and shock-elicited freezing in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 93:736744. [RCB]

W. Fratta , H.Y.T. Yang , J. Hong , & E. Costa (1977) Stability of metenkephalin content in brain structures of morphine-dependent and foot shock-stressed rats. Nature, 268:452453. [RLH]

R. C. A. Frederickson , V. Burgis , & J. D. Edwards (1977) Hyperalgesia induced by naloxone follows diurnal rhythm in responsivity to painful stimuli. Science, 198:756758. [RCB]

A. Goldstein , S. Tachibana , L. I. Lowney , M. Hunkapiller , and L. Hood (1979) Dynorphin (1–13), an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 76:66666670. [YFJ]

J. A. Gray (1978) The neuropsychology of anxiety. British Journal of Psychology, 69:417434. [JAG]

J. A. Gray , N. McNaughton , D. T. D. James , & P. H. Kelly (1975) Effect of minor tranquilizers on hippocampal theta rhythm mimicked by depletion of forebrain noradrenaline. Nature, 258:424425. [JAG]

P. Grevert , & A. Goldstein (1977) Some effects of naloxone on behavior in the mouse. Psychopharmacology, 53:111113. [RCB]

R. Guillemin , T. Vargo , J. Rossier , S. Minick , N. Ling , C. Rivier , W. Vale , & F. Bloom (1977) B-endorphin and adrenocorticotrophin are secreted concomitantly by the pituitary gland. Science, 197:13671369. [RLH, YFJ]

B. L. Hamilton (1973) Projections of the nuclei of the periaqueductal gray matter in the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 152:4558. [TLY]

R. L. Hayes , D. D. Price , G. J. Bennett , G. L. Wilcox , & D. J. Mayer (1978) Differential effects of spinal cord lesions on narcotic and non-narcotic suppression of nociceptive reflexes: Further evidence for the physiologic multiplicity of pain modulation. Brain Research, 155:91101. [RLH]

R. L. Hayes , D. D. Price , & R. Dubner (1977) Naloxone antagonism as evidence for narcotic mechanisms. Science, 196:600 [RD, RLH]

R. L. Hayes , D. D. Price , M. Ruda , and R. Dubner (1979) Suppression of nociceptive responses in the primate by electrical stimulation of the brain or morphine administration: Behavioural and electrophysiological comparisons. Brain Research, 167:417421. [DBO]

R. Hodgson , & S. Rachman (1974) Desynchrony in measures of fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12:319326. [HJE]

J. Hughes (1975) Isolation of an endogenous compound from the brain with pharmacological properties similar to morphine. Brain Research, 88:295308. [RCB]

J. Hughes , T. W. Smith , H. W. Kosterlitz , L. A. Fothergill , B. A. Morgan , and H. R. Morris (1975) Identification of two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity. Nature, 258:577579. [YFJ]

Y. F. Jacquet (1978) Opiate effects after adrenocorticotropin or B-endorphin injection in the periaqueductal gray matter of rats. Science, 201:10321034. [YFJ]

Y. F. Jacquet and N. Marks (1976) The C-fragment of B-lipotropin: An endogenous neuroleptic or antipsychotogen? Science, 194:632635. [RCB, YFJ]

J. E. Johnson (1973) Effects of accurate expectations about sensations on the sensory and distress components of pain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27:261275. [CRC]

I. Jurna , and G. Heinz (1979) Differential effects of morphine and opioid analgesics on A and C-fibre-evoked activity in ascending axons of the rat spinal cord. Brain Research, 171:573576. [DBO]

L. J. Kamin (1954) Traumatic avoidance learning: The effects of CS-US interval with a trace-conditioning procedure. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47:6572. [EF]

L. J. Kamin (1956) The effect of termination of the CS and avoidance of the US on avoidance learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 49:420424. [EF]

K. Kangawa , and H. Matsuo (1979) α-neo-endorphin: A “big” leu-enkephalin with potent opiate activity from porcine hypothalami. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications, 86:153160. [YFJ]

R. T. Kelleher , and W. H. Morse (1968) Schedules using noxious stimuli: III. Responding maintained with response-produced electric shocks. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11:819838. [CJV]

M. Krsiak (1975) Timid singly-housed mice: Their value in prediction of psychotropic activity of drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology, 55:141150. [KAM]

R. Kvetnansky , V. K. Weise , and I. J. Kopin (1970) Elevation of adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase by repeated immobilization of rats. Endocrinology, 87:744749. [BE]

F. Lamprecht , B. Eichelman , N. B. Thoa , R. B. Williams , and I. J. Kopin (1972) Rat fighting behavior: Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase. Science, 177: 12141215. [BE]

J. D. Levine , N. C. Gordon , R. T. Jones , & H. L. Fields (1978) The narcotic antagonist naloxone enhances clinical pain. Nature, 272:826827. [RCB, RD, HLF]

R. V. Lewis , A. S. Stern , J. Rossier , S. Stein and S. Udenfriend , (1979) Putative enkephalin precursors in bovine adrenal medulla. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications, 89:822829. [YFJ]

P. Lidbrink , H. Corrodi , K. Fuxe , & L. Olson (1972) Barbiturates and meprobamate: Decreases in catecholamine turnover of central dopamine and noradrenaline neuronal systems and the influence of immobilisation stress. Brain Research, 45:507524. [JAG]

J. Madden , H. Akil , R. L. Patrick , & J. D. Barchas (1977) Stress-induced parallel changes in central opioid levels and pain responsiveness in the rat. Nature, 265:358360. [RCB]

D. J. Mayer , and J. C. Liebeskind (1974) Pain reduction by focal electrical stimulation of the brain: An anatomical and behavioral analysis. Brain Research, 68:7393. [DBA]

D. J. Mayer , & D. D. Price (1976) Central nervous system mechanisms of analgesia. Pain, 2:379404. [RCB, RD]

R. Melzack (1975) Prolonged relief of pain by brief intense transcutaneous somatic stimulation. Pain, 1:357373.

R. Melzack , & P. D. Wall (1965) Pain mechanisms: A new theory. Science, 150:971979. [RCB, DBO, RD]

B. Morden , R. Conner , G. Mitchell , W. Dement , and S. Levine (1968) Effects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on shock-induced fighting. Physiology and Behavior, 3:425432. [BE]

M. A. North (1978) Naloxone reversal of morphine analgesia but failure to alter reactivity to pain in the formalin test. Life Sciences, 22:295302. [RCB, RLH]

C. B. Pert , M. J. Kuhar , & S. H. Snyder (1976) Opiate receptor: Autoradiographic localization in rat brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 73:37293733. [HLF]

C. B. Pert , and S. H. Snyder (1973) Opiate receptor: Demonstration in nervous tissue. Science, 179:10111014. [YFJ]

J. P. J. Pinel , & D. Treit (1979) Conditioned defensive burying in rats: Availability of burying material. Animal Learning and Behavior, 7:392396. [RCB]

F. N. Pitts Jr, & J. N. McLure Jr. (1967) Lactate metabolism in anxiety neurosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 277:13291336. [BE]

D. D. Price , and R. Dubner (1977) Neurons that subserve the sensory-discriminative aspects of pain. Pain, 3:307338. [RD]

S. Rachman , & R. Hodgson (1974) Synchrony and desynchrony in fear and avoidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12:311318. [HJE]

J.N.P. Rawlins , J. Feldon , & J. A. Gray (1980) Discrimination of response-contingent and response-independent shock by rats: Effects of chlordiazepoxide HCL and sodium amylobarbitone. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32, in press. [JAG]

D. E. Redmond Jr, Y. H. Huang , D. R. Snyder , & J. W. Maas (1976) Behavioral effects of stimulation of the nucleus locus coeruleus in the stumptailed monkey, Macaca arctoides. Brain Research, 116:502510. [JAG]

R. A. Rescorla (1968) Probability of shock in the presence and absence of CS in fear conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 66:15. [RCB]

R. A. Rescorla (1974) Effect of inflation of the unconditioned stimulus value following conditioning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 86:101106. [RCB]

R. E. Ruth , and J. P. Rosenfeld (1977) Tonic reticular activating system: Relationship to aversive brain stimulation effects. Experimental Neurology, 57:4156. [DBo]

E. J. Simon , J. M. Hiller , and I. Edelman (1973) Stereospecific binding of the potent narcotic analgesic (3H) etorphine to rat-brain homogenate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A., 70:19471949. [YFJ]

B. H. Sjölund , and M. B. E. Eriksson (1979) The influence of naloxone and analgesia produced by peripheral conditioning stimulation. Brain Research, 173:295302. [DBo]

L. Terenius (1976) Somatostatin and ACTH are peptides with partial antagonist-like selectivity for opiate receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology, 38:211213. [YFJ]

T. J. Testa (1974) Causal relationships and the acquisition of avoidance responses. Psychological Review, 81:491505. [RCB]

D. A. Van Vugt , J. F. Bruni & J. Meites (1978) Naloxone inhibition of stress-induced increase in prolectic secretion. Life Sciences, 22:8590. [RCB]

P. D. Wall (1979) On the relation of injury to pain. Pain, 6:253264. [RCB. RD]

T. L. Yaksh , & T. A. Rudy (1978) Narcotic analgetics: CNS sites and mechanisms of action as revealed by intrathecal injection techniques. Pain, 4:299359. [TLY]

W. S. Young III, S. J. Bird & M. J Kuhar : (1977) Iontophoresis of methionine-enkephalin in the locus coeruleus area. Brain Research, 129:366370. [JAG]

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: