Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-r29tb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-08T18:47:25.540Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Cultural evolution of genetic heritability

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 May 2021

Ryutaro Uchiyama
NTU–Cambridge Centre for Lifelong Learning and Individualised Cognition, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798inbox@uchiyamaryutaro.com
Rachel Spicer
Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, UK.;
Michael Muthukrishna
Department of Psychological and Behavioural Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, London WC2A 2AE, UK.;


Behavioral genetics and cultural evolution have both revolutionized our understanding of human behavior – largely independent of each other. Here, we reconcile these two fields under a dual inheritance framework, offering a more nuanced understanding of the interaction between genes and culture. Going beyond typical analyses of gene–environment interactions, we describe the cultural dynamics that shape these interactions by shaping the environment and population structure. A cultural evolutionary approach can explain, for example, how factors such as rates of innovation and diffusion, density of cultural subgroups, and tolerance for behavioral diversity impact heritability estimates, thus yielding predictions for different social contexts. Moreover, when cumulative culture functionally overlaps with genes, genetic effects become masked, unmasked, or even reversed, and the causal effects of an identified gene become confounded with features of the cultural environment. The manner of confounding is specific to a particular society at a particular time, but a WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) sampling problem obscures this boundedness. Cultural evolutionary dynamics are typically missing from models of gene-to-phenotype causality, hindering generalizability of genetic effects across societies and across time. We lay out a reconciled framework and use it to predict the ways in which heritability should differ between societies, between socioeconomic levels, and other groupings within some societies but not others, and over the life course. An integrated cultural evolutionary behavioral genetic approach cuts through the nature–nurture debate and helps resolve controversies in topics such as IQ.

Target Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abdellaoui, A., Hugh-Jones, D., Yengo, L., Kemper, K. E., Nivard, M. G., Veul, L., … Holtz, Y. (2019). Genetic correlates of social stratification in Great Britain. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(12), 13321342. ScholarPubMed
Abdellaoui, A., Verweij, K. J. H., & Nivard, M. G. (2021). Geographic confounding in genome-wide association studies. bioRxiv. Preprint. Scholar
Aiello, L. C., & Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive-tissue hypothesis: The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology, 36(2), 199221. Scholar
Akiyama, M., Ishigaki, K., Sakaue, S., Momozawa, Y., Horikoshi, M., Hirata, M., … Matsuda, K. (2019). Characterizing rare and low-frequency height-associated variants in the Japanese population. Nature Communications, 10(December), 4393. ScholarPubMed
Albalat, R., & Cañestro, C. (2016). Evolution by gene loss. Nature Reviews Genetics, 17(7), 379391. ScholarPubMed
Amici, F., Sánchez-Amaro, A., Sebastián-Enesco, C., Cacchione, T., Allritz, M., Salazar-Bonet, J., & Rossano, F. (2019). The word order of languages predicts native speakers’ working memory. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1124. ScholarPubMed
Ammerman, A. J., & Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1984). The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. Verso.Google Scholar
Apicella, C., Norenzayan, A., & Henrich, J. (2020). Beyond WEIRD: A review of the last decade and a look ahead to the global laboratory of the future. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41(5), 319329. Scholar
Apicella, C. L., Marlowe, F. W., Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2012). Social networks and cooperation in hunter–gatherers. Nature, 481(7382), 497501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Assary, E., Vincent, J. P., Keers, R., & Pluess, M. (2018). Gene–environment interaction and psychiatric disorders: Review and future directions. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, Arc/ARg3.1, 77(May), 133143. ScholarPubMed
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Skin cancer in Australia. Scholar
Aylin, P., Morris, S., Wakefield, J., Grossinho, A., Jarup, L., & Elliott, P. (2001). Temperature, housing, deprivation and their relationship to excess winter mortality in Great Britain, 1986–1996. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(5), 11001108. ScholarPubMed
Barrett, H. C. (2020). Deciding what to observe: Thoughts for a post-WEIRD generation. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41(5), 445453. Scholar
Barrett, H. C., Bolyanatz, A., Crittenden, A. N., Fessler, D. M. T., Fitzpatrick, S., Gurven, M., … Henrich, J. (2016). Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(17), 46884693. ScholarPubMed
Barsh, G. S. (2003). What controls variation in human skin color? PLoS Biology, 1(1), e27. ScholarPubMed
Bates, T. C., Lewis, G. J., & Weiss, A. (2013). Childhood socioeconomic status amplifies genetic effects on adult intelligence. Psychological Science, 24(10), 21112116. ScholarPubMed
Bathelt, J., Astle, D., Barnes, J., Lucy Raymond, F., & Baker, K. (2016). Structural brain abnormalities in a single gene disorder associated with epilepsy, language impairment and intellectual disability. NeuroImage: Clinical, 12(February), 655665. Scholar
Beam, C. R., Turkheimer, E., Dickens, W. T., & Davis, D. W. (2015). Twin differentiation of cognitive ability through phenotype to environment transmission: The Louisville twin study. Behavior Genetics, 45(6), 622634. ScholarPubMed
Bell, A. V., Richerson, P. J., & McElreath, R. (2009). Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(42), 1767117674. ScholarPubMed
Berg, J. J., Harpak, A., Sinnott-Armstrong, N., Joergensen, A. M., Mostafavi, H., Field, Y., … Boyle, E. A. (2019). Reduced signal for polygenic adaptation of height in UK biobank. eLife, 8, e39725. ScholarPubMed
Bergen, S. E., Gardner, C. O., & Kendler, K. S. (2007). Age-related changes in heritability of behavioral phenotypes over adolescence and young adulthood: A meta-analysis. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10(3), 423433. Scholar
Berry, J. W. (1972). Radical cultural relativism and the concept of intelligence. In Cronbach, L. J. and Drenth, P. J. D. (Eds.), Mental tests and cultural adaptation (pp. 7788). Mouton.Google Scholar
Bitarello, B. D., & Mathieson, I. (2020). Polygenic scores for height in admixed populations. G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics, 10(11), 4027. ScholarPubMed
Bloom, N. (2020). Are ideas getting harder to find? American Economic Review, 110(4), 11041144. Scholar
Bolger, D. J., Perfetti, C. A., & Schneider, W. (2005). Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation. Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 92104. ScholarPubMed
Bordenstein, S. R., & Theis, K. R. (2015). Host biology in light of the microbiome: Ten principles of holobionts and hologenomes. PLoS Biology, 13(8), e1002226. ScholarPubMed
Bouchard, T. J. (2009). Genetic influence on human intelligence (Spearman's g): How much? Annals of Human Biology, 36(5), 527544. ScholarPubMed
Bouchard, T. J. (2013). The Wilson effect: The increase in heritability of IQ with age. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16(5), 923930. ScholarPubMed
Boyd, R. (2018). A different kind of animal: How culture transformed Our Species. The University Center for Human Values Series. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1985). Culture and the evolutionary process. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (1987). The evolution of ethnic markers. Cultural Anthropology, 2(1), 6579. Scholar
Boyle, E. A., Li, Y. I., & Pritchard, J. K. (2017). An expanded view of complex traits: From polygenic to omnigenic. Cell, 169(7), 11771186. ScholarPubMed
Brandt, M. J., & Wetherell, G. A. (2012). What attitudes are moral attitudes? The case of attitude heritability. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(2), 172179. Scholar
Bratsberg, B., & Rogeberg, O. (2018). Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(26), 66746678. ScholarPubMed
Briley, D. A., Paige Harden, K., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2015). Genotype × cohort interaction on completed fertility and age at first birth. Behavior Genetics, 45(1), 7183. ScholarPubMed
Briley, D. A., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2013). Explaining the increasing heritability of cognitive ability across development: A meta-analysis of longitudinal twin and adoption studies. Psychological Science, 24(9), 17041713. ScholarPubMed
Brinch, C. N., & Galloway, T. A. (2012). Schooling in adolescence raises IQ scores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 425430. ScholarPubMed
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A bioecological model. Psychological Review, 101(4), 568586. ScholarPubMed
Brumpton, B., Sanderson, E., Hartwig, F. P., Harrison, S., Vie, G. Å., Cho, Y., … Howe, L. D. (2020). Avoiding dynastic, assortative mating, and population stratification biases in Mendelian randomization through within-family analyses. Nature Communications, 11, 3519. ScholarPubMed
Brustad, M., Sandanger, T., Aksnes, L., & Lund, E. (2004). Vitamin D status in a rural population of Northern Norway with high fish liver consumption. Public Health Nutrition, 7(6), 783789. Scholar
Byars, S. G., Ewbank, D., Govindaraju, D. R., & Stearns, S. C. (2010). Natural selection in a contemporary human population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 17871792. Scholar
Carter, C. J. (2013). Toxoplasmosis and polygenic disease susceptibility genes: Extensive Toxoplasma gondii host/pathogen interactome enrichment in nine psychiatric or neurological disorders. Journal of Pathogens, 2013, 129. ScholarPubMed
Cashman, K. D., Dowling, K. G., Škrabáková, Z., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Valtueña, J., De Henauw, S., … Moreno, L. (2016). Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: Pandemic? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 103(4), 10331044. ScholarPubMed
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (2001). Genes, peoples, and languages. University of California Press.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Feldman, M. W. (1973). Cultural versus biological inheritance: Phenotypic transmission from parents to children (A theory of the effect of parental phenotypes on children's phenotypes). American Journal of Human Genetics, 25(6), 618637.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Feldman, M. W. (1981). Cultural transmission and evolution: A quantitative approach. Princeton University Press. ScholarPubMed
Cavalli-Sforza, L., Feldman, M., Chen, K., & Dornbusch, S. (1982). Theory and observation in cultural transmission. Science, 218(4567), 1927. ScholarPubMed
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P., & Piazza, A. (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Piazza, A., Menozzi, P., & Mountain, J. (1988). Reconstruction of human evolution: Bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 85(16), 60026006. ScholarPubMed
Ceci, S. J. (1991). How much does schooling influence general intelligence and its cognitive components? A reassessment of the evidence. Developmental Psychology, 27(5), 703722. Scholar
Chapuy, M.-C., Preziosi, P., Maamer, M., Arnaud, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., & Meunier, P. J. (1997). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis International, 7(5), 439443. Scholar
Charmantier, A., & Garant, D. (2005). Environmental quality and evolutionary potential: Lessons from wild populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272(1571), 14151425. ScholarPubMed
Chater, N., Reali, F., & Christiansen, M. H. (2009). Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(4), 10151020. ScholarPubMed
Chatterjee, I. B. (1973). Evolution and the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. Science, 182(4118), 12711272. ScholarPubMed
Chetty, R., & Hendren, N. (2018a). The impacts of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility I: Childhood exposure effects. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 133(3), 11071162. Scholar
Chetty, R., & Hendren, N. (2018b). The impacts of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility II: County-level estimates. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 133(3), 11631228. Scholar
Christiansen, M. H. (1994). Infinite languages, finite minds: Connectionism, learning and linguistic structure. University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
Christiansen, M. H., & Chater, N. (2008). Language as shaped by the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(5), 489509. ScholarPubMed
Chudek, M., & Henrich, J. (2011). Culture–gene coevolution, norm-psychology and the emergence of human prosociality. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(5), 218226. ScholarPubMed
Chudek, M., Muthukrishna, M., & Henrich, J. (2015). Cultural evolution. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (2nd ed.), pp. 749769. Wiley. Scholar
Clark, C. M., Lawlor-Savage, L., & Goghari, V. M. (2016). The Flynn effect: A quantitative commentary on modernity and human intelligence. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 14(2), 3953. Scholar
Cole, M. (1998). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Coleman, J. R. I., Bryois, J., Gaspar, H. A., Jansen, P. R., Savage, J. E., Skene, N., … Plomin, R. (2019). Biological annotation of genetic loci associated with intelligence in a meta-analysis of 87,740 individuals. Molecular Psychiatry, 24(2), 182197. Scholar
Colodro-Conde, L., Rijsdijk, F., Tornero-Gómez, M. J., Sánchez-Romera, J. F., & Ordoñana, J. R. (2015). Equality in educational policy and the heritability of educational attainment. Edited by Nikolaos Georgantzis. PLoS ONE 10 (11), e0143796. ScholarPubMed
Comin, D., & Hobijn, B. (2010). An exploration of technology diffusion. American Economic Review, 100(5), 20312059. Scholar
Cordain, L., Boyd Eaton, S., Sebastian, A., Mann, N., Lindeberg, S., Watkins, B. A., … Brand-Miller, J. (2005). Origins and evolution of the western diet: Health implications for the 21st century. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(2), 341354. ScholarPubMed
Crawford, N. G., Kelly, D. E., Hansen, M. E. B., Beltrame, M. H., Fan, S., Bowman, S. L., … Jewett, E. (2017). Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations. Science, 358(6365), eaan8433. ScholarPubMed
Creanza, N., Kolodny, O., & Feldman, M. W. (2017). Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(30), 77827789. ScholarPubMed
Crispo, E. (2007). Baldwin effect and genetic assimilation: Revisiting two mechanisms of evolutionary change mediated by phenotypic plasticity. Evolution, 61(11), 24692479. ScholarPubMed
Curtis, D. (2018). Polygenic risk score for schizophrenia Is more strongly associated with ancestry than with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Genetics, 28(5), 8589. ScholarPubMed
Dai, C. L., Vazifeh, M. M., Yeang, C.-H., Tachet, R., Spencer Wells, R., Vilar, M. G., … (2020). Population histories of the United States revealed through fine-scale migration and haplotype analysis. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 106(3), 371388. ScholarPubMed
Dar-Nimrod, I., & Heine, S. J. (2011). Genetic essentialism: On the deceptive determinism of DNA. Psychological Bulletin, 137(5), 800818. ScholarPubMed
Davie, G. S., Baker, M. G., Hales, S., & Carlin, J. B. (2007). Trends and determinants of excess winter mortality in New Zealand: 1980 to 2000. BMC Public Health, 7(1), 263. ScholarPubMed
Davies, G., Lam, M., Harris, S. E., Trampush, J. W., Luciano, M., David Hill, W., … Hagenaars, S. P. (2018). Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function. Nature Communications, 9(1), 2098. ScholarPubMed
Davies, J. A. (2014). Life unfolding: How the human body creates itself (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Davis, H. E. (2014). Variable education exposure and cognitive task performance among the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists. University of New Mexico. Scholar
Davis, H. E., Stieglitz, J., Tayo, A. M., Kaplan, H., & Gurven, M. (2020). The formal schooling niche: Longitudinal evidence from Amazonia, Bolivia demonstrates that higher school quality augments differences in children's abstract reasoning. PsyArXiv. Scholar
de Groot, T., Vos, T., Vogels, R. J. M. J., & van Driel, W. D. (2013). Quality and reliability in solid-state lighting. In van Driel, W. D. & Fan, X. J. (Eds.), Solid state lighting reliability: Components to system (pp. 111). Springer New York. Scholar
De, S., Nau, D. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (2017). Understanding Norm Change: An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Approach. In Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems, 1433–41. AAMAS ’17. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.Google Scholar
Deacon, T. W. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York: WW Norton.Google Scholar
Deacon, T. W. (2003). Multilevel selection in a complex adaptive system: The problem of language origins. In Weber, B. H. & Depew, D. J. (Eds.), Evolution and learning: The Baldwin effect reconsidered (pp. 81106). MIT Press.Google Scholar
Dean, L. G., Vale, G. L., Laland, K. N., Flynn, E., & Kendal, R. L. (2014). Human cumulative culture: A comparative perspective. Biological Reviews, 89(2), 284301. ScholarPubMed
Dediu, D. (2011). Are languages really independent from genes? If not, what would a genetic bias affecting language diversity look like? Human Biology, 83(2), 279296. ScholarPubMed
Dediu, D., & Ladd, D. R. (2007). Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and microcephalin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(26), 1094410949. Scholar
Dehaene, S., Izard, V., Spelke, E., & Pica, P. (2008). Log or linear? Distinct intuitions of the number scale in Western and Amazonian indigene cultures. Science, 320(5880), 12171220. ScholarPubMed
Derex, M., & Mesoudi, A. (2020). Cumulative cultural evolution within evolving population structures. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(8), 654667. ScholarPubMed
de Zeeuw, E. L., de Geus, E. J. C., & Boomsma, D. I. (2015). Meta-analysis of twin studies highlights the importance of genetic variation in primary school educational achievement. Trends in Neuroscience and Education 4 (3): 6976. Scholar
Dias, C., Estruch, S. B., Graham, S. A., McRae, J., Sawiak, S. J., Hurst, J. A., … Joss, S. K. (2016). BCL11A haploinsufficiency causes an intellectual disability syndrome and dysregulates transcription. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 99(2), 253274. ScholarPubMed
Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review, 108(2), 346369. ScholarPubMed
Domahs, F., Moeller, K., Huber, S., Willmes, K., & Nuerk, H.-C. (2010). Embodied numerosity: Implicit hand-based representations influence symbolic number processing across cultures. Cognition, 116(2), 251266. ScholarPubMed
Drouin, G., Godin, J.-R., & Page, B. (2011). The genetics of vitamin C loss in vertebrates. Current Genomics, 12(5), 371378. ScholarPubMed
Duncan, L., Shen, H., Gelaye, B., Meijsen, J., Ressler, K., Feldman, M., … Peterson, R. (2019). Analysis of polygenic risk score usage and performance in diverse human populations. Nature Communications, 10(1), 3328. ScholarPubMed
Dutton, E., van der Linden, D., & Lynn, R. (2016). The negative Flynn effect: A systematic literature review. Intelligence, 59(November), 163169. Scholar
Ebbesen, C. L. (2020). Flawed estimates of cognitive ability in Clark et al. psychological science, 2020. PsyArXiv. Preprint. Scholar
Edlich, R. F., Mason, S. S., Chase, M. E., Fisher, A. L., Dean Gubler, K., Long, W. B. III, … Giesy, J. D. (2009). Scientific documentation of the relationship of vitamin D deficiency and the development of cancer. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, 28 (2), 133141. ScholarPubMed
Efferson, C., Vogt, S., & Fehr, E. (2020). The promise and the peril of using social influence to reverse harmful traditions. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 5568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elguero, E., Délicat-Loembet, L. M., Rougeron, V., Arnathau, C., Roche, B., Becquart, P., … Gonzalez, J.-P. (2015). Malaria continues to select for sickle cell trait in Central Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(22), 70517054. ScholarPubMed
Emmons, S., Kobourov, S., Gallant, M., & Börner, K. (2016). Analysis of network clustering algorithms and cluster quality metrics at scale. PLoS ONE, 11(7), e0159161. ScholarPubMed
Engzell, P., & Tropf, F. C. (2019). Heritability of education rises with intergenerational mobility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(51), 2538625388. ScholarPubMed
Enquist, M., Strimling, P., Eriksson, K., Laland, K., & Sjostrand, J. (2010). One cultural parent makes no culture. Animal Behaviour, 79(6), 13531362. Scholar
European Statistical Office. (2020). Estimated average age of young people leaving the parental household by sex. Scholar
Fadista, J., Manning, A. K., Florez, J. C., & Groop, L. (2016). The (in)famous GWAS P-value threshold revisited and updated for low-frequency variants. European Journal of Human Genetics, 24(8), 12021205. Scholar
Fearon, J. D. (2003). Ethnic and cultural diversity by country. Journal of Economic Growth, 8, 195222. Scholar
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2003). The nature of human altruism. Nature, 425(6960), 785791. ScholarPubMed
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2004). Social norms and human cooperation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(4), 185190. ScholarPubMed
Feldman, M. W., & Ramachandran, S. (2018). Missing compared to what? Revisiting heritability, genes and culture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1743), 20170064. ScholarPubMed
Feldman, M., & Lewontin, R. C. (1975). The heritability hang-up. Science, 190(4220), 11631168. ScholarPubMed
Finlay, B. L., & Uchiyama, R. (2020). The timing of brain maturation, early experience, and the human social niche. In Kaas, J. (Ed.), Evolutionary neuroscience (2nd ed., pp. 815843). Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Firth, J., Torous, J., Stubbs, B., Firth, J. A., Steiner, G. Z., Smith, L., … Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2019). The “online brain”: How the internet may be changing Our cognition. World Psychiatry, 18(2), 119129. ScholarPubMed
Fisher, R. A. (1952). Statistical methods in genetics. Heredity, 6, 112. Scholar
Flynn, J. R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95(1), 29. Scholar
Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 171. Scholar
Flynn, J. R. (2007). What is intelligence?: Beyond the Flynn effect. Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Flynn, J. R. (2009). The WAIS-III and WAIS-IV: Daubert motions favor the certainly false over the approximately true. Applied Neuropsychology, 16(2), 98104. ScholarPubMed
Fogarty, L., Creanza, N., & Feldman, M. W. (2019). The life history of learning: Demographic structure changes cultural outcomes. Edited by Stefano Allesina. PLoS Computational Biology, 15(4), e1006821. ScholarPubMed
Fort, J. (2012). Synthesis between demic and cultural diffusion in the Neolithic transition in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(46), 1866918673. ScholarPubMed
Fowler, T., Southgate, R. J., Waite, T., Harrell, R., Kovats, S., Bone, A., … Doyle, Y. (2015). Excess winter deaths in Europe: A multi-country descriptive analysis. European Journal of Public Health, 25(2), 339345. ScholarPubMed
Freund, J., Brandmaier, A. M., Lewejohann, L., Kirste, I., Kritzler, M., Kruger, A., … Sachser, N. (2013). Emergence of individuality in genetically identical mice. Science, 340(6133), 756759. ScholarPubMed
Freund, J., Brandmaier, A. M., Lewejohann, L., Kirste, I., Kritzler, M., Krüger, A., … Sachser, N. (2015). Association between exploratory activity and social individuality in genetically identical mice living in the same enriched environment. Neuroscience, 309(November), 140152. ScholarPubMed
Fu, Q., Posth, C., Hajdinjak, M., Petr, M., Mallick, S., Fernandes, D., … Furtwängler, A. (2016). The genetic history of ice age Europe. Nature, 534(7606), 200205. ScholarPubMed
Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary genius. Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Galton, F. (1874). English men of science: Their nature and nurture. Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garland, C. F., Garland, F. C., Gorham, E. D., Lipkin, M., Newmark, H., Mohr, S. B., & Holick, M. F. (2006). The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 252261. ScholarPubMed
Gelfand, M. J. (2018). Rule makers, rule breakers: How tight and loose cultures wire our world. Scribner.Google Scholar
Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., & Raver, J. L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness–looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 12251244. ScholarPubMed
Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., … Duan, L. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332(6033), 11001104. ScholarPubMed
Giangrande, E. J., Beam, C. R., Carroll, S., Matthews, L. J., Davis, D. W., Finkel, D., & Turkheimer, E. (2019). Multivariate analysis of the Scarr–Rowe interaction across middle childhood and early adolescence. Intelligence, 77(November), 101400. Scholar
Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin. Scholar
Gopnik, A., Glymour, C., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., Kushnir, T., & Danks, D. (2004). A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets. Psychological Review, 111(1), 332. ScholarPubMed
Gordon, R. (2018). Why has economic growth slowed when innovation appears to be accelerating? w24554. National Bureau of Economic Research. Scholar
Gottlieb, G. (2003). On making behavioral genetics truly developmental. Human Development, 46(6), 337355. Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. (1998). The cultural evolution of IQ. In Neisser, U. (Ed.), The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 81123). American Psychological Association. Scholar
Greenfield, P. M. (2009). Technology and informal education: What is taught, what is learned. Science, 323(5910), 6971. ScholarPubMed
Guida, A., Megreya, A. M., Lavielle-Guida, M., Noël, Y., Mathy, F., van Dijck, J.-P., & Abrahamse, E. (2018). Spatialization in working memory is related to literacy and reading direction: Culture “literarily” directs our thoughts. Cognition, 175(June), 96100. ScholarPubMed
Guo, J., Bakshi, A., Wang, Y., Jiang, L., Yengo, L., Goddard, M. E., … Visscher, P. M. (2021). Quantifying genetic heterogeneity between continental populations for human height and body mass index. Scientific Reports, 11, 5240. ScholarPubMed
Gurdasani, D., Carstensen, T., Fatumo, S., Chen, G., Franklin, C. S., Prado-Martinez, J., … Bouman, H. (2019). Uganda genome resource enables insights into population history and genomic discovery in Africa. Cell, 179(4), 9841002.e36. ScholarPubMed
Gurven, M., von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H., & Vie, M. L. (2013). How universal is the big five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager–farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 354370. ScholarPubMed
Hackman, D. A., Farah, M. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2010). Socioeconomic status and the brain: Mechanistic insights from human and animal research. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(9), 651659. ScholarPubMed
Hamer, D., & Sirota, L. (2000). Beware the chopsticks gene. Molecular Psychiatry, 5, 1113. ScholarPubMed
Handley, C., & Mathew, S. (2020). Human large-scale cooperation as a product of competition between cultural groups. Nature Communications, 11(1), 702. ScholarPubMed
Hanscombe, KB., Trzaskowski, M., Haworth, C. M. A., Davis, O. S. P., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2012). Socioeconomic status (SES) and children's intelligence (IQ): In a UK-representative sample SES moderates the environmental, not genetic, effect on IQ. PLoS ONE 7 (2): e30320. Scholar
Harden, K. P. (2021). “Reports of my death were greatly exaggerated”: Behavior genetics in the postgenomic era. Annual Review of Psychology, 72(1), 3760. annurev-psych-052220-103822. ScholarPubMed
Harden, K. P., & Koellinger, P. D. (2020). Using genetics for social science. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(May), 567576. ScholarPubMed
Harris, J. R. (1995). Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102(3), 458489. Scholar
Hatemi, P. K., Funk, C. L., Medland, S. E., Maes, H. M., Silberg, J. L., Martin, N. G., & Eaves, L. J. (2009). Genetic and environmental transmission of political attitudes over a life time. The Journal of Politics, 71(3), 11411156. Scholar
Hatemi, P. K., Gillespie, N. A., Eaves, L. J., Maher, B. S., Webb, B. T., Heath, A. C., … Medland, S. E. (2011). A genome-wide analysis of liberal and conservative political attitudes. The Journal of Politics, 73(1), 271285. Scholar
Hawkes, K., & Finlay, B. L. (2018). Mammalian brain development and our grandmothering life history. Physiology & Behavior, 193(September), 5568. ScholarPubMed
Haworth, C. M. A., & Davis, O. S. P. (2014). From observational to dynamic genetics. Frontiers in Genetics, 5(6). ScholarPubMed
Haworth, C. M. A., Wright, M. J., Luciano, M., Martin, N. G., de Geus, E. J. C., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., … Bartels, M. (2010). The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood. Molecular Psychiatry, 15(11), 11121120. ScholarPubMed
Healy, J. D. (2003). Excess winter mortality in Europe: A cross country analysis identifying key risk factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(10), 784789. ScholarPubMed
Heath, A. C., Berg, K., Eaves, L. J., Solaas, M. H., Corey, L. A., Sundet, J., Magnus, P., … (1985). Education policy and the heritability of educational attainment. Nature, 314(6013), 734736.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heine, S. J. (2017). DNA is not destiny: The remarkable, completely misunderstood relationship between you and your genes. Norton.Google Scholar
Hellwege, J. N., Keaton, J. M., Giri, A., Gao, X., Velez Edwards, D. R., & Edwards, T. L. (2017). Population stratification in genetic association studies. Current Protocols in Human Genetics, 95, ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J. (2001). Cultural transmission and the diffusion of innovations: Adoption dynamics indicate that biased cultural transmission is the predominate force in behavioral change. American Anthropologist, 103(4), 9921013. Scholar
Henrich, J. (2004a). Demography and cultural evolution: How adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses: The Tasmanian case. American Antiquity, 69(2), 197214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J. (2004b). Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 53(1), 335. Scholar
Henrich, J. (2016). The secret of our success: How culture is driving human evolution, domesticating our species, and making us smarter. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henrich, J. (2020). WEIRDest people in the world: How the west became psychologically peculiar and particularly prosperous. Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Henrich, J., & Broesch, J. (2011). On the nature of cultural transmission networks: Evidence from Fijian villages for adaptive learning biases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 11391148. ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J., & Gil-White, F. J. (2001). The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22(3), 165196. ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 6183. ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J., & Henrich, N. (2010). The evolution of cultural adaptations: Fijian food taboos protect against dangerous marine toxins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277(1701), 37153724. ScholarPubMed
Henrich, J., & Muthukrishna, M. (2021). The origins and psychology of human cooperation. Annual Review of Psychology, 72(1), 207240. ScholarPubMed
Hewlett, B. S., Fouts, H. N., Boyette, A. H., & Hewlett, B. L. (2011). Social learning among Congo basin hunter–gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 11681178. ScholarPubMed
Heyes, C. (2018). Cognitive gadgets: The cultural evolution of thinking. Belknap Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, K., & Magdalena Hurtado, A. (2009). Cooperative breeding in south American hunter–gatherers. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 276(1674), 38633870. ScholarPubMed
Hill, W. D., Hagenaars, S. P., Marioni, R. E., Harris, S. E., Liewald, D. C. M., Davies, G., … Okbay, A. (2016). Molecular genetic contributions to social deprivation and household income in UK biobank. Current Biology, 26(22), 30833089. ScholarPubMed
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Holick, M. F. (2007). Vitamin D deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(3), 266281. ScholarPubMed
Horwitz, T., Lam, K., Chen, Y., Xia, Y., & Liu, C. (2019). A decade in psychiatric GWAS research. Molecular Psychiatry, 24(3), 378389. ScholarPubMed
Howard, J. A., & Gibson, M. A. (2017). Frequency-dependent female genital cutting behaviour confers evolutionary fitness benefits. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1(3), 0049. ScholarPubMed
Hunter, D. J. (2005). Gene–environment interactions in human diseases. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6(4), 287298. ScholarPubMed
Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Inglehart, R., Haerpfer, C., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., … Lagos, M. (2014). World values survey: All rounds – country-pooled datafile 1981–2014. JD Systems Institute. Scholar
Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: The human development sequence. Cambridge University Press. Scholar
Jablonka, E., & Lamb, M. J. (2005). Evolution in four dimensions. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Jablonski, N. G., & Chaplin, G. (2010). Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(Supplement_2), 89628968. ScholarPubMed
Jablonski, N. G., & Chaplin, G. (2017). The colours of humanity: The evolution of pigmentation in the human lineage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372(1724), 20160349. ScholarPubMed
Jardim-Botelho, A., Raff, S., de Ávila Rodrigues, R., Hoffman, H. J., Joseph Diemert, D., Corrêa-Oliveira, R., Michael Bethony, J., … (2008). Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polyparasitism associated with poor cognitive performance in Brazilian schoolchildren. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 13(8), 9941004. ScholarPubMed
Jensen, A. (1969). How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement. Harvard Educational Review, 39(1), 1123. Scholar
Ji, T., Wu, J.-J., He, Q.-Q., Xu, J.-J., Mace, R., & Tao, Y. (2013). Reproductive competition between females in the matrilineal Mosuo of southwestern China. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1631), 20130081. ScholarPubMed
Johnson, J. S., & Newport, E. L. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21(1), 6099. ScholarPubMed
Johnson, S. (2006). Everything bad is good for you: How popular culture is making us smarter. Penguin Books.Google Scholar
Jones, C. (2020). The end of economic growth? Unintended consequences of a declining population. w26651. National Bureau of Economic Research. Scholar
Joshi, P. K., Esko, T., Mattsson, H., Eklund, N., Gandin, I., Nutile, T., … Jackson, A. U. (2015). Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations. Nature, 523(7561), 459462. ScholarPubMed
Kǎĝitçibaşi, C. (1984). Socialization in traditional society: A challenge to psychology. International Journal of Psychology, 19(1–4), 145157. Scholar
Kan, K.-J., Wicherts, J. M., Dolan, C. V., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (2013). On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: The more heritable, the more culture dependent. Psychological Science, 24(12), 24202428. ScholarPubMed
Karasik, L. B., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Adolph, K. E., & Bornstein, M. H. (2015). Places and postures: A cross-cultural comparison of sitting in 5-month-olds. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(8), 10231038. ScholarPubMed
Kempermann, G. (2019). Environmental enrichment, new neurons and the neurobiology of individuality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 20(4), 235245. ScholarPubMed
Kendal, R. L., Boogert, N. J., Rendell, L., Laland, K. N., Webster, M., & Jones, P. L. (2018). Social learning strategies: Bridge-building between fields. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 22(7), 651665. ScholarPubMed
Kievit, R., Frankenhuis, W. E., Waldorp, L., & Borsboom, D. (2013). Simpson's paradox in psychological science: A practical guide. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 513. ScholarPubMed
Kim, M. S., Patel, K. P., Teng, A. K., Berens, A. J., & Lachance, J. (2018). Genetic disease risks can be misestimated across global populations. Genome Biology, 19(1), 179. ScholarPubMed
Kirkpatrick, R. M., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2015). Replication of a gene–environment interaction via multimodel inference: Additive-genetic variance in adolescents general cognitive ability increases with family-of-origin socioeconomic status. Behavior Genetics, 45(2), 200214. ScholarPubMed
Kitayama, S., Duffy, S., Kawamura, T., & Larsen, J. T. (2003). Perceiving an object and its context in different cultures: A cultural look at new look. Psychological Science, 14(3), 201206. Scholar
Kline, M. A., Boyd, R., & Henrich, J. (2013). Teaching and the life history of cultural transmission in Fijian villages. Human Nature, 24(4), 351374. ScholarPubMed
Kolodny, O., Creanza, N., & Feldman, M. W. (2015). Evolution in leaps: The punctuated accumulation and loss of cultural innovations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(49), E6762E6769. ScholarPubMed
Kremen, W. S., Jacobson, K. C., Xian, H., Eisen, S. A., Waterman, B., Toomey, R., … Neale, M. C. (2005). Heritability of word recognition in middle-aged men varies as a function of parental education. Behavior Genetics, 35(4), 417433. ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P., Williams, K., Lacerda, F., Stevens, K., & Lindblom, B. (1992). Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science, 255(5044), 606608. ScholarPubMed
Laland, K., Matthews, B., & Feldman, M. W. (2016). An introduction to niche construction theory. Evolutionary Ecology, 30(2), 191202. ScholarPubMed
Laland, K. N. (2018). Darwin's unfinished symphony: How culture made the human mind. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Laland, K. N., & O'Brien, M. J. (2011). Cultural niche construction: An introduction. Biological Theory, 6(3), 191202. Scholar
Laland, K. N., Odling-Smee, J., & Feldman, M. W. (2001). Cultural niche construction and human evolution. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 14(1), 2233. ScholarPubMed
Laland, K. N., Odling-Smee, J., & Myles, S. (2010). How culture shaped the human genome: Bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nature Reviews Genetics, 11(2), 137148. ScholarPubMed
Laland, K. N., Uller, T., Feldman, M. W., Sterelny, K., Müller, G. B., Moczek, A., … Jablonka, E. (2015). The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282(1813), 20151019. ScholarPubMed
Lamb, J., May, J., & Harrison, F. (2017). Scurvy: The disease of discovery. Princeton University Press. Scholar
Leary, P. F., Zamfirova, I., Au, J., & McCracken, W. H. (2017). Effect of latitude on vitamin D levels. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 117(7), 433. ScholarPubMed
Lee, J. J., Wedow, R., Okbay, A., Kong, E., Maghzian, O., Zacher, M., … Nguyen-Viet, T. A. (2018). Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in 1.1 million individuals. Nature Genetics, 50(8), 11121121. ScholarPubMed
Legare, C. H., & Nielsen, M. (2015). Imitation and innovation: The dual engines of cultural learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(11), 688699. ScholarPubMed
Lek, M., Karczewski, K. J., Minikel, E. V., Samocha, K. E., Banks, E., Fennell, T., … O'Donnell-Luria, A. H. (2016). Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans. Nature, 536(7616), 285291. ScholarPubMed
Lewontin, R. C. (1970). Race and intelligence. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 26(3), 28. Scholar
Lewontin, R. C. (1974). Annotation: The analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 26, 400411.Google ScholarPubMed
Lieblich, A. (2010). A century of childhood, parenting, and family life in the kibbutz. Journal of Israeli History, 29(1), 124. Scholar
Lips, P. (2001). Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: Consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocrine Reviews, 22(4), 477501.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lips, P. (2007). Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 103(3–5), 620625. ScholarPubMed
Lips, P., Duong, T., Oleksik, A., Black, D., Cummings, S., Cox, D., & Nickelsen, T. (2001). A global study of vitamin D status and parathyroid function in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: Baseline data from the multiple outcomes of raloxifene evaluation clinical trial. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(3), 10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lipschuetz, M., Cohen, S. M., Ein-Mor, E., Sapir, H., Hochner-Celnikier, D., Porat, S., … Amsalem, H. (2015). A large head circumference is more strongly associated with unplanned cesarean or instrumental delivery and neonatal complications than high birthweight. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 213(6), 833.e1833.e12. ScholarPubMed
Lupyan, G., Rahman, R. A., Boroditsky, L., & Clark, A. (2020). Effects of language on visual perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(11), 930944. ScholarPubMed
Lynn, R. (1990). The role of nutrition in secular increases in intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11(3), 273285. Scholar
Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T. (2012). Intelligence: A unifying construct for the social sciences. Ulster Institute for Social Research.Google Scholar
Majid, A., Bowerman, M., Kita, S., Haun, D. B. M., & Levinson, S. C. (2004). Can language restructure cognition? The case for space. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(3), 108114. Scholar
Mallick, S., Li, H., Lipson, M., Mathieson, I., Gymrek, M., Racimo, F., … Zhao, M. (2016). The Simons genome diversity project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations. Nature, 538(7624), 201206. ScholarPubMed
Martin, A. R., Gignoux, C. R., Walters, R. K., Wojcik, G. L., Neale, B. M., Gravel, S., … Daly, M. J. (2017). Human demographic history impacts genetic risk prediction across diverse populations. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 100(4), 635649. ScholarPubMed
Martin, A. R., Kanai, M., Kamatani, Y., Okada, Y., Neale, B. M., & Daly, M. J. (2019). Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities. Nature Genetics, 51(4), 584591. ScholarPubMed
Martin, G. J., & Yurukoglu, A. (2017). Bias in cable news: Persuasion and polarization. American Economic Review, 107(9), 25652599. Scholar
McKee, C. M. (1989). Deaths in winter: Can Britain learn from Europe? European Journal of Epidemiology, 5(2), 178182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Medin, D. L., & Atran, S. (2004). The native mind: Biological categorization and reasoning in development and across cultures. Psychological Review, 111(4), 960983. ScholarPubMed
Meltzer, D. O., Best, T. J., Zhang, H., Vokes, T., Arora, V., & Solway, J. (2020). Association of vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results. JAMA Network Open, 3(9), e2019722. ScholarPubMed
Mesoudi, A. (2011). Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution. Edited by R. Bentley. PLoS ONE 6(3), e18239. ScholarPubMed
Michalopoulos, S., & Papaioannou, E. (2020). Historical legacies and African development. Journal of Economic Literature, 58(1), 53128. Scholar
Mills, M. C., & Rahal, C. (2019). A scientometric review of genome-wide association studies. Communications Biology, 2(1), 9. ScholarPubMed
Mills, M. C., & Tropf, F. C. (2020). Sociology, genetics, and the coming of age of sociogenomics. Annual Review of Sociology, 46(1), 553581. Scholar
Mithal, A., Wahl, D. A., Bonjour, J.-P., Burckhardt, P., Dawson-Hughes, B., Eisman, J. A., … El-Hajj Fuleihan, G. (2009). Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis International, 20(11), 18071820. ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Rutter, M. (2005). Strategy for investigating interactions between measured genes and measured environments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(5), 473. ScholarPubMed
Montague, M., Borland, R., & Sinclair, C. (2001). Slip! Slop! Slap! And SunSmart, 1980–2000: Skin cancer control and 20 years of population-based campaigning. Health Education & Behavior, 28(3), 290305. ScholarPubMed
Moore, D. S., & Shenk, D. (2016). The heritability fallacy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 8(1–2), e1400. ScholarPubMed
Morgan, T. J. H., Suchow, J. W., & Griffiths, T. L. (2020). What the Baldwin effect affects depends on the nature of plasticity. Cognition, 197(April), 104165. ScholarPubMed
Morgan, T. J., Uomini, N. T., Rendell, L. E., Chouinard-Thuly, L., Street, S. E., Lewis, H. M., … Cross, C. P. (2015). Experimental evidence for the co-evolution of hominin tool-making teaching and language. Nature Communications, 6(1), 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, T. T., Davies, N. M., Hemani, G., & Smith, G. D. (2020). Population phenomena inflate genetic associations of complex social traits. Science Advances, 6(16), eaay0328. ScholarPubMed
Mostafavi, H., Harpak, A., Agarwal, I., Conley, D., Pritchard, J. K., & Przeworski, M. (2020). Variable prediction accuracy of polygenic scores within an ancestry group. eLife, 9(January), e48376. ScholarPubMed
Murray, C. (2020). Human diversity: The biology of gender, race, and class. Twelve.Google Scholar
Muthukrishna, M., Bell, A. V., Henrich, J., Curtin, C. M., Gedranovich, A., McInerney, J., & Thue, B. (2020). Beyond western, educated, industrial, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) psychology: Measuring and mapping scales of cultural and psychological distance. Psychological Science, 31(6), 678701. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., Doebeli, M., Chudek, M., & Henrich, J. (2018). The cultural brain hypothesis: How culture drives brain expansion, sociality, and life history. Edited by Corina E Tarnita. PLoS Computational Biology, 14(11), e1006504. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., & Henrich, J. (2016). Innovation in the collective brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 371(1690), 20150192. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., & Henrich, J. (2019). A problem in theory. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(March), 221229. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., Henrich, J., & Slingerland, E. (2021). Psychology as a historical science. Annual Review of Psychology, 72(1), 717749. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., Morgan, T. J. H., & Henrich, J. (2016). The when and who of social learning and conformist transmission. Evolution and Human Behavior, 37(1), 1020. Scholar
Muthukrishna, M., & Schaller, M. (2020). Are collectivistic cultures more prone to rapid transformation? Computational models of cross-cultural differences, social network structure, dynamic social influence, and cultural change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 24(2), 103120. ScholarPubMed
Muthukrishna, M., Shulman, B. W., Vasilescu, V., & Henrich, J. (2014). Sociality influences cultural complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1774), 20132511.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Need, A. C., & Goldstein, D. B. (2009). Next generation disparities in human genomics: Concerns and remedies. Trends in Genetics, 25(11), 489494. ScholarPubMed
Needleman, H. L., & Gatsonis, C. A. (1990). Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. JAMA, 263(5), 673678. ScholarPubMed
Nielsen, M., Haun, D., Kärtner, J., & Legare, C. H. (2017). The persistent sampling bias in developmental psychology: A call to action. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 162(October), 3138. ScholarPubMed
Nisbett, R. (2003). The geography of thought: How Asians and westerners think differently…and Why. Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count (1st ed.). W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern, D. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2012). Intelligence: new findings and theoretical developments. American Psychologist, 67(2), 130159. ScholarPubMed
Nunn, N. (2020). The historical roots of economic development. Science, 367(6485), eaaz9986. ScholarPubMed
Olalde, I., Brace, S., Allentoft, M. E., Armit, I., Kristiansen, K., Booth, T., … Rohland, N. (2018). The beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature, 555(7695), 190196. ScholarPubMed
Onalaja, A. O., & Claudio, L. (2000). Genetic susceptibility to lead poisoning. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(suppl 1), 2328. ScholarPubMed
Ong, W. J. (1982). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. Methuen.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osada, N., & Akashi, H. (2012). Mitochondrial–nuclear interactions and accelerated compensatory evolution: Evidence from the primate cytochrome c oxidase complex. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29(1), 337346. ScholarPubMed
Oskina, N. А., Еrmolenko, N. А., Boyarskih, U. А., Lazarev, А. F., Petrova, V. D., Ganov, D. I., … Tonacheva, О. G. (2014). Associations between SNPs within antioxidant genes and the risk of prostate cancer in the Siberian region of Russia. Pathology & Oncology Research, 20(3), 635640. ScholarPubMed
Pagani, L., Kivisild, T., Tarekegn, A., Ekong, R., Plaster, C., Romero, I. G., … Ayub, Q. (2012). Ethiopian genetic diversity reveals linguistic stratification and complex influences on the Ethiopian gene pool. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 91(1), 8396. ScholarPubMed
Papassotiropoulos, A., Henke, K., Stefanova, E., Aerni, A., Müller, A., Demougin, P., … Vogler, C. (2011). A genome-wide survey of human short-term memory. Molecular Psychiatry, 16(2), 184192. ScholarPubMed
Pemberton, T. J., Verdu, P., Becker, N. S., Willer, C. J., Hewlett, B. S., Le Bomin, S., … Froment, A. (2018). A genome scan for genes underlying adult body size differences between Central African hunter–gatherers and farmers. Human Genetics, 137(6–7), 487509. ScholarPubMed
Penn, D. C., & Povinelli, D. J. (2007). Causal cognition in human and nonhuman animals: A comparative, critical review. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 97118. ScholarPubMed
Peter, B. M., Petkova, D., & Novembre, J. (2020). Genetic landscapes reveal How human genetic diversity aligns with geography. Edited by Evelyne Heyer. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 37(4), 943951. ScholarPubMed
Petkova, D., Novembre, J., & Stephens, M. (2016). Visualizing spatial population structure with estimated effective migration surfaces. Nature Genetics, 48(1), 94100. ScholarPubMed
Phillips, P. C. (2008). Epistasis – The essential role of gene interactions in the structure and evolution of genetic systems. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9(11), 855867. ScholarPubMed
Pietschnig, J., & Voracek, M. (2015). One century of global IQ gains: A formal meta-analysis of the Flynn effect (1909–2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(3), 282306. Scholar
Pilz, S., März, W., Cashman, K. D., Kiely, M. E., Whiting, S. J., Holick, M. F., … Grant, W. B. (2018). Rationale and plan for vitamin D food fortification: A review and guidance paper. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9(July), 373. ScholarPubMed
Platt, J. M., Keyes, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., & Kaufman, A. S. (2019). The Flynn effect for fluid IQ may not generalize to all ages or ability levels: A population-based study of 10,000 US adolescents. Intelligence, 77(November), 101385. ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R. (2019). Blueprint: How DNA makes us who we are. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Plomin, R., Asbury, K., & Dunn, J. (2001). Why are children in the same family so different? Nonshared environment a decade later. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46(3), 225233. ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., & Daniels, D. (1987). Children in the same family are very different, but why? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10(1), 4459. Scholar
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2016). Top 10 replicated findings from behavioral genetics. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(1), 323. ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., & Loehlin, J. C. (1977). Genotype–environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84(2), 309322. ScholarPubMed
Plomin, R., & von Stumm, S. (2018). The new genetics of intelligence. Nature Reviews Genetics, 19, 148159. ScholarPubMed
Polderman, T. J. C., Benyamin, B., de Leeuw, C. A., Sullivan, P. F., van Bochoven, A., Visscher, P. M., & Posthuma, D. (2015). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47(7), 702709. ScholarPubMed
Pollet, T. V., & Saxton, T. K. (2019). How diverse are the samples used in the journals “evolution & human behavior” and “evolutionary psychology”? Evolutionary Psychological Science, 5(3), 357368. Scholar
Popejoy, A. B., & Fullerton, S. M. (2016). Genomics is failing on diversity. Nature, 538(7624), 161164. ScholarPubMed
Prado-Martinez, J., Sudmant, P. H., Kidd, J. M., Li, H., Kelley, J. L., Lorente-Galdos, B., … Veeramah, K. R. (2013). Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature, 499(7459), 471475. ScholarPubMed
Price, A. L., Zaitlen, N. A., Reich, D., & Patterson, N. (2010). New approaches to population stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nature Reviews Genetics, 11(7), 459463. ScholarPubMed
Purcell, S. (2002). Variance components models for gene–environment interaction in twin analysis. Twin Research, 5(6), 554571. ScholarPubMed
Ravallion, M. (2016). The economics of poverty: History, measurement, and policy. Oxford University Press. Scholar
Rhodes, J. M., Subramanian, S., Laird, E., Griffin, G., & Kenny, R. A. (2021). Perspective: Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity – plausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2 and thrombosis. Journal of Internal Medicine, 289(1), 97115. ScholarPubMed
Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R., & Henrich, J. (2010). Gene–culture coevolution in the age of genomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107 (Supplement_2): 89858992. ScholarPubMed
Richerson, P., Baldini, R., Bell, A. V., Demps, K., Frost, K., Hillis, V., … Mathew, S. (2016). Cultural group selection plays an essential role in explaining human cooperation: A sketch of the evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39(May), e30. Scholar
Rimfeld, K., Krapohl, E., Trzaskowski, M., Coleman, J. R. I., Selzam, S., Dale, P. S., … Esko, T. (2018). Genetic influence on social outcomes during and after the soviet era in Estonia. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(4), 269275. ScholarPubMed
Ritchie, S. J., & Tucker-Drob, E. M. (2018). How much does education improve intelligence? A meta-analysis. Psychological Science, 29(8), 13581369. ScholarPubMed
Rogers, A. R. (1988). Does biology constrain culture? American Anthropologist, 90(4), 819831. Scholar
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. Free Press.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, N. A., Edge, M. D., Pritchard, J. K., & Feldman, M. W. (2019). Interpreting polygenic scores, polygenic adaptation, and human phenotypic differences. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2018(1), 2634. Scholar
Rosenzweig, M. R., & Bennett, E. L. (1996). Psychobiology of plasticity: Effects of training and experience on brain and behavior. Behavioural Brain Research, 78(1), 5765. ScholarPubMed
Rotimi, C. N., Bentley, A. R., Doumatey, A. P., Chen, G., Shriner, D., & Adeyemo, A. (2017). The genomic landscape of African populations in health and disease. Human Molecular Genetics, 26(R2), R225R236. ScholarPubMed
Rowe, D. C., Jacobson, K. C., & Van den Oord, E. J. C. G. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on vocabulary IQ: Parental education level as moderator. Child Development, 70(5), 11511162. ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (2007). Gene–environment interdependence. Developmental Science, 10(1), 1218. ScholarPubMed
Samuelsson, S., Byrne, B., Olson, R. K., Hulslander, J., Wadsworth, S., Corley, R., … Willcutt, E. G. (2008). Response to early literacy instruction in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia: A behavioral-genetic analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 18(3), 289295. ScholarPubMed
Sanchez-Roige, S., Fontanillas, P., Elson, S. L., the 23 and Me Research Team, Pandit, A., Schmidt, E. M., … Foerster, J. R. (2018). Genome-wide association study of delay discounting in 23,217 adult research participants of European ancestry. Nature Neuroscience, 21(1), 1618. ScholarPubMed
Sanjak, J. S., Sidorenko, J., Robinson, M. R., Thornton, K. R., & Visscher, P. M. (2018). Evidence of directional and stabilizing selection in contemporary humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(1), 151156. ScholarPubMed
Sauce, B., Bendrath, S., Herzfeld, M., Siegel, D., Style, C., Rab, S., … Korabelnikov, J. (2018). The impact of environmental interventions among mouse siblings on the heritability and malleability of general cognitive ability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 373(1756), 20170289. ScholarPubMed
Savage, J. E., Jansen, P. R., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Bryois, J., de Leeuw, C. A., … Nagel, M. (2018). Genome-wide association meta-analysis in 269,867 individuals identifies new genetic and functional links to intelligence. Nature Genetics, 50(7), 912919. ScholarPubMed
Scarr, S. (1992). Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development, 63(1), 119. ScholarPubMed
Scarr-Salapatek, S. (1971). Race, social class, and IQ. Science, 174(4016), 12851295. ScholarPubMed
Schaller, M., & Muthukrishna, M. (2021). Modeling cultural change: Computational models of interpersonal influence dynamics can yield new insights about how cultures change, which cultures change more rapidly than others, and why. American Psychologist, 76(6), 10271038. Scholar
Schirwani, S., Wakeling, E., Smith, K., Study, D. D. D., & Balasubramanian, M. (2018). Expanding the molecular basis and phenotypic spectrum of ZDHHC9-associated X-linked intellectual disability. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 176(5), 12381244. ScholarPubMed
Schulz, J. F., Bahrami-Rad, D., Beauchamp, J. P., & Henrich, J. (2019). The church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variation. Science, 366(6466), eaau5141. ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, C. R. (2013). Trends and variation in assortative mating: Causes and consequences. Annual Review of Sociology, 39(1), 451470. Scholar
Selita, F., & Kovas, Y. (2019). Genes and Gini: What inequality means for heritability. Journal of Biosocial Science, 51(1), 1847. ScholarPubMed
Shemesh, Y., Sztainberg, Y., Forkosh, O., Shlapobersky, T., Chen, A., & Schneidman, E. (2013). High-order social interactions in groups of mice. eLife, 2, e00759. ScholarPubMed
Silventoinen, K., Jelenkovic, A., Sund, R., Latvala, A., Honda, C., Inui, F., … Tomizawa, R. (2020). Genetic and environmental variation in educational attainment: An individual-based analysis of 28 twin cohorts. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12681. ScholarPubMed
Simpson, E. H. (1951). The interpretation of interaction in contingency tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 13(2), 238241. Scholar
Sirugo, G., Williams, S. M., & Tishkoff, S. A. (2019). The missing diversity in human genetic studies. Cell, 177(1), 2631. ScholarPubMed
Sisk, V. F., Burgoyne, A. P., Sun, J., Butler, J. L., & Macnamara, B. N. (2018). To what extent and under which circumstances are growth mind-sets important to academic achievement? Two meta-analyses. Psychological Science, 29(4), 549571. ScholarPubMed
Sloan, D. B., Warren, J. M., Williams, A. M., Wu, Z., Abdel-Ghany, S. E., Chicco, A. J., & Havird, J. C. (2018). Cytonuclear integration and co-evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics, 19(10), 635648. ScholarPubMed
van der Sluis, S., Willemsen, G., de Geus, E. J. C., Boomsma, D. I., & Posthuma, D. (2008). Gene–environment interaction in adults’ IQ scores: Measures of past and present environment. Behavior Genetics, 38(4), 348360. ScholarPubMed
Smaldino, P. E., Lukaszewski, A., von Rueden, C., & Gurven, M. (2019). Niche diversity can explain cross-cultural differences in personality structure. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(12), 12761283. ScholarPubMed
Sniekers, S., Stringer, S., Watanabe, K., Jansen, P. R., Coleman, J. R. I., Krapohl, E., … Taskesen, E. (2017). Genome-wide association meta-analysis of 78,308 individuals identifies new loci and genes influencing human intelligence. Nature Genetics, 49(7), 11071112. ScholarPubMed
Sohail, M., Maier, R. M., Ganna, A., Bloemendal, A., Martin, A. R., Turchin, M. C., … Chiang, C. W. (2019). Polygenic adaptation on height is overestimated due to uncorrected stratification in genome-wide association studies. eLife, 8(March), e39702. ScholarPubMed
Soucy, S. M., Huang, J., & Gogarten, J. P. (2015). Horizontal gene transfer: Building the web of life. Nature Reviews Genetics, 16(8), 472482. ScholarPubMed
Spiro, A., & Buttriss, J. L. (2014). Vitamin D: An overview of vitamin D status and intake in Europe: Vitamin D status and intake in Europe. Nutrition Bulletin, 39(4), 322350. ScholarPubMed
Stoch, M. B., Smythe, P. M., Moodie, A. D., & Bradshaw, D. (1982). Psychosocial outcome and CT findings after gross undernourishment during infancy: A 20-year developmental study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 24(5), 419436. ScholarPubMed
Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Implications of the restricted range of family environments for estimates of heritability and nonshared environment in behavior–genetic adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 125(4), 392409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sturm, R. A., & Duffy, D. L. (2012). Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection. Genome Biology, 13(9), 248. Scholar