Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-jzjqj Total loading time: 1.751 Render date: 2022-08-09T23:22:08.143Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2008

Bernard Crespi
Killam Research Professor, Department of Biosciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canadacrespi@sfu.ca
Christopher Badcock
Department of Sociology, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AE, United


Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also exhibit diametric patterns for traits related to social brain development, including aspects of gaze, agency, social cognition, local versus global processing, language, and behavior. Social cognition is thus underdeveloped in autistic-spectrum conditions and hyper-developed on the psychotic spectrum.;>We propose and evaluate a novel hypothesis that may help to explain these diametric phenotypes: that the development of these two sets of conditions is mediated in part by alterations of genomic imprinting. Evidence regarding the genetic, physiological, neurological, and psychological underpinnings of psychotic-spectrum conditions supports the hypothesis that the etiologies of these conditions involve biases towards increased relative effects from imprinted genes with maternal expression, which engender a general pattern of undergrowth. By contrast, autistic-spectrum conditions appear to involve increased relative bias towards effects of paternally expressed genes, which mediate overgrowth. This hypothesis provides a simple yet comprehensive theory, grounded in evolutionary biology and genetics, for understanding the causes and phenotypes of autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions.

Main Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abel, K. M. (2004) Foetal origins of schizophrenia: Testable hypotheses of genetic and environmental influences. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:383–85.Google Scholar
Abel, K. M. & Allin, M. (2006) Placental programming leading to mental ill health: Fetal growth and schizophrenia. In: The placenta and neurodisability, ed. Baker, P. & Sibley, C., pp. 118–36. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., Wieduwilt, K., Wolpert, C. M., Donnelly, S. A., Pericak-Vance, M. A. & Cuccaro, M. L. (2005) The relationship between restrictive and repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive compulsive symptoms in parents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 36:155–65.Google Scholar
Abu-Akel, A. (1999) Impaired theory of mind in schizophrenia. Pragmatics and Cognition 7:247–82.Google Scholar
Abu-Akel, A. & Abushua'leh, K. (2004) “Theory of mind” in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 69:4553.Google Scholar
Abu-Akel, A. & Bailey, A. L. (2000) The possibility of different forms of theory of mind impairment in psychiatric and developmental disorders [Letter to the editor]. Psychological Medicine 30:735–38.Google Scholar
Adolphs, R., Baron-Cohen, S. & Tranel, D. (2002) Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14:1264–74.Google Scholar
Adolphs, R., Gosselin, F., Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D., Schyns, P. & Damasio, A. R. (2005) A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature 433:6872.Google Scholar
Akefeldt, A., Ekman, R., Gillberg, C. & Mansson, J. E. (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid monoamines in Prader-Willi syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 44:1321–28.Google Scholar
Akhondzadeh, S., Rezaei, F., Larijani, B., Nejatisafa, A. A., Kashani, L. & Abbasi, S. H. (2006) Correlation between testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin and severity of negative symptoms in male patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 84:405–10.Google Scholar
Aleman, A. & Kahn, R. S. (2005) Strange feelings: Do amygdala abnormalities dysregulate the emotional brain in schizophrenia? Progress in Neurobiology 77:283–98.Google Scholar
Aleman, A., Kahn, R. S. & Selten, J. P. (2003) Sex differences in risk for schizophrenia: Evidence from meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:565–71.Google Scholar
Alexander, A. L., Lee, J. E., Lazar, M., Boudos, R., Dubray, M. B., Oakes, T. R., Miller, J. N., Lu, J., Jeong, E., McMahon, W. M., Bigler, E. D. & Lainhart, J. E. (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in autism. NeuroImage 34:6173.Google Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1979) Darwinism and human affairs. Pitman.Google Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1987) The biology of moral systems. Aldine De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1989) Evolution of the human psyche. In: The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans, ed. Mellars, P. & Stringer, C., pp. 455513. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Anderson, G. M., Jacobs-Stannard, A., Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F. R. & Kliman, H. J. (2007) Placental trophoblast inclusions in autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry 61:487–91.Google Scholar
Andersson, M. B. (1994) Sexual selection. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Angiolini, E., Fowden, A., Coan, P., Sandovici, I., Smith, P., Dean, W., Burton, G., Tycko, B., Reik, W., Sibley, C. & Constância, M. (2006) Regulation of placental efficiency for nutrient transport by imprinted genes. Placenta 27(A):98102.Google Scholar
Antshel, K. M., Aneja, A., Strunge, L., Peebles, J., Fremont, W. P., Stallone, K., Abdulsabur, N., Higgins, A. M., Shprintzen, R. J. & Kates, W. R. (2007) Autistic spectrum disorders in velo-cardio facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1776–86.Google Scholar
Arató, M., Frecska, E., Beck, C., An, M. & Kiss, H. (2004) Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28:191–94.Google Scholar
Arbelle, S., Sigman, M. D. & Kasari, C. (1994) Compliance with parental prohibition in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24:693702.Google Scholar
Arbib, M. A. & Mundhenk, T. N. (2005) Schizophrenia and the mirror system: An essay. Neuropsychologia 43:268–80.Google Scholar
Asperger, H. (1991) Autistic psychopathy in childhood. In: Autism and asperger syndrome, ed. Frith, U.. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Atlas, J. A. & Lapidus, L. B. (1987) Patterns of symbolic expression in subgroups of the childhood psychoses. Journal of Clinical Psychology 43:177–88.Google Scholar
Avila, M., Thaker, G. & Adami, H. (2001) Genetic epidemiology and schizophrenia: A study of reproductive fitness. Schizophrenia Research 47:233–41.Google Scholar
Bachmann, S., Pantel, J., Flender, A., Bottmer, C., Essig, M. & Schroder, J. (2003) Corpus callosum in first-episode patients with schizophrenia – A magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychological Medicine 33:1019–27.Google Scholar
Badcock, C. R. (2000) Evolutionary psychology: A critical introduction. Polity Press.Google Scholar
Badcock, C. R. (2004) Mentalism and mechanism: The twin modes of human cognition. In: Human nature and social values: Implications of evolutionary psychology for public policy, ed. Crawford, C. & Salmon, C., pp. 99116. Erlbaum. (Published online in 2002).Google Scholar
Badcock, C. & Crespi, B. (2006) Imbalanced genomic imprinting in brain development: An evolutionary basis for the aetiology of autism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1007–32.Google Scholar
Baethge, C., Baldessarini, R. J., Freudenthal, K., Streeruwitz, A., Bauer, M. & Bschor, T. (2005) Hallucinations in bipolar disorder: Characteristics and comparison to unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders 7:136–45.Google Scholar
Bailey, A. A. & Hurd, P. L. (2005) Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios. Personality and Individual Differences 39: 829–36.Google Scholar
Barak, Y., Achiron, A., Mandel, M., Mirecki, I. & Aizenberg, D. (2005) Reduced cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia. Cancer 104:2817–21.Google Scholar
Barnett, K. J. & Corballis, M. C. (2002) Ambidexterity and magical ideation. Laterality 7:7584.Google Scholar
Barnett, K. J., Corballis, M. C. & Kirk, I. J. (2005) Symmetry of callosal information transfer in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Schizophrenia Research 74:171–78.Google Scholar
Barnett, K. J. & Kirk, I. J. (2005) Lack of asymmetrical transfer for linguistic stimuli in schizophrenia: An ERP study. Clinical Neurophysiology 116:1019–27.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. MIT Press.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (2002) The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:248–54.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (2003) The essential difference: The truth about the male and female brain. Basic Books/Penguin.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. & Belmonte, M. K. (2005) Autism: A window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28:109–26.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C. & Belmonte, M. K. (2005) Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 310:819–23.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C. & Williams, S. C. (2000) The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:355–64.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J. & Clubley, E. (2001) The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:517.Google Scholar
Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2004) Creativity and madness revisited from current psychological perspectives. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11:5878.Google Scholar
Bassett, A. S., Bury, A., Hodgkinson, K. A. & Honer, W. G. (1996) Reproductive fitness in familial schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 21:151–60.Google Scholar
Bayliss, A. P., di Pellegrino, G. & Tipper, S. P. (2005) Sex differences in eye gaze and symbolic cueing of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 58:631–50.Google Scholar
Behrendt, R. P. (2004) A neuroanatomical model of passivity phenomena. Consciousness and Cognition 13:579609.Google Scholar
Bejerot, S. (2007) An autistic dimension: A proposed subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Autism 11:101–10.Google Scholar
Bejerot, S. & Nylander, L. (2003) Low prevalence of smoking in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Psychiatry Research 119:177–82.Google Scholar
Bellgrove, M. A., Vance, A. & Bradshaw, J. L. (2003) Local-global processing in early-onset schizophrenia: Evidence for an impairment in shifting the spatial scale of attention. Brain and Cognition 51:4865.Google Scholar
Belmonte, M. K., Allen, G., Beckel-Mitchener, A., Boulanger, L. M., Carper, R. A. & Webb, S. J. (2004a) Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 24:9228–31.Google Scholar
Belmonte, M. K. & Bourgeron, T. (2006) Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nature Neuroscience 9:1221–25.Google Scholar
Belmonte, M. K., Cook, E. H. Jr., Anderson, G. M., Rubenstein, J. L., Greenough, W. T., Beckel-Mitchener, A., Courchesne, E., Boulanger, L. M., Powell, S. B., Levitt, P. R., Perry, E. K., Jiang, Y. H., DeLorey, T. M. & Tierney, E. (2004b) Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: Directions for research and targets for therapy. Molecular Psychiatry 9:646–63.Google Scholar
Benes, F. M. & Berretta, S. (2001) GABAergic interneurons: Implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:127.Google Scholar
Ben Shalom, D. (2000) Developmental depersonalization: The prefrontal cortex and self-functions in autism. Consciousness and Cognition 9:457–60.Google Scholar
Bentall, R. P. (2003a) Madness explained: Psychosis and human nature. Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Bentall, R. P. (2003b) The paranoid self. In: The self in neuroscience and psychiatry, ed. Kircher, T. & David, A., pp. 293318. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Berretta, S., Munno, D. W. & Benes, F. M. (2001) Amygdalar activation alters the hippocampal GABA system: “Partial” modelling for postmortem changes in schizophrenia. Journal of Comparative Neurology 431:129–38.Google Scholar
Bersani, G., Maneschi, M. L., Tarolla, E. & Pancheri, P. (2006) Dyslexia as a possible aspect of neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:265–66.Google Scholar
Bertella, L., Girelli, L., Grugni, G., Marchi, S., Molinari, E. & Semenza, C. (2005) Mathematical skills in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49:159–69.Google Scholar
Bertone, A., Mottron, L., Jelenic, P. & Faubert, J. (2005) Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain 128:2430–41.Google Scholar
Bigler, E. D., Mortensen, S., Neeley, E. S., Ozonoff, S., Krasny, L., Johnson, M., Lu, J., Provencal, S. L., McMahon, W. & Lainhart, J. E. (2007) Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism. Developmental Neuropsychology 31:217–38.Google Scholar
Birchwood, M., Gilbert, P., Gilbert, J., Trower, P., Meaden, A., Hay, J., Murray, E. & Miles, J. N. (2004) Interpersonal and role-related schema influence the relationship with the dominant “voice” in schizophrenia: A comparison of three models. Psychological Medicine 34:1571–80.Google Scholar
Bittel, D. C. & Butler, M. G. (2005) Prader-Willi syndrome: Clinical genetics, cytogenetics and molecular biology. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 7:120.Google Scholar
Bittel, D. C., Kibiryeva, N., Talebizadeh, Z. & Butler, M. G. (2003) Microarray analysis of gene/transcript expression in Prader-Willi syndrome: Deletion versus UPD. Journal of Medical Genetics 40:568–74.Google Scholar
Blackwood, D. H. R., Pickard, B. J., Thomson, P. A., Evans, K. L., Porteous, D. J. & Muir, W. J. (2007) Are some genetic risk factors common to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression? Evidence from DISC1, GRIK4 and NRG1. Neurotoxicity Research 11:7383.Google Scholar
Blackwood, N. J., Howard, R. J., Bentall, R. P. & Murray, R. M. (2001) Cognitive neuropsychiatric models of persecutory delusions. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:527–39.Google Scholar
Blair, R. J. R. (2005) Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition 14:698718.Google Scholar
Blanc, R., Adrien, J. L., Roux, S. & Barthélémy, C. (2005) Dysregulation of pretend play and communication development in children with autism. Autism 9:229–45.Google Scholar
Blanton, R. E., Levitt, J. G., Peterson, J. R., Fadale, D., Sporty, M. L., Lee, M., To, D., Mormino, E. C., Thompson, P. M., McCracken, J. T. & Toga, A. W. (2004) Gender differences in the left inferior frontal gyrus in normal children. NeuroImage 22:626–36.Google Scholar
Boks, M. P., de Vette, M. H., Sommer, I. E., van Rijn, S., Giltay, J. C., Swaab, H. & Kahn, R. S. (2007a) Psychiatric morbidity and X-chromosomal origin in a Klinefelter sample. Schizophrenia Research 93:399402.Google Scholar
Boks, M. P., Leask, S., Vermunt, J. K. & Kahn, R. S. (2007b) The structure of psychosis revisited: The role of mood symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 93:178–85.Google Scholar
Bölte, S. & Poustka, F. (2006) The broader cognitive phenotype of autism in parents: How specific is the tendency for local processing and executive dysfunction? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:639–45.Google Scholar
Boucher, J. (2007) Memory and generativity in very high functioning autism: A firsthand account, and an interpretation. Autism 11:255–64.Google Scholar
Bowler, D. M. (1992) “Theory of mind” in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 33:877–93.Google Scholar
Bradshaw, J. L. & Nettleton, N. C. (1983) Human cerebral asymmetry. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Brake, W. G., Sullivan, R. M. & Gratton, A. (2000) Perinatal distress leads to lateralized medial prefrontal cortical dopamine hypofunction in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience 20:5538–43.Google Scholar
Brambilla, P., Cerini, R., Gasparini, A., Versace, A., Andreone, N., Vittorini, E., Barbui, C., Pelizza, L., Nosè, M., Barlocco, L., Marrella, G., Gregis, M., Tournikioti, K., David, A. S., Keshavan, M. S. & Tansella, M. (2005) Investigation of corpus callosum in schizophrenia with diffusion imaging. Schizophrenia Research 79:201–10.Google Scholar
Brambilla, P., Hardan, A. Y., di Nemi, S. U., Caverzasi, E., Soares, J. C., Perez, J. & Barale, F. (2004) The functional neuroanatomy of autism. Functional Neurology 19:917.Google Scholar
Broks, P. (1997) Brain, self, and others: The neuropsychology of social cognition. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. Claridge, G., pp. 98123. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Brothers, L. (1990) The social brain: A project for integrating primate behavior and neurophysiology in a new domain. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:2751.Google Scholar
Brown, W. M. (2001) Genomic imprinting and the cognitive architecture mediating human culture. Journal of Cognition and Culture 1:251–58.Google Scholar
Browne, K. R. (2005) Women in science: Biological factors should not be ignored. Cardozo's Women's Law Journal 11:509–28.Google Scholar
Brugger, P. (2001) From haunted brain to haunted science: A cognitive neuroscience view of paranormal and pseudoscientific thought. In: Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives, ed. Houran, J. & Lange, R., pp. 195213. McFarland.Google Scholar
Brugger, P. & Graves, R. E. (1997a) Right hemispatial inattention and magical ideation. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 247:5557.Google Scholar
Brugger, P. & Graves, R. E. (1997b) Testing vs. believing hypothesis: Magical ideation in the judgement of contingencies. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2:251–72.Google Scholar
Brüne, M. (2004) Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:4153.Google Scholar
Brüne, M. & Brüne-Cohrs, U. (2006) Theory of mind – Evolution, ontogeny, brain mechanisms and psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30:437–55.Google Scholar
Brunet, A., Datta, S. R. & Greenberg, M. E. (2001) Transcription-dependent and -independent control of neuronal survival by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11:297305.Google Scholar
Brunet-Gouet, E. & Decety, J. (2006) Social brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia: A review of neuroimaging studies. Psychiatry Research 148:7592.Google Scholar
Buck, C., Hobbs, G. E., Simpson, H. & Wanklin, J. M. (1975) Fertility of the sibs of schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 127:235–39.Google Scholar
Burd, L. & Kerbeshian, J. (1988) Familial pervasive development disorder, Tourette disorder and hyperlexia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 12:233–34.Google Scholar
Burgess, N., Maguire, E. A. & O'Keefe, J. (2002) The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35:625–41.Google Scholar
Bürgy, M. (2007) Obsession in the strict sense: A helpful psychopathological phenomenon in the differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Psychopathology 40:102–10.Google Scholar
Burns, J. K. (2004) An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia: Cortical connectivity, metarepresentation, and the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:831–85.Google Scholar
Burns, J. K. (2006a) Psychosis: A costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:797814.Google Scholar
Bursch, B., Ingman, K., Vitti, L., Hyman, P. & Zeltzer, L. K. (2004) Chronic pain in individuals with previously undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain 5:290–95.Google Scholar
Burt, A. & Trivers, R. (2006) Genes in conflict: The biology of selfish genetic elements. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Butler, M. G., Dasouki, M. J., Zhou, X. P., Talebizadeh, Z., Brown, M., Takahashi, T. N., Miles, J. H., Wang, C. H., Stratton, R., Pilarski, R. & Eng, C. (2005) Subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and extreme macrocephaly associated with germline PTEN tumour suppressor gene mutations. Journal of Medical Genetics 42:318–21.Google Scholar
Cahill, L., Uncapher, M., Kilpatrick, L., Alkire, M. T. & Turner, J. (2004) Sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: An fMRI investigation. Learning and Memory 11:261–66.Google Scholar
Caligiuri, M. P., Hellige, J. B., Cherry, B. J., Kwok, W., Lulow, L. L. & Lohr, J. B. (2005) Lateralized cognitive dysfunction and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 80:151–61.Google Scholar
Camisa, K. M., Bockbrader, M. A., Lysaker, P., Rae, L. L., Brenner, C. A. & O'Donnell, B. F. (2005) Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders. Psychiatry Research 133:2333.Google Scholar
Cannon, M., Jones, P. B., Gilvarry, C., Rifkin, L., McKenzie, K., Foerster, A. & Murray, R. M. (1997) Premorbid social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Similarities and differences. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:1544–50.Google Scholar
Cannon, M., Jones, P. B. & Murray, R. M. (2002) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: Historical and meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1080–92.Google Scholar
Cannon, T. D., Rosso, I. M., Hollister, J. M., Bearden, C. E., Sanchez, L. E. & Hadley, T. (2000) A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in the etiology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 26:351–66.Google Scholar
Capps, L., Kasari, C., Yirmiya, N. & Sigman, M. (1993) Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61:475–84.Google Scholar
Carper, R. A., Moses, P., Tigue, Z. D. & Courchesne, E. (2002) Cerebral lobes in autism: Early hyperplasia and abnormal age effects. NeuroImage 16:1038–51.Google Scholar
Carroll, J. M. & Chiew, K. Y. (2006) Sex and discipline differences in empathising, systemising and autistic symptomatology: Evidence from a student population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:949–57.Google Scholar
Carter, C. S., Robertson, L. C., Nordahl, T. E., Chaderjian, M. & Oshora-Celaya, L. (1996) Perceptual and attentional asymmetries in schizophrenia: Further evidence for a left hemisphere deficit. Psychiatry Research 62:111–19.Google Scholar
Cascio, C., McGlone, F., Folger, S., Tannan, V., Baranek, G., Pelphrey, K. A. & Essick, G. (2008) Tactile perception in adults with autism: A multidimensional psychophysical study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:127–37.Google Scholar
Castelli, F. (2005) Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism 9:428–49.Google Scholar
Castelli, F., Frith, C., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2002) Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain: A Journal of Neurology 125:1839–49.Google Scholar
Catalano, P. M. & Kirwan, J. P. (2001) Maternal factors that determine neonatal size and body fat. Current Diabetes Reports 1:7177.Google Scholar
Cattanach, B. M., Beechey, C. V. & Peters, J. (2004) Interactions between imprinting effects in the mouse. Genetics 168:397413.Google Scholar
Cederlund, M. & Gillberg, C. (2004) One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: A clinical study of background and associated factors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46:652–60.Google Scholar
Cerrato, F., Sparago, A., Di Matteo, I., Zou, X., Dean, W., Sasaki, H., Smith, P., Genesio, R., Bruggemann, M., Reik, W. & Riccio, A. (2005) The two-domain hypothesis in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Autonomous imprinting of the telomeric domain of the distal chromosome 7 cluster. Human Molecular Genetics 14:503–11.Google Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. & Mead, A. P. (1953) Social behaviour and primate evolution. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 7:395439.Google Scholar
Chance, S. A., Esiri, M. M. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Macroscopic brain asymmetry is changed along the antero-posterior axis in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 74:163–70.Google Scholar
Charalambous, M., Smith, F. M., Bennett, W. R., Crew, T. E., Mackenzie, F. & Ward, A. (2003) Disruption of the imprinted GRB10 gene leads to disproportionate overgrowth by an IGF2-independent mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:8292–97.Google Scholar
Chen, F., Planche, P., Lemonnier, E. & Lazartigues, A. (2007) How could language interact with visuo-spatial performance in autism? Medical Hypotheses 69:695–97.Google Scholar
Chen, M., Haluzik, M., Wolf, N. J., Lorenzo, J., Dietz, K. R., Reitman, M. L. & Weinstein, L. S. (2004) Increased insulin sensitivity in paternal GNAS knockout mice is associated with increased lipid clearance. Endocrinology 145:40944102.Google Scholar
Chen, Y., Bidwell, L. C. & Holzman, P. S. (2005) Visual motion integration in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and patients with bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 74:271–81.Google Scholar
Cheng, Y., Tzeng, O. J. L., Decety, J., Imada, T. & Hsieh, J. (2006) Gender differences in the human mirror system: A magnetoencephalography study. Neuroreport 17:1115–19.Google Scholar
Chi, J. G., Dooling, E. C. & Gilles, F. H. (1977) Gyral development of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 1:8693.Google Scholar
Chiron, C., Leboyer, M., Leon, F., Jambaqué, I., Nuttin, C. & Syrota, A. (1995) SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: Evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 37:849–60.Google Scholar
Christoff, K., Ream, J. M. & Gabrieli, J. D. (2004) Neural basis of spontaneous thought processes. Cortex 40:623–30.Google Scholar
Chua, S. E., Wright, I. C., Poline, J. B., Liddle, P. F., Murray, R. M., Frackowiak, R. S., Friston, K. J. & McGuire, P. K. (1997) Grey matter correlates of syndromes in schizophrenia: A semi-automated analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. British Journal of Psychiatry 170:406–10.Google Scholar
Claridge, G. (1997) Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Claridge, G. & Beech, T. (1995) Fully and quasi-dimensional constructions of schizotypy. In: Schizotypal personality, ed. Raine, A., Lencz, T. & Mednick, S. A., pp. 192216. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Claridge, G., Clark, K. & Davis, C. (1997) Nightmares, dreams, and schizotypy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 36:377–86.Google Scholar
Claridge, G., Pryor, R. & Watkins, G. (1990) Sounds from the bell jar: Ten psychotic authors. Macmillan.Google Scholar
Coan, P. M., Burton, G. J. & Ferguson-Smith, A. C. (2005) Imprinted genes in the placenta – A review. Placenta 26(Suppl. A):S1020.Google Scholar
Cody, H., Pelphrey, K. & Piven, J. (2002) Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 20:421–38.Google Scholar
Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., Excoffier, E., Lazar, G., Mazet, P., Pinquier, C., Verloes, A. & Héron, D. (2005) Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35:103–16.Google Scholar
Collinson, S. L., Mackay, C. E., James, A. C., Quested, D. J., Phillips, T., Roberts, N. & Crow, T. J. (2003) Brain volume, asymmetry and intellectual impairment in relation to sex in early-onset schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 183:114–20.Google Scholar
Condray, R. (2005) Language disorder in schizophrenia as a developmental learning disorder. Schizophrenia Research 73:520.Google Scholar
Connolly, A. M., Chez, M., Streif, E. M., Keeling, R. M., Golumbek, P. T., Kwon, J. M., Riviello, J. J., Robinson, R. G., Neuman, R. J. & Deuel, R. M. (2006) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autoantibodies to neural antigens in sera of children with autistic spectrum disorders, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and epilepsy. Biological Psychiatry 59:354–63.Google Scholar
Constantino, J. N. & Todd, R. D. (2005) Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry 57:655–60.Google Scholar
Conti-Ramsden, G., Simkin, Z. & Botting, N. (2006) The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:621–28.Google Scholar
Costello, E. J., Worthman, C., Erkanli, A. & Angold, A. (2007) Prediction from low birth weight to female adolescent depression: A test of competing hypotheses. Archives of General Psychiatry 64:338–44.Google Scholar
Courchesne, E. (2004) Brain development in autism: Early overgrowth followed by premature arrest of growth. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 10:106–11.Google Scholar
Courchesne, E. & Pierce, K. (2005a) Brain overgrowth in autism during a critical time in development: Implications for frontal pyramidal neuron and interneuron development and connectivity. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23:153–70.Google Scholar
Courchesne, E. & Pierce, K. (2005b) Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: Local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:225–30.Google Scholar
Courchesne, E., Redcay, E. & Kennedy, D. P. (2004) The autistic brain: Birth through adulthood. Current Opinion in Neurology 17:489–96.Google Scholar
Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N. A., Saitoh, O., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, A. J., James, H. E., Haas, R. H., Schreibman, L. & Lau, L. (1994) Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behavioral Neuroscience 108:848–65.Google Scholar
Craddock, N. & Forty, L. (2006) Genetics of affective (mood) disorders. European Journal of Human Genetics 14:660–68.Google Scholar
Craig, J. & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999) Creativity and imagination in autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29:319–26.Google Scholar
Craig, J. S., Hatton, C., Craig, F. B. & Bentall, R. P. (2004) Persecutory beliefs, attributions and theory of mind: Comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research 69:2933.Google Scholar
Crespi, B. J. (2000) The evolution of maladaptation. Heredity 84:623–29.Google Scholar
Crespi, B. J. (2006) The natural selection of psychosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:410–11.Google Scholar
Crespi, B. & Semeniuk, C. (2004) Parent-offspring conflict in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode. American Naturalist 163:635–53.Google Scholar
Crespi, B., Summers, K. & Dorus, S. (2007) Adaptive evolution of genes underlying schizophrenia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:2801–810.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1995) A Darwinian approach to the origins of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 167:1225.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1997) Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language. Trends in Neurosciences 20:339–43.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1998) From Kraepelin to Kretschmer leavened by Schneider: The transition from categories to psychosis to dimensions of variation intrinsic to Homo sapiens. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:502504.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2000) Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: A resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews 31:118–29.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2004a) Auditory hallucinations as primary disorders of syntax: An evolutionary theory of the origins of language. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 9:125–45.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2004b) Cerebral asymmetry and the lateralization of language: Core deficits in schizophrenia as pointers to the gene. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 17:97106.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2004c) What Marian Annett can teach Noam Chomsky and could have taught Stephen Jay Gould if he'd had time to listen. Cortex 40:120–34.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J. & Leask, S. (1998) Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia 36:1275–82.Google Scholar
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. & Sacker, A. (1996) Cerebral lateralization is delayed in children who later develop schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 22:181–85.Google Scholar
Cunnane, S. C. & Crawford, M. A. (2003) Survival of the fattest: Fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 136:1726.Google Scholar
Curley, J. P., Barton, S., Surani, A. & Keverne, E. B. (2004) Coadaptation in mother and infant regulated by a paternally expressed imprinted gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 271:1303–309.Google Scholar
Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., Alexander, A. L. & Davidson, R. J. (2005a) Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience 8:519–26.Google Scholar
Dalton, S. O., Mellemkjaer, L., Thomassen, L., Mortensen, P. B. & Johansen, C. (2005b) Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969–1993. Schizophrenia Research 75:315–24.Google Scholar
Dan, B. & Boyd, S. G. (2003) Angelman syndrome reviewed from a neurophysiological perspective. The UBE3A-GABRB3 hypothesis. Neuropediatrics 34:169–76.Google Scholar
Dapretto, M., Davies, M. S., Pfeifer, J. H., Scott, A. A., Sigman, M., Bookheimer, S. Y. & Iacoboni, M. (2006) Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience 9:2830.Google Scholar
Das, P., Kemp, A. H., Flynn, G., Harris, A. W. F., Liddell, B. J., Whitford, T. J., Peduto, A., Gordon, E. & Williams, L. M. (2007) Functional disconnections in the direct and indirect amygdala pathways for fear processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 90:284–94.Google Scholar
Davies, W., Isles, A. R., Burgoyne, P. S. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2006) X-linked imprinting: Effects on brain and behaviour. Bioessays 28:3544.Google Scholar
Davies, W., Isles, A. R., Smith, R., Karunadasa, D., Burrmann, D., Humby, T., Ojarikre, O., Biggin, C., Skuse, D., Burgoyne, P. & Wilkinson, L. (2005) Xlr3b is a new imprinted candidate for X-linked parent-of-origin effects on cognitive function in mice. Nature Genetics 37:625–29.Google Scholar
Davies, W., Isles, A. R. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2001) Imprinted genes and mental dysfunction. Annals of Medicine 33:428–36.Google Scholar
Davis, J. O., Phelps, J. A. & Bracha, H. S. (1995) Prenatal development of monozygotic twins and concordance for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 21:357–66.Google Scholar
Davis, P. J. & Gibson, M. G. (2000) Recognition of posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:445–50.Google Scholar
De Fossé, L., Hodge, S. M., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Caviness, V. S. Jr., McGrath, L., Steele, S., Ziegler, D. A., Herbert, M. R., Frazier, J. A., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Harris, G. J. (2004) Language-association cortex asymmetry in autism and specific language impairment. Annals of Neurology 56:757–66.Google Scholar
de la Fuente-Sandoval, C., Portillo, V., Fresán, A. & Apiquian, R. (2005) Replication of a computer model of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Actas Españolas De Psiquiatría 33:141–46.Google Scholar
De Luca, V., Wong, A. H. C., Muller, D. J., Wong, G. W. H., Tyndale, R. F. & Kennedy, J. L. (2004) Evidence of association between smoking and alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1522–26.Google Scholar
DeLisi, L. E., Maurizio, A. M., Svetina, C., Ardekani, B., Szulc, K., Nierenberg, J., Leonard, J. & Harvey, P. D. (2005) Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) as a genetic model for psychotic disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 135:1523.Google Scholar
DeLisi, L. E., Svetina, C., Razi, K., Shields, G., Wellman, N. & Crow, T. J. (2002) Hand preference and hand skill in families with schizophrenia. Laterality 7:321–32.Google Scholar
Deng, Y., Bhattacharya, S., Swamy, O. R., Tandon, R., Wang, Y., Janda, R. & Riedel, H. (2003) Growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (GRB10) as a partner of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in metabolic insulin action. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278:39311–22.Google Scholar
Devriendt, K. (2005) Hydatidiform mole and triploidy: The role of genomic imprinting in placental development. Human Reproduction Update 11:137–42.Google Scholar
DiCicco-Bloom, E., Lord, C., Zwaigenbaum, L., Courchesne, E., Dager, S. R., Schmitz, C., Schultz, R. T., Crawley, J. & Young, L. J. (2006) The developmental neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder. The Journal of Neuroscience 26:68976906.Google Scholar
Dinn, W. M., Harris, C. L., Aycicegi, A., Greene, P. & Andover, M. S. (2002) Positive and negative schizotypy in a student sample: Neurocognitive and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Research 56:171–85.Google Scholar
Dissanayake, C., Bui, Q. M., Huggins, R. & Loesch, D. Z. (2006) Growth in stature and head circumference in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder during the first 3 years of life. Development and Psychopathology 18:381–93.Google Scholar
Dolinoy, D. C., Weidman, J. R. & Jirtle, R. L. (2006) Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease. Reproductive Toxicology 23:297307.Google Scholar
Dollfus, S., Razafimandimby, A., Delamillieure, P., Brazo, P., Joliot, M., Mazoyer, B. & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2005) Atypical hemispheric specialization for language in right-handed schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry 57:1020–28.Google Scholar
Downhill, J. E. Jr., Buchsbaum, M. S., Wei, T., Spiegel-Cohen, J., Hazlett, E. A., Haznedar, M. M., Silverman, J. & Siever, L. J. (2000) Shape and size of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research 42:193208.Google Scholar
Downs, A. & Smith, T. (2004) Emotional understanding, cooperation, and social behavior in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:625–35.Google Scholar
Dunger, D. B., Petry, C. J. & Ong, K. K. (2006) Genetic variations and normal fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(3):3440.Google Scholar
Dykens, E. M., Hodapp, R. M. & Finucane, B. M. (2000) Genetics and mental retardation syndromes: A new look at behavior and interventions. Brookes.Google Scholar
Dykes, M. & McGhie, A. (1976) A comparative study of attentional strategies of schizophrenic and highly creative normal subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry 128:5056.Google Scholar
Edgar, J. C., Yeo, R. A., Gangestad, S. W., Blake, M. B., Davis, J. T., Lewine, J. D. & Cañive, J. M. (2006) Reduced auditory M100 asymmetry in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Applying a developmental instability approach to assess atypical brain asymmetry. Neuropsychologia 44:289–99.Google Scholar
Egaas, B., Courchesne, E. & Saitoh, O. (1995) Reduced size of corpus callosum in autism. Archives of Neurology 52:794801.Google Scholar
Eggermann, T., Meyer, E., Obermann, C., Heil, I., Schüler, H., Ranke, M. B., Eggermann, K. & Wollmann, H. A. (2005) Is maternal duplication of 11p15 associated with Silver-Russell syndrome? Journal of Medical Genetics 42:e26.Google Scholar
Eggermann, T., Schönherr, N., Meyer, E., Obermann, C., Mavany, M., Eggermann, K., Ranke, M. B. & Wollmann, H. A. (2006) Epigenetic mutations in 11p15 in Silver-Russell syndrome are restricted to the telomeric imprinting domain. Journal of Medical Genetics 43:615–16.Google Scholar
Eliez, S. (2007) Autism in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46:433–34.Google Scholar
Eliez, S. & van Amelsvoort, T. (2005) Neuroimaging in velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A model for understanding microdeletion disorders ed. Murphy, K. C. & Scambler, P. J., pp. 165–80. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ellison, Z., van Os, J. & Murray, R. (1998) Special feature: Childhood personality characteristics of schizophrenia: Manifestations of, or risk factors for, the disorder? Journal of Personality Disorders 12:247–61.Google Scholar
Emamian, E. S., Hall, D., Birnbaum, M. J., Karayiorgou, M. & Gogos, J. A. (2004) Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Nature Genetics 36:131–37.Google Scholar
Emery, N. J. (2000) The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:581604.Google Scholar
Endrass, T., Mohr, B. & Rockstroh, B. (2002) Reduced interhemispheric transmission in schizophrenia patients: Evidence from event-related potentials. Neuroscience Letters 320:5760.Google Scholar
Engstrom, H. A., Ohlson, S., Stubbs, E. G., Maciulis, A., Caldwell, V., Odell, J. D. & Torres, A. R. (2003) Decreased expression of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) on CD4+ T-lymphocytes from participants with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 15:155–63.Google Scholar
Escalante-Mead, P. R., Minshew, N. J. & Sweeney, J. A. (2003) Abnormal brain lateralization in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:539–43.Google Scholar
Fañanás, L. & Bertranpetit, J. (1995) Reproductive rates in families of schizophrenic patients in a case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:202204.Google Scholar
Fanous, A., Gardner, C., Walsh, D. & Kendler, K. S. (2001) Relationship between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypal symptoms in nonpsychotic relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry 58:669–73.Google Scholar
Fatemi, S. H. & Halt, A. R. (2001) Altered levels of Bcl2 and p53 proteins in parietal cortex reflect deranged apoptotic regulation in autism. Synapse 42:281–84.Google Scholar
Feinstein, C., Eliez, S., Blasey, C. & Reiss, A. L. (2002) Psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Usefulness as phenotypic indicators of schizophrenia risk. Biological Psychiatry 51:312–18.Google Scholar
Feinstein, C. & Singh, S. (2007) Social phenotypes in neurogenetic syndromes. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:631–47.Google Scholar
Fineberg, N. A., Saxena, S., Zohar, J. & Craig, K. J. (2007) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Boundary issues. CNS Spectrums 12:359–75.Google Scholar
Finger, E. C., Marsh, A. A., Kamel, N., Mitchell, D. G. V. & Blair, J. R. (2006) Caught in the act: The impact of audience on the neural response to morally and socially inappropriate behavior. NeuroImage 33:414–21.Google Scholar
Fisher, J. E., Mohanty, A., Herrington, J. D., Koven, N. S., Miller, G. A. & Heller, W. (2004) Neuropsychological evidence for dimensional schizotypy: Implications for creativity and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality 38:2431.Google Scholar
Fisher, R. A., Hodges, M. D., Rees, H. C., Sebire, N. J., Seckl, M. J., Newlands, E. S., Genest, D. R. & Castrillon, D. H. (2002) The maternally transcribed gene p57(KIP2) (CDNK1C) is abnormally expressed in both androgenetic and biparental complete hydatidiform moles. Human Molecular Genetics 11:3267–72.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, M. (2004) Autism and creativity: Is there a link between autism in men and exceptional ability? Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, M. (2005) The genesis of artistic creativity: Asperger's syndrome and the arts. Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
Flagg, E. J., Cardy, J. E., Roberts, W. & Roberts, T. P. (2005) Language lateralization development in children with autism: Insights from the late field magnetoencephalogram. Neuroscience Letters 386:8287.Google Scholar
Fletcher, P. C., Happé, F., Frith, U., Baker, S. C., Dolan, R. J., Frackowiak, R. S. & Frith, C. D. (1995) Other minds in the brain: A functional imaging study of “theory of mind” in story comprehension. Cognition 57:109–28.Google Scholar
Flor-Henry, P. (1969) Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. A controlled investigation. Epilepsia 10:363–95.Google Scholar
Foley, R. A. & Lee, P. C. (1991) Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 334:223–31.Google Scholar
Folstein, S. E. & Rosen-Sheidley, B. (2001) Genetics of autism: Complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder. Nature Reviews. Genetics 2:943–55.Google Scholar
Foster, K. R., Wenseleers, T., Ratnieks, F. L. W. & Queller, D. C. (2006) There is nothing wrong with inclusive fitness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:599600.Google Scholar
Fowden, A. L., Sibley, C., Reik, W. & Constancia, M. (2006) Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(Suppl. 3):5058.Google Scholar
Fox, R., Sinatra, R. B., Mooney, M. A., Feurer, I. D. & Butler, M. G. (1999) Visual capacity and Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 36:331–36.Google Scholar
Franck, N., Daprati, E., Michel, F., Saoud, M., Daléry, J., Marie-Cardine, M. & Georgieff, N. (1998) Gaze discrimination is unimpaired in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 81:6775.Google Scholar
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Fisher, S. E., Laval, S. H., Rue, J. E., Stein, J. F. & Monaco, A. P. (2003a) Confirmatory evidence for linkage of relative hand skill to 2p12-q11. American Journal of Human Genetics 72:499502.Google Scholar
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Shaw, S. H., Fisher, S. E., Richardson, A. J., Stein, J. F. & Monaco, A. P. (2003b) Parent-of-origin effects on handedness and schizophrenia susceptibility on chromosome 2p12-q11. Human Molecular Genetics 12:3225–30.Google Scholar
Francks, C., Maegawa, S., Lauren, J., Abrahams, B. S., Velayos-Baeza, A., Medland, S. E., Colella, S., Groszer, M., McAuley, E. Z., Caffrey, T. M., Timmusk, T., Pruunsild, P., Koppel, I., Lind, P. A., Matsumoto-Itaba, N., Nicod, J., Xiong, L., Joober, R., Enard, W., Krinsky, B., Nanba, E., Richardson, A. J., Riley, B. P., Martin, N. G., Strittmatter, S. M., Moller, H. J., Rujescu, D., St Clair, D., Muglia, P., Roos, J. L., Fisher, S. E., Wade-Martins, R., Rouleau, G. A., Stein, J. F., Karayiorgou, M., Geschwind, D. H., Ragoussis, J., Kendler, K. S., Airaksinen, M. S., Oshimura, M., Delisi, L. E. & Monaco, A. P. (2007) LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 12(12):1129–39, 1057.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (1992) The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Psychology Press/Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (1996) The role of the prefrontal cortex in self-consciousness: The case of auditory hallucinations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 351:1505–12.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (2004) Schizophrenia and theory of mind. Psychological Medicine 34:385–89.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (2005b) The self in action: Lessons from delusions of control. Consciousness and Cognition 14:752–70.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. & Allen, H. A. (1988) Language disorders in schizophrenia and their implications for neuropsychology. In: Schizophrenia: The major issues, ed. Bebbington, P. & McGuffin, P.. Heinemann.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D., Blakemore, S. J. & Wolpert, D. M. (2000) Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 355:1771–88.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. & Frith, U. (1991) Elective affinities in schizophrenia and childhood autism. In: Social psychiatry: Theory, methodology and practice, ed. Bebbington, P., pp. 6588. Transactions Press.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. & Frith, U. (1999) Interacting minds – A biological basis. Science 286:1692–95.Google Scholar
Frith, U. (2003) Autism: Explaining the enigma. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Frith, U. (2004) Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:672–86.Google Scholar
Frith, U. & Happé, F. (2005) Autism spectrum disorder. Current Biology 15:R786–90.Google Scholar
Fukumoto, A., Hashimoto, T., Ito, H., Nishimura, M., Tsuda, Y., Miyazaki, M., Mori, K., Arisawa, K. & Kagami, S. (2008) Growth of head circumference in autistic infants during the first year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:411–18.Google Scholar
Fults, D. W. (2005) Modeling medulloblastoma with genetically engineered mice. Neurosurgical Focus 19:E7.Google Scholar
Gaebel, W. & Wölwer, W. (2004) Facial expressivity in the course of schizophrenia and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 254:335–42.Google Scholar
Gagnon, R. (2003) Placental insufficiency and its consequences. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 110(1):S99107.Google Scholar
Galaburda, A. M. (1984) Anatomical asymmetries. In: Cerebral dominance, ed. Geschwind, N. & Galaburda, A. M., pp. 1125. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gale, C. R. & Martyn, C. N. (2004) Birthweight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:2833.Google Scholar
Gallese, V. (2006) Intentional attunement: A neurophysiological perspective on social cognition and its disruption in autism. Brain Research 1079:1524.Google Scholar
Gardiner, J. M. (2002) Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. In: Episodic memory: New directions in research, ed. Baddeley, A., Aggleton, J. P. & Conway, M. A.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gardiner, J. M., Bowler, D. M. & Grice, S. J. (2003) Further evidence of preserved priming and impaired recall in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:259–69.Google Scholar
Garrity, A. G., Pearlson, G. D., McKiernan, K., Lloyd, D., Kiehl, K. A. & Calhoun, V. D. (2007) Aberrant “default mode” functional connectivity in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164:450–57.Google Scholar
Ge, Y., Grossman, R. I., Babb, J. S., Rabin, M. L., Mannon, L. J. & Kolson, D. L. (2002) Age-related total gray matter and white matter changes in normal adult brain. Part I: Volumetric MR imaging analysis. American Journal of Neuroradiology 23:1327–33.Google Scholar
Gernsbacher, M. A., Dawson, M. & Mottron, L. (2006) Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:413–14.Google Scholar
Geuze, E., Vermetten, E. & Bremner, J. D. (2005) MR-based in vivo hippocampal volumetrics: 2. Findings in neuropsychiatric disorders. Molecular Psychiatry 10:160–84.Google Scholar
Gianotti, L. R., Mohr, C., Pizzagalli, D., Lehmann, D. & Brugger, P. (2001) Associative processing and paranormal belief. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 55:595603.Google Scholar
Gibson, M. A. & Mace, R. (2003) Strong mothers bear more sons in rural Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270(Suppl. 1):S108109.Google Scholar
Gillessen-Kaesbach, G., Robinson, W., Lohmann, D., Kaya-Westerloh, S., Passarge, E. & Horsthemke, B. (1995) Genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 167 deletion and non-deletion patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. Human Genetics 96:638–43.Google Scholar
Gisabella, B., Bolshakov, V. Y. & Benes, F. M. (2005) Regulation of synaptic plasticity in a schizophrenia model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:13301–306.Google Scholar
Gläscher, J. & Adolphs, R. (2003) Processing of the arousal of subliminal and supraliminal emotional stimuli by the human amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience 23:10274–82.Google Scholar
Goel, V., Grafman, J., Sadato, N. & Hallett, M. (1995) Modeling other minds. Neuroreport 6:1741–46.Google Scholar
Goghari, V. M., Rehm, K., Carter, C. S. & Macdonald, A. W. III (2007) Regionally specific cortical thinning and gray matter abnormalities in the healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients. Cerebral Cortex 17:415–24.Google Scholar
Goldacre, M. J., Kurina, L. M., Wotton, C. J., Yeates, D. & Seagroat, V. (2005) Schizophrenia and cancer: An epidemiological study. British Journal of Psychiatry 187:334–38.Google Scholar
Goldstein, G., Johnson, C. R. & Minshew, N. J. (2001a) Attentional processes in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:433–40.Google Scholar
Goldstein, G., Minshew, N. J., Allen, D. N. & Seaton, B. E. (2002) High-functioning autism and schizophrenia: A comparison of an early and late onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 17:461–75.Google Scholar
Goldstein, J. M., Seidman, L. J., Horton, N. J., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Caviness, V. S. Jr., Faraone, S. V. & Tsuang, M. T. (2001b) Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex 11:490–97.Google Scholar
Goldstone, A. P. (2004) Prader-Willi syndrome: Advances in genetics, pathophysiology and treatment. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 15:1220.Google Scholar
Gomot, M., Bernard, F. A., Davis, M. H., Belmonte, M. K., Ashwin, C., Bullmore, E. T. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006) Change detection in children with autism: An auditory event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage 29:475–84.Google Scholar
Good, C. D., Johnsrude, I., Ashburner, J., Henson, R. N., Friston, K. J. & Frackowiak, R. S. (2001) Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: A voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage 14:685700.Google Scholar
Goos, L. M., Ezzatian, P. & Schachar, R. (2007) Parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research 149(1–3):19.Google Scholar
Gorlova, O. Y., Amos, C. I., Wang, N. W., Shete, S., Turner, S. T. & Boerwinkle, E. (2003) Genetic linkage and imprinting effects on body mass index in children and young adults. European Journal of Human Genetics 11:425–32.Google Scholar
Gothelf, D. (2007) Velocardiofacial syndrome. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:677–93.Google Scholar
Goussé, V., Plumet, M. H., Chabane, N., Mouren-Siméoni, M., Ferradian, N. & Leboyer, M. (2002) Fringe phenotypes in autism: A review of clinical, biochemical and cognitive studies. European Psychiatry 17:120–28.Google Scholar
Grandin, T. (1995) Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Grandin, T. (2004) Label of “autism” could hold back gifted children. Nature 430:399.Google Scholar
Granholm, E., Perry, W., Filoteo, J. V. & Braff, D. (1999) Hemispheric and attentional contributions to perceptual organization deficits on the global-local task in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 13:271–81.Google Scholar
Gray, J. A. (1998) Integrating schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:249–66.Google Scholar
Green, L. A., Fein, D., Modahl, C., Feinstein, C., Waterhouse, L. & Morris, M. (2001) Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms. Biological Psychiatry 50:609–13.Google Scholar
Green, M. J. & Phillips, M. L. (2004) Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:333–42.Google Scholar
Greicius, M. D., Flores, B. H., Menon, V., Glover, G. H., Solvason, H. B., Kenna, H., Reiss, A. L. & Schatzberg, A. F. (2007) Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Biological Psychiatry 62:429–37.Google Scholar
Greicius, M. D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A. L. & Menon, V. (2003) Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:253–58.Google Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A. & Volkmar, F. (2003) Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 44:1079–91.Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. (2000b) The imbalanced brain: From normal behavior to schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:8198.Google Scholar
Gunnell, D. & Holly, J. M. (2004) Hypothesis: Do insulin-like growth factors underlie associations of birth complications, fetal and pre-adult growth with schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 71:191–93.Google Scholar
Gunnell, D., Rasmussen, F., Fouskakis, D., Tynelius, P. & Harrison, G. (2003) Patterns of fetal and childhood growth and the development of psychosis in young males: A cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 158:291300.Google Scholar
Gunter, H. L., Ghaziuddin, M. & Ellis, H. D. (2002) Asperger syndrome: Tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32:263–81.Google Scholar
Gur, R. C., Alsop, D., Glahn, D., Petty, R., Swanson, C. L., Maldjian, J. A., Turetsky, B. I., Detre, J. A., Gee, J. & Gur, R. E. (2000) An fMRI study of sex differences in regional activation to a verbal and a spatial task. Brain and Language 74:157–70.Google Scholar
Gur, R. E., Keshavan, M. S. & Lawrie, S. M. (2007) Deconstructing psychosis with human brain imaging. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33:921–31.Google Scholar
Gur, R. E., Kohler, C., Turetsky, B. I., Siegel, S. J., Kanes, S. J., Bilker, W. B., Brennan, A. R. & Gur, R. C. (2004) A sexually dimorphic ratio of orbitofrontal to amygdala volume is altered in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 55:512–17.Google Scholar
Gur, R. E., McGrath, C., Chan, R. M., Schroeder, L., Turner, T., Turetsky, B. I., Kohler, C., Alsop, D., Maldjian, J., Ragland, J. D. & Gur, R. C. (2002) An fMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1992–99.Google Scholar
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J. & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006) Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cerebral Cortex 16:1276–82.Google Scholar
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J. & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007) Abnormal activation of the social brain during face perception in autism. Human Brain Mapping 28:441–49.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (1993) Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68:495532.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (1996) Placental hormones, genetic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9:357.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (1999b) Genetic conflicts of pregnancy and childhood. In: Evolution in health and disease, ed. Stearns, C., pp. 7790. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2000a) Genomic imprinting, sex-biased dispersal, and social behavior. In: Evolutionary perspectives on human reproductive behavior, ed. LeCroy, D. & Moller, P.. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907:149–63.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2000b) The kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:932.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2003) On intrapersonal reciprocity. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:418–25.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2004a) Evolutionary conflicts in pregnancy and calcium metabolism – A review. Placenta 25(Suppl. A):S10S15.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2004b) Genomic imprinting and kinship: How good is the evidence? Annual Review of Genetics 38:553–85.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2006) Intragenomic politics. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 113:6874.Google Scholar
Haig, D. & Wharton, R. (2003) Prader-Willi syndrome and the evolution of human childhood. American Journal of Human Biology 15:320–29.Google Scholar
Halbreich, U. & Kahn, L. S. (2003) Hormonal aspects of schizophrenias: An overview. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(2):116.Google Scholar
Hamilton, A. F., de, C., Brindley, R. M. & Frith, U. (2007) Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: How valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system? Neuropsychologia 45:1859–68.Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:152.Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (2005) Narrow roads of gene land, vol. 3: Last words, ed. Ridley, M.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Han, S., Weaver, J. A., Murray, S. O., Kang, X., Yund, E. W. & Woods, D. L. (2002) Hemispheric asymmetry in global/local processing: Effects of stimulus position and spatial frequency. NeuroImage 17:1290–99.Google Scholar
Happé, F. (1994) Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. UCL Press.Google Scholar
Happé, F., Ehlers, S., Fletcher, P., Frith, U., Johansson, M., Gillberg, C., Dolan, R., Frackowiak, R. & Frith, C. (1996) “Theory of mind” in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport 8:197201.Google Scholar
Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2006) The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:525.Google Scholar
Happé, F., Ronald, A. & Plomin, R. (2006) Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience 9(10):1218–20.Google Scholar
Hardan, A. Y., Muddasani, S., Vemulapalli, M., Keshavan, M. S. & Minshew, N. J. (2006) An MRI study of increased cortical thickness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:1290–92.Google Scholar
Harrington, L., Langdon, R., Siegert, R. J. & McClure, J. (2005a) Schizophrenia, theory of mind, and persecutory delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:87104.Google Scholar
Harrington, L., Siegert, R. J. & McClure, J. (2005b) Theory of mind in schizophrenia: A critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:249–86.Google Scholar
Harrison, B. J., Yücel, M., Pujol, J. & Pantelis, C. (2007) Task-induced deactivation of midline cortical regions in schizophrenia assessed with fMRI. Schizophrenia Research 91:8286.Google Scholar
Harrison, P. J. (1999) The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain 122(Pt 4):593624.Google Scholar
Hartmann, W., Koch, A., Brune, H., Waha, A., Schuller, U., Dani, I., Denkhaus, D., Langmann, W., Bode, U., Wiestler, O. D., Schilling, K. & Pietsch, T. (2005) Insulin-like growth factor II is involved in the proliferation control of medulloblastoma and its cerebellar precursor cells. American Journal of Pathology 166:1153–62.Google Scholar
Hashimoto, T., Bergen, S. E., Nguyen, Q. L., Xu, B., Monteggia, L. M., Pierri, J. N., Sun, Z., Sampson, A. R. & Lewis, D. A. (2005) Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience 25:372–83.Google Scholar
Haskins, B. G. & Silva, J. A. (2006) Asperger's disorder and criminal behavior: Forensic-psychiatric considerations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 34:374–84.Google Scholar
Hattori, J., Ogino, T., Abiru, K., Nakano, K., Oka, M. & Ohtsuka, Y. (2006) Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders? Brain and Development 28:371–74.Google Scholar
Haukka, J., Suvisaari, J., Hakkinen, L. & Lönnqvist, J. (2008) Growth pattern and risk of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 38:6370.Google Scholar
Haukka, J., Suvisaari, J. & Lönnqvist, J. (2003) Fertility of patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and the general population: A cohort study from 1950 to 1959 in Finland. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:460–63.Google Scholar
Heaton, P. & Wallace, G. L. (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:899911.Google Scholar
Heerey, E. A., Keltner, D. & Capps, L. M. (2003) Making sense of self-conscious emotion: Linking theory of mind and emotion in children with autism. Emotion 3:394400.Google Scholar
Heim, S., Kissler, J., Elbert, T. & Rockstroh, B. (2004) Cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Neuromagnetic responses to auditory stimuli. Neuropsychologia 42:692–97.Google Scholar
Herbert, M. R. (2005) Large brains in autism: The challenge of pervasive abnormality. Neuroscientist 11:417–40.Google Scholar
Herbert, M. R., Harris, G. J., Adrien, K. T., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Lange, N. T., Chabris, C. F., Bakardjiev, A., Hodgson, J., Takeoka, M., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2002) Abnormal asymmetry in language association cortex in autism. Annals of Neurology 52:588–96.Google Scholar
Herbert, M. R. & Kenet, T. (2007) Brain abnormalities in language disorders and in autism. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:563–83.Google Scholar
Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Deutsch, C. K., O'Brien, L. M., Kennedy, D. N., Filipek, P. A., Bakardjiev, A. I., Hodgson, J., Takeoka, M., Makris, N. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2005) Brain asymmetries in autism and developmental language disorder: A nested whole-brain analysis. Brain 128:213–26.Google Scholar
Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Filipek, P. A., Kemper, T. L., Normandin, J. J., Sanders, H. A., Kennedy, D. N. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2004) Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Annals of Neurology 55:530–40.Google Scholar
Herrera, E. (2002) Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal development – A review. Placenta 23(Suppl. A):S9S19.Google Scholar
Highley, J. R., DeLisi, L. E., Roberts, N., Webb, J. A., Relja, M., Razi, K. & Crow, T. J. (2003) Sex-dependent effects of schizophrenia: An MRI study of gyral folding, and cortical and white matter volume. Psychiatry Research 124:1123.Google Scholar
Hill, E. L. & Frith, U. (2003) Understanding autism: Insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:281–89.Google Scholar
Hoffman, R. E., Hampson, M., Varanko, M. & McGlashan, T. H. (2004) Auditory hallucinations, network connectivity, and schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:860–61.Google Scholar
Holland, A., Whittington, J. & Hinton, E. (2003) The paradox of Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic model of starvation. Lancet 362:989–91.Google Scholar
Holm, V. A., Cassidy, S. B., Butler, M. G., Hanchett, J. M., Greenswag, L. R., Whitman, B. Y. & Greenberg, F. (1993) Prader-Willi syndrome: Consensus diagnostic criteria. Pediatrics 91:398402.Google Scholar
Holsen, L. & Thompson, T. (2004) Compulsive behavior and eye blink in Prader-Willi syndrome: Neurochemical implications. American Journal of Mental Retardation 109:197207.Google Scholar
Holt, D. J., Kunkel, L., Weiss, A. P., Goff, D. C., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Rauch, S. L., Hootnick, J. & Heckers, S. (2006) Increased medial temporal lobe activation during the passive viewing of emotional and neutral facial expressions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:153–62.Google Scholar
Holtmann, M., Bölte, S. & Poustka, F. (2007) Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 49:361–66.Google Scholar
Honea, R., Crow, T. J., Passingham, D. & Mackay, C. E. (2005) Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2233–45.Google Scholar
Honey, E., Leekam, S. R., Turner, M. & McConachie, H. (2006) Repetitive behaviour and play in typically developing children and children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1107–15.Google Scholar
Hooker, C. & Park, S. (2005) You must be looking at me: The nature of gaze perception in schizophrenia patients. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:327–45.Google Scholar
Hrdy, S. B. (1999) Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. Pantheon.Google Scholar
Hubl, D., Koenig, T., Strik, W., Federspiel, A., Kreis, R., Boesch, C., Maier, S. E., Schroth, G., Lovblad, K. & Dierks, T. (2004) Pathways that make voices: White matter changes in auditory hallucinations. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:658–68.Google Scholar
Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Schnack, H. G., Mandl, R. C. W., Brans, R. G. H., van Haren, H. E., Neeltje, E. M., Baaré, W. F. C., van Oel, C. J., Collins, D. L., Evans, A. C. & Kahn, R. S. (2006) Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage 31:482–88.Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. K. (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Growing points in ethology, ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Hinde, R. A., pp. 303–17. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. K. (1983) Consciousness regained. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hurlburt, R. T., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (1994) Sampling the form of inner experience in three adults with Asperger syndrome. Psychological Medicine 24:385–95.Google Scholar
Hutchinson, G., Bhugra, D., Mallett, R., Burnett, R., Corridan, B. & Leff, J. (1999) Fertility and marital rates in first-onset schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 34:617–21.Google Scholar
Huxley, J., Mayr, E., Osmond, H. & Hoffer, A. (1964) Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism. Nature 204:220–21.Google Scholar
Iacoboni, M. & Dapretto, M. (2006) The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:942–51.Google Scholar
Ingudomnukul, E., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. & Knickmeyer, R. (2007) Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior 51:597604.Google Scholar
Isles, A. R., Davies, W. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2006) Genomic imprinting and the social brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 361(1476):2229–37.Google Scholar
Jackson, M. (1997) Benign schizotypy? The case of spiritual experience. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. Claridge, G.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jahshan, C. S. & Sergi, M. J. (2007) Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research 89:278–86.Google Scholar
James, A. C., Crow, T. J., Renowden, S., Wardell, A. M., Smith, D. M. & Anslow, P. (1999) Is the course of brain development in schizophrenia delayed? Evidence from onsets in adolescence. Schizophrenia Research 40:110.Google Scholar
Janssen, I., Krabbendam, L., Jolles, J. & van Os, J. (2003) Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108:110–17.Google Scholar
Jarrold, C., Butler, D. W., Cottington, E. M. & Jimenez, F. (2000) Linking theory of mind and central coherence bias in autism and in the general population. Developmental Psychology 36:126–38.Google Scholar
Jaspers-Fayer, F. & Peters, M. (2005) Hand preference, magical thinking and left-right confusion. Laterality 10:183–91.Google Scholar
Jha, P., Sheth, D. & Ghaziuddin, M. (2007) Autism spectrum disorder and Klinefelter syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 16:305308.Google Scholar
Jiang, Y. H., Sahoo, T., Michaelis, R. C., Bercovich, D., Bressler, J., Kashork, C. D., Liu, Q., Shaffer, L. G., Schroer, R. J., Stockton, D. W., Spielman, R. S., Stevenson, R. E. & Beaudet, A. L. (2004) A mixed epigenetic/genetic model for oligogenic inheritance of autism with a limited role for UBE3A. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 131:110.Google Scholar
Johnson, J. D. (2005) Dysfunction of the anterior hippocampus: The cause of fundamental schizophrenic symptoms? Medical Hypotheses 65:5560.Google Scholar
Johnson, M. H. (2005) Subcortical face processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6:766–74.Google Scholar
Johnson, S. C. (2003) Detecting agents. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:549–59.Google Scholar
Johnson, W. & Bouchard, T. J. Jr. (2007) Sex differences in mental abilities: G masks the dimensions on which they lie. Intelligence 35:2339.Google Scholar
Johnstone, K. A., DuBose, A. J., Futtner, C. R., Elmore, M. D., Brannan, C. I. & Resnick, J. L. (2006) A human imprinting centre demonstrates conserved acquisition but diverged maintenance of imprinting in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome imprinting defects. Human Molecular Genetics 15:393404.Google Scholar
Jolly, A. (1966) Lemur behaviour. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007) Thought as action: Inner speech, self-monitoring, and auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition 16:391–99.Google Scholar
Josse, G. & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2004) Hemispheric specialization for language. Brain Research: Brain Research Reviews 44:112.Google Scholar
Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A. & Minshew, N. J. (2004) Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain 127:1811–21.Google Scholar
Juul-Dam, N., Townsend, J. & Courchesne, E. (2001) Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors in autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and the general population. Pediatrics 107:E63.Google Scholar
Kalkman, H. O. (2006) The role of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B pathway in schizophrenia. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 110:117–34.Google Scholar
Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J. & Just, M. A. (2006) Sentence comprehension in autism: Thinking in pictures with decreased functional connectivity. Brain 129:2484–93.Google Scholar
Kanner, L. (1949) Problems of nosology and psychodynamics of early infantile autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19:416–26.Google Scholar
Kanner, L. (1965) Infantile autism and the schizophrenias. Behavioral Science 10:412–20.Google Scholar
Kasai, K., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F., Hirayasu, Y., Lee, C., Ciszewski, A. A., Yurgelun-Todd, D., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A. & McCarley, R. W. (2003a) Progressive decrease of left superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:156–64.Google Scholar
Kasai, K., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F., Hirayasu, Y., Onitsuka, T., Spencer, M. H., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A. & McCarley, R. W. (2003b) Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:766–75.Google Scholar
Kayahan, B., Ozturk, O., Veznedaroglu, B. & Eraslan, D. (2005) Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: Prevalence and clinical correlates. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 59:291–95.Google Scholar
Kelemen, O., Kéri, S., Must, A., Benedek, G. & Janka, Z. (2004) No evidence for impaired “theory of mind” in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110:146–49.Google Scholar
Keller, J., Schatzberg, A. F. & Maj, M. (2007) Current issues in the classification of psychotic major depression. Schizophrenia Research 33:877–85.Google Scholar
Kempf, L., Hussain, N. & Potash, J. B. (2005) Mood disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia with mood features: Trouble at the borders. International Review of Psychiatry 17:919.Google Scholar
Kennedy, D. P., Redcay, E. & Courchesne, E. (2006) Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:8275–80.Google Scholar
Kennedy, N., McDonough, M., Kelly, B. & Berrios, G. E. (2002) Erotomania revisited: Clinical course and treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43:16.Google Scholar
Kerns, J. G. (2005) Positive schizotypy and emotion processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:392401.Google Scholar
Keverne, E. B. (1999) GABA-ergic neurons and the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Brain Research Bulletin 48:467–73.Google Scholar
Keverne, E. B. (2001a) Genomic imprinting and the maternal brain. Progress in Brain Research 133:279–85.Google Scholar
Keverne, E. B. (2001b) Genomic imprinting, maternal care, and brain evolution. Hormones and Behavior 40:146–55.Google Scholar
Kieseppä, T., van Erp, T. G., Haukka, J., Partonen, T., Cannon, T. D., Poutanen, V. P., Kaprio, J. & Lönnqvist, J. (2003) Reduced left hemispheric white matter volume in twins with bipolar I disorder. Biological Psychiatry 54:896905.Google Scholar
Kimhy, D., Goetz, R., Yale, S., Corcoran, C. & Malaspina, D. (2005) Delusions in individuals with schizophrenia: Factor structure, clinical correlates, and putative neurobiology. Psychopathology 38:338–44.Google Scholar
Kington, J. M., Jones, L. A., Watt, A. A., Hopkin, E. J. & Williams, J. (2000) Impaired eye expression recognition in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 34:341–47.Google Scholar
Kirsch, P., Esslinger, C., Chen, Q., Mier, D., Lis, S., Siddhanti, S., Gruppe, H., Mattay, V. S., Gallhofer, B. & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2005) Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 25:11489–93.Google Scholar
Klejbor, I., Myers, J. M., Hausknecht, K., Corso, T. D., Gambino, A. S., Morys, J., Maher, P. A., Hard, R., Richards, J., Stachowiak, E. K. & Stachowiak, M. K. (2006) Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling affects development and function of dopamine neurons – Inhibition results in a schizophrenia-like syndrome in transgenic mice. Journal of Neurochemistry 97:1243–58.Google Scholar
Knickmeyer, R. C., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P. & Taylor, K. (2005) Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 46:198210.Google Scholar
Knoch, D., Pascual-Leone, A., Meyer, K., Treyer, V. & Fehr, E. (2006) Diminishing reciprocal fairness by disrupting the right prefrontal cortex. Science 314:829–32.Google Scholar
Kolevzon, A., Gross, R. & Reichenberg, A. (2007) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: A review and integration of findings. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161:326–33.Google Scholar
Kolvin, I. (1971) Studies in the childhood psychoses. I. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry 118:381–84.Google Scholar
Konstantareas, M. M. & Hewitt, T. (2001) Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: Diagnostic overlaps. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31(1):1928.Google Scholar
Kovalev, V. A., Kruggel, F. & von Cramon, D. Y. (2003) Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis. NeuroImage 19:895905.Google Scholar
Kramer, J. H., Ellenberg, L., Leonard, J. & Share, L. J. (1996) Developmental sex differences in global-local perceptual bias. Neuropsychology 10:402407.Google Scholar
Kravariti, E., Toulopoulou, T., Mapua-Filbey, F., Schulze, K., Walshe, M., Sham, P., Murray, R. M. & McDonald, C. (2006) Intellectual asymmetry and genetic liability in first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 188:186–87.Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B., eds. (1991) Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach. Blackwell Press.Google Scholar
Kremen, W. S., Faraone, S. V., Toomey, R., Seidman, L. J. & Tsuang, M. T. (1998) Sex differences in self-reported schizotypal traits in relatives of schizophrenic probands. Schizophrenia Research 34:2737.Google Scholar
Kucharska-Pietura, K., Russell, T. & Masiak, M. (2003) Perception of negative affect in schizophrenia – functional and structural changes in the amygdala. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio D: Medicina 58:453–58.Google Scholar
Kuhlmeier, V. A., Bloom, P. & Wynn, K. (2004) Do 5-month-old infants see humans as material objects? Cognition 94:95103.Google Scholar
Kuperberg, G. R., Broome, M. R., McGuire, P. K., David, A. S., Eddy, M., Ozawa, F., Goff, D., West, W. C., Williams, S. C. R., van der Kouwe, A. J. W., Salat, D. H., Dale, A. M. & Fischl, B. (2003) Regionally localized thinning of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:878–88.Google Scholar
Kurita, M., Kuwajima, T., Nishimura, I. & Yoshikawa, K. (2006) Necdin downregulates CDC2 expression to attenuate neuronal apoptosis. Journal of Neuroscience 26:12003–13.Google Scholar
Kuroki, N., Kubicki, M., Nestor, P. G., Salisbury, D. F., Park, H. J., Levitt, J. J., Woolston, S., Frumin, M., Niznikiewicz, M., Westin, C. F., Maier, S. E., McCarley, R. W. & Shenton, M. E. (2006) Fornix integrity and hippocampal volume in male schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 60:2231.Google Scholar
Kuwako, K., Hosokawa, A., Nishimura, I., Uetsuki, T., Yamada, M., Nada, S., Okada, M. & Yoshikawa, K. (2005) Disruption of the paternal necdin gene diminishes TrkA signaling for sensory neuron survival. Journal of Neuroscience 25:7090–99.Google Scholar
Kuzawa, C. W. (1998) Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: An evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 27(Suppl.):177209.Google Scholar
Kwon, C. H., Luikart, B. W., Powell, C. M., Zhou, J., Matheny, S. A., Zhang, W., Li, Y., Baker, S. J. & Parada, L. F. (2006) Pten regulates neuronal arborization and social interaction in mice. Neuron 50:377–88.Google Scholar
Lainhart, J. E. (2006) Advances in autism neuroimaging research for the clinician and geneticist. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 142:3339.Google Scholar
Lainhart, J. E., Bigler, E. D., Bocian, M., Coon, H., Dinh, E., Dawson, G., Deutsch, C. K., Dunn, M., Estes, A., Tager-Flusberg, H., Folstein, S., Hepburn, S., Hyman, S., McMahon, W., Minshew, N., Munson, J., Osann, K., Ozonoff, S., Rodier, P., Rogers, S., Sigman, M., Spence, M. A., Stodgell, C. J. & Volkmar, F. (2006) Head circumference and height in autism: A study by the collaborative program of excellence in autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part A 140:2257–74.Google Scholar
Lajiness-O'Neill, R., Beaulieu, I., Asamoah, A., Titus, J. B., Bawle, E., Ahmad, S., Kirk, J. W. & Pollack, R. (2006) The neuropsychological phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS): Relationship to psychopathology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21:175–84.Google Scholar
Landry, R. & Bryson, S. E. (2004) Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:1115–22.Google Scholar
Lane, A., Byrne, M., Mulvany, F., Kinsella, A., Waddington, J. L., Walsh, D., Larkin, C. & O'Callaghan, E. (1995) Reproductive behaviour in schizophrenia relative to other mental disorders: Evidence for increased fertility in men despite decreased marital rate. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:222–28.Google Scholar
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (1999) Mentalising, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Cognition 71:4371.Google Scholar
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2001) Visual perspective-taking and schizotypy: Evidence for a simulation-based account of mentalizing in normal adults. Cognition 82:126.Google Scholar
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2004) Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: The impact of schizotypal personality traits. Psychiatry Research 125:920.Google Scholar
Langdon, R., Coltheart, M. & Ward, P. B. (2006a) Empathetic perspective-taking is impaired in schizophrenia: Evidence from a study of emotion attribution and theory of mind. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 11:133–55.Google Scholar
Langdon, R., Coltheart, M., Ward, P. B. & Catts, S. (2002) Disturbed communication in schizophrenia: The role of poor pragmatics and poor mind-reading. Psychological Medicine 32:1273–84.Google Scholar
Langdon, R., Corner, T., McLaren, J., Coltheart, M. & Ward, P. B. (2006b) Attentional orienting triggered by gaze in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 44:417–29.Google Scholar
Larsson, H. J., Eaton, W. W., Madsen, K. M., Vestergaard, M., Olesen, A. V., Agerbo, E., Schendel, D., Thorsen, P. & Mortensen, P. B. (2005) Risk factors for autism: Perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Epidemiology 161:916.Google Scholar
LaRusso, L. (1978) Sensitivity of paranoid patients to nonverbal clues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:463–71.Google Scholar
LaSalle, J. M., Hogart, A. & Thatcher, K. N. (2005) Rett syndrome: A Rosetta stone for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of autism. International Review of Neurobiology 71:131–65.Google Scholar
Lawrence, P. A. (2006) Men, women, and ghosts in science. PLoS Biology 4:e19.Google Scholar
Lawrie, S. M., Whalley, H. C., Job, D. E. & Johnstone, E. C. (2003) Structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985:445–60.Google Scholar
Lawson, J., Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2004) Empathising and systemising in adults with and without Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:301–10.Google Scholar
Lawson, W. (1998) Life behind glass: A personal account of autism spectrum disorder. Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
Leask, S. J. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Lateralization of verbal ability in pre-psychotic children. Psychiatry Research 136:3542.Google Scholar
Lee, K. H., Farrow, T. F., Spence, S. A. & Woodruff, P. W. (2004) Social cognition, brain networks and schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 34:391400.Google Scholar
Lee, M. P. (2003) Genome-wide analysis of epigenetics in cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 983:101109.Google Scholar
Lee, S., Walker, C. L., Karten, B., Kuny, S. L., Tennese, A. A., O'Neill, M. A. & Wevrick, R. (2005) Essential role for the Prader-Willi syndrome protein necdin in axonal outgrowth. Human Molecular Genetics 14:627–37.Google Scholar
Legg, L. & Gilbert, P. (2006) A pilot study of gender of voice and gender of voice hearer in psychotic voice hearers. Psychology and Psychotherapy 79:517–27.Google Scholar
Leonhard, D. & Brugger, P. (1998) Creative, paranormal, and delusional thought: A consequence of right hemisphere semantic activation? Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology 11:177–83.Google Scholar
Leung, A. & Chue, P. (2000) Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum 401:338.Google Scholar
Levav, I., Lipshitz, I., Novikov, I., Pugachova, I., Kohn, R., Barchana, M., Ponizovsky, A. & Werner, H. (2007) Cancer risk among parents and siblings of patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 190:156–61.Google Scholar
Lewis, C. M., Levinson, D. F., Wise, L. H., DeLisi, L. E., Straub, R. E., Hovatta, I., Williams, N. M., Schwab, S. G., Pulver, A. E., Faraone, S. V., Brzustowicz, L. M., Kaufmann, C. A., Garver, D. L., Gurling, H. M. D., Lindholm, E., Coon, H., Moises, H. W., Byerley, W., Shaw, S. H., Mesen, A., Sherrington, R., O'Neill, F. A., Walsh, D., Kendler, K. S., Ekelund, J., Paunio, T., Lönnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., O'Donovan, M. C., Owen, M. J., Wildenauer, D. B., Maier, W., Nestadt, G., Blouin, J., Antonarakis, S. E., Mowry, B. J., Silverman, J. M., Crowe, R. R., Cloninger, C. R., Tsuang, M. T., Malaspina, D., Harkavy-Friedman, J. M., Svrakic, D. M., Bassett, A. S., Holcomb, J., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Brynjolfson, J., Sigmundsson, T., Petursson, H., Jazin, E., Zoëga, T. & Helgason, T. (2003) Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, Part II: Schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:3448.Google Scholar
Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Lainhart, J. E. (2006) Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:849–61.Google Scholar
Lindsay, R. S., Kobes, S., Knowler, W. C. & Hanson, R. L. (2002) Genome-wide linkage analysis assessing parent-of-origin effects in the inheritance of birth weight. Human Genetics 110:503509.Google Scholar
Linney, Y. M., Murray, R. M., Peters, E. R., MacDonald, A. M., Rijsdijk, F. & Sham, P. C. (2003) A quantitative genetic analysis of schizotypal personality traits. Psychological Medicine 33:803–16.Google Scholar
Lippiello, P. M. (2006) Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists: A novel approach for the treatment of autism. Medical Hypotheses 66:985–90.Google Scholar
Lombardo, M. V., Barnes, J. L., Wheelwright, S. J. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2007) Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE 2:e883.Google Scholar
Losh, M. & Capps, L. (2003) Narrative ability in high-functioning children with autism or Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:239–51.Google Scholar
Losh, M. & Capps, L. (2006) Understanding of emotional experience in autism: Insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism. Developmental Psychology 42:809–18.Google Scholar
Lossie, A. C., Whitney, M. M., Amidon, D., Dong, H. J., Chen, P., Theriaque, D., Hutson, A., Nicholls, R. D., Zori, R. T., Williams, C. A. & Driscoll, D. J. (2001) Distinct phenotypes distinguish the molecular classes of Angelman syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics 38:834–45.Google Scholar
Luders, E., Rex, D. E., Narr, K. L., Woods, R. P., Jancke, L., Thompson, P. M., Mazziotta, J. C. & Toga, A. W. (2003) Relationships between sulcal asymmetries and corpus callosum size: Gender and handedness effects. Cerebral Cortex 13:1084–93.Google Scholar
Luna, B., Minshew, N. J., Garver, K. E., Lazar, N. A., Thulborn, K. R., Eddy, W. F. & Sweeney, J. A. (2002) Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: An fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology 59:834–40.Google Scholar
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S. & Raggatt, P. (2002a) Foetal testosterone and eye contact in 12-month-old human infants. Infant Behavior and Development 25:327–35.Google Scholar
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S. & Raggatt, P. (2002b) Foetal testosterone and vocabulary size in 18- and 24-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development 24:418–24.Google Scholar
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., Knickmeyer, R. & Manning, J. T. (2004) 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development 77:2328.Google Scholar
Mahmoud, G. S. & Grover, L. M. (2006) Growth hormone enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. Journal of Neurophysiology 95:2962–74.Google Scholar
Manning, J. T., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. & Sanders, G. (2001) The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.Google Scholar
Manning, J. T., Bundred, P. E. & Flanagan, B. F. (2002) The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A proxy for transactivation activity of the androgen receptor gene? Medical Hypotheses 59:334–36.Google Scholar
Manning, J. T., Stewart, A., Bundred, P. E. & Trivers, R. L. (2004) Sex and ethnic differences in 2nd to 4th digit ratio of children. Early Human Development 80:161–68.Google Scholar
Margetts, C. D. E., Astuti, D., Gentle, D. C., Cooper, W. N., Cascon, A., Catchpoole, D., Robledo, M., Neumann, H. P. H., Latif, F. & Maher, E. R. (2005) Epigenetic analysis of HIC1:CASP8:FLIP,TSP1:DCR1:DCR2: DR4:DR5:KvDMR1:H19 and preferential 11p15.5 maternal-allele loss in von Hippel-Lindau and sporadic phaeochromocytomas. Endocrine-Related Cancer 12:161–72.Google Scholar
Maric, N., Krabbendam, L., Vollebergh, W., de Graaf, R. & van Os, J. (2003) Sex differences in symptoms of psychosis in a non-selected, general population sample. Schizophrenia Research 63:8995.Google Scholar
Marjoram, D., Job, D. E., Whalley, H. C., Gountouna, V., McIntosh, A. M., Simonotto, E., Cunningham-Owens, D., Johnstone, E. C. & Lawrie, S. (2006) A visual joke fMRI investigation into theory of mind and enhanced risk of schizophrenia. NeuroImage 31:1850–58.Google Scholar
Mata, I., Sham, P. C., Gilvarry, C. M., Jones, P. B., Lewis, S. W. & Murray, R. M. (2000) Childhood schizotypy and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients predict schizotypy in relatives. Schizophrenia Research 44:129–36.Google Scholar
Mathes, B., Wood, S. J., Proffitt, T. M., Stuart, G. W., Buchanan, J. A., Velakoulis, D., Brewer, W. J., McGorry, P. D. & Pantelis, C. (2005) Early processing deficits in object working memory in first-episode schizophreniform psychosis and established schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 35:1053–62.Google Scholar
Mazza, M., De Risio, A., Surian, L., Roncone, R. & Casacchia, M. (2001) Selective impairments of theory of mind in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 47:299308.Google Scholar
McAlonan, G. M., Cheung, V., Cheung, C., Suckling, J., Lam, G. Y., Tai, K. S., Yip, L., Murphy, D. G. M. & Chua, S. E. (2005) Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain 128:268–76.Google Scholar
McAlonan, G. M., Daly, E., Kumari, V., Critchley, H. D., van Amelsvoort, T., Suckling, J, Simmons, A, Sigmundsson, T., Greenwood, K., Russell, A., Schmitz, N, Happé, F., Howlin, P. & Murphy, D. G. M. (2002) Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. Brain 125:1594–606.Google Scholar
McCabe, R., Leudar, I. & Antaki, C. (2004) Do people with schizophrenia display theory of mind deficits in clinical interactions? Psychological Medicine 34:401–12.Google Scholar
McCaffery, P. & Deutsch, C. K. (2005) Macrocephaly and the control of brain growth in autistic disorders. Progress in Neurobiology 77:3856.Google Scholar
McCall, T., Chin, S. S., Salzman, K. L. & Fults, D. W. (2006) Tuberous sclerosis: A syndrome of incomplete tumor suppression. Neurosurgical Focus 20:E3.Google Scholar
McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., Zarahn, E., Leibenluft, E., Bilder, R. M., Charney, D. S., Ernst, M. & Pine, D. S. (2004) A developmental examination of gender differences in brain engagement during evaluation of threat. Biological Psychiatry 55:1047–55.Google Scholar
McCreery, C. & Claridge, G. (1996) A study of hallucination in normal subjects. 1. Self-report. Personality and Individual Differences 21:739–47.Google Scholar
McDonald, C., Bullmore, E. T., Sham, P. C., Chitnis, X., Wickham, H., Bramon, E. & Murray, R. M. (2004) Association of genetic risks for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with specific and generic brain structural endophenotypes. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:974–84.Google Scholar
McDonald, C., Bullmore, E. T., Sham, P. C., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., MacCabe, J., Walshe, M. & Murray, R. M. (2005) Regional volume deviations of brain structure in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder: Computational morphometry study. British Journal of Psychiatry 186:369–77.Google Scholar
McGlashan, T. H., Pedersen, C. B., Hoffman, R. E. & Mortensen, P. B. (2006) Fertility of schizophrenia and bipolar probands and their first-degree relatives. Schizophrenia Research 81(Suppl.):S17S18.Google Scholar
McGrath, J. J., Hearle, J., Jenner, L., Plant, K., Drummond, A. & Barkla, J. M. (1999) The fertility and fecundity of patients with psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 99:441–46.Google Scholar
McIntosh, A. M., Job, D. E., Moorhead, W. J., Harrison, L. K., Whalley, H. C., Johnstone, E. C. & Lawrie, S. M. (2006) Genetic liability to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and its relationship to brain structure. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141:7683.Google Scholar
McKay, R., Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2005) Paranoia, persecutory delusions and attributional biases. Psychiatry Research 136:233–45.Google Scholar
McMinn, J., Wei, M., Schupf, N., Cusmai, J., Johnson, E. B., Smith, A. C., Weksberg, R., Thaker, H. M. & Tycko, B. (2006) Unbalanced placental expression of imprinted genes in human intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta 27:540–49.Google Scholar
Mendrek, A. (2007) Reversal of normal cerebral sexual dimorphism in schizophrenia: Evidence and speculations. Medical Hypotheses 69:896902.Google Scholar
Miller, J. L., Couch, J., Schmalfuss, I., He, G., Liu, Y. & Driscoll, D. J. (2007) Morphological brain abnormalities detected by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in Prader-Willi syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part A 143:476–83.Google Scholar
Mills, J. L., Hediger, M. L., Molloy, C. A., Chrousos, G. P., Manning-Courtney, P., Yu, K. F., Brasington, M. & England, L. J. (2007) Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Endocrinology 67:230–37.Google Scholar
Milne, E., White, S., Campbell, R., Swettenham, J., Hansen, P. & Ramus, F. (2006) Motion and form coherence detection in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:225–37.Google Scholar
Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G. & Siegel, D. J. (1997) Neuropsychologic functioning in autism: Profile of a complex information processing disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 3:303–16.Google Scholar
Mitchell, R. L. C. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: The forgotten hemisphere? Brain 128:963–78.Google Scholar
Mitchell, T. N., Free, S. L., Merschhemke, M., Lemieux, L., Sisodiya, S. M. & Shorvon, S. D. (2003) Reliable callosal measurement: Population normative data confirm sex-related differences. American Journal of Neuroradiology 24:410–18.Google Scholar
Miyazaki, K., Narita, N., Sakuta, R., Miyahara, T., Naruse, H., Okado, N. & Narita, M. (2004) Serum neurotrophin concentrations in autism and mental retardation: A pilot study. Brain and Development 26:292–95.Google Scholar
Mohr, C., Krummenacher, P., Landis, T., Sandor, P. S., Fathi, M. & Brugger, P. (2005) Psychometric schizotypy modulates levodopa effects on lateralized lexical decision performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 39:241–50.Google Scholar
Mohr, C., Röhrenbach, C. M., Laska, M. & Brugger, P. (2001) Unilateral olfactory perception and magical ideation. Schizophrenia Research 47:255–64.Google Scholar
Moises, H. W., Zoega, T. & Gottesman, I. I. (2002) The glial growth factors deficiency and synaptic destabilization hypothesis of schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2:8.Google Scholar
Monk, D. & Moore, G. E. (2004) Intrauterine growth restriction – Genetic causes and consequences. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 9:371–78.Google Scholar
Montag, C., Heinz, A., Kunz, D. & Gallinat, J. (2007) Self-reported empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 92:8589.Google Scholar
Moriarty, P. J., Lieber, D., Bennett, A., White, L., Parrella, M., Harvey, P. D. & Davis, K. L. (2001) Gender differences in poor outcome patients with lifelong schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 27:103–13.Google Scholar
Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., Burack, J. A. (2006) Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:2743.Google Scholar
Mouridsen, S. E., Rich, B. & Isager, T. (2008) Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study. Journal of Neural Transmission 115(1):135–38.Google Scholar
Mraz, K. D., Green, J., Dumont-Mathieu, T., Makin, S. & Fein, D. (2007) Correlates of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 22:700–13.Google Scholar
Mucci, A., Galderisi, S., Bucci, P., Tresca, E., Forte, A., Koenig, T. & Maj, M. (2005) Hemispheric lateralization patterns and psychotic experiences in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research 139:141–54.Google Scholar
Murray, D., Lesser, M. & Lawson, W. (2005) Attention, monotropism and the diagnostic criteria for autism. Autism 9:139–56.Google Scholar
Nakamura, M., Matsushima, E., Ohta, K., Ando, K. & Kojima, T. (2003) Relationship between attention and arousal level in schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 57:472–77.Google Scholar
Narr, K. L., Bilder, R. M., Toga, A. W., Woods, R. P., Rex, D. E., Szeszko, P. R., Robinson, D., Sevy, S., Gunduz-Bruce, H., Wang, Y. P., DeLuca, H. & Thompson, P. M. (2005) Mapping cortical thickness and gray matter concentration in first episode schizophrenia. Cerebral Cortex 15:708–19.Google Scholar
Narr, K. L., Thompson, P. M., Szeszko, P., Robinson, D., Jang, S., Woods, R. P., Kim, S., Hayashi, K. M., Asunction, D., Toga, A. W. & Bilder, R. M. (2004) Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. NeuroImage 21:1563–75.Google Scholar
Narr, K. L., van Erp, T. G., Cannon, T. D., Woods, R. P., Thompson, P. M., Jang, S., Blanton, R., Poutanen, V. P., Huttunen, M., Lönnqvist, J., Standerksjold-Nordenstam, C. G., Kaprio, J., Mazziotta, J. C. & Toga, A. W. (2002) A twin study of genetic contributions to hippocampal morphology in schizophrenia. Neurobiology of Disease 11:8395.Google Scholar
Nelson, K. B. (2001) Toward a biology of autism: Possible role of certain neuropeptides and neurotrophins. Clinical Neuroscience Research 1:300306.Google Scholar
Nesse, R. M. (2005) Maladaptation and natural selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 80:6270.Google Scholar
Nettle, D. (2001) Strong imagination: Madness, creativity and human nature. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Nettle, D. (2006) Schizotypy and mental health amongst poets, visual artists, and mathematicians. Journal of Research in Personality 40:876–90.Google Scholar
Nettle, D. (2007) Empathizing and systemizing: What are they, and what do they contribute to our understanding of psychological sex differences? British Journal of Psychology, Part 2 98:237–55.Google Scholar
Nettle, D. & Clegg, H. (2006) Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 273:611–15.Google Scholar
Niculescu, A. B. (2005) Genomic studies of mood disorders – The brain as a muscle? Genome Biology 6:215.Google Scholar
Niebauer, C. L. (2004) Handedness and the fringe of consciousness: Strong handers ruminate while mixed handers self-reflect. Consciousness and Cognition 13:730–45.Google Scholar
Niemi, L. T., Suvisaari, J. M., Haukka, J. K. & Lönnqvist, J. K. (2005) Childhood growth and future development of psychotic disorder among Helsinki high-risk children. Schizophrenia Research 76:105–39.Google Scholar
Nilsson, E., Stålberg, G., Lichtenstein, P., Cnattingius, S., Olausson, P. O. & Hultman, C. M. (2005) Fetal growth restriction and schizophrenia: A Swedish twin study. Twin Research and Human Genetics 8:402408.Google Scholar
Nishimura, K., Nakamura, K., Anitha, A., Yamada, K., Tsujii, M., Iwayama, Y., Hattori, E., Toyota, T., Takei, N., Miyachi, T., Iwata, Y., Suzuki, K., Matsuzaki, H., Kawai, M., Sekine, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Sugihara, G., Suda, S., Ouchi, Y., Sugiyama, T., Yoshikawa, T. & Mori, N. (2007a) Genetic analyses of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in autism. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 356:200206.Google Scholar
Noesselt, T., Driver, J., Heinze, H. J. & Dolan, R. (2005) Asymmetrical activation in the human brain during processing of fearful faces. Current Biology 15:424–29.Google Scholar
Nurmi, E. L., Bradford, Y., Chen, Y., Hall, J., Arnone, B., Gardiner, M. B., Hutcheson, H. B., Gilbert, J. R., Pericak-Vance, M. A., Copeland-Yates, S. A., Michaelis, R. C., Wassink, T. H., Santangelo, S. L., Sheffield, V. C., Piven, J., Folstein, S. E., Haines, J. L. & Sutcliffe, J. S. (2001) Linkage disequilibrium at the Angelman syndrome gene UBE3A in autism families. Genomics 77:105–13.Google Scholar
Nydén, A., Carlsson, M., Carlsson, A. & Gillberg, C. (2004) Interhemispheric transfer in high-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A controlled pilot study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46:448–54.Google Scholar
Nylander, L. & Gillberg, C. (2001) Screening for autism spectrum disorders in adult psychiatric out-patients: A preliminary report. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103:428–34.Google Scholar
O'Neill, J. L. (1999) Through the eyes of aliens: A book about autistic people. Jessica Kinglsey.Google Scholar
O'Shea, A. G., Fein, D. A., Cillessen, A. H., Klin, A. & Schultz, R. T. (2005) Source memory in children with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Neuropsychology 27:337–60.Google Scholar
Ohama, K., Ueda, K., Okamoto, E., Takenaka, M. & Fujiwara, A. (1986) Cytogenetic and clinicopathologic studies of partial moles. Obstetrics and Gynecology 68:259–62.Google Scholar
Ohnishi, T., Matsuda, H., Hashimoto, T., Kunihiro, T., Nishikawa, M., Uema, T. & Sasaki, M. (2000) Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism. Brain 123:1838–44.Google Scholar
Oudejans, C. B. M., Mulders, J., Lachmeijer, A. M. A., van Dijk, M., Könst, A. A. M., Westerman, B. A., van Wijk, I. J., Leegwater, P. A. J., Kato, H. D., Matsuda, T., Wake, N., Dekker, G. A., Pals, G., ten Kate, L. P. & Blankenstein, M. A. (2004) The parent-of-origin effect of 10q22 in pre-eclamptic females coincides with two regions clustered for genes with down-regulated expression in androgenetic placentas. Molecular Human Reproduction 10:589–98.Google Scholar
Palomino, A., Vallejo-Illarramendi, A., González-Pinto, A., Aldama, A., González-Gómez, C., Mosquera, F., González-García, G. & Matute, C. (2006) Decreased levels of plasma BDNF in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Schizophrenia Research 86:321–22.Google Scholar
Paradiso, S., Andreasen, N. C., Crespo-Facorro, B., O'Leary, D. S., Watkins, G. L., Boles Ponto, L. L. & Hichwa, R. D. (2003) Emotions in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia during evaluation with positron emission tomography. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:1775–83.Google Scholar
Park, S., Lenzenweger, M. F., Püschel, J. & Holzman, P. S. (1996) Attentional inhibition in schizophrenia and schizotypy, a spatial negative priming study. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 1:125–49.Google Scholar
Penn, H. E. (2006) Neurobiological correlates of autism: A review of recent research. Child Neuropsychology 12:5779.Google Scholar
Peters, S. U., Beaudet, A. L., Madduri, N. & Bacino, C. A. (2004) Autism in Angelman syndrome: Implications for autism research. Clinical Genetics 66(6):530–36.Google Scholar
Philippi, A., Roschmann, E., Tores, F., Lindenbaum, P., Benajou, A., Germain-Leclerc, L., Marcaillou, C., Fontaine, K., Vanpeene, M., Roy, S., Maillard, S., Decaulne, V., Saraiva, J. P., Brooks, P., Rousseau, F. & Hager, J. (2005) Haplotypes in the gene encoding protein kinase c-beta (PRKCB1) on chromosome 16 are associated with autism. Molecular Psychiatry 10:950–60.Google Scholar
Phillips, M. L., Senior, C. & David, A. S. (2000) Perception of threat in schizophrenics with persecutory delusions: An investigation using visual scan paths. Psychological Medicine 30:157–67.Google Scholar
Phillips, M. L., Williams, L., Senior, C., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J., Andrew, C., Williams, S. C. & David, A. S. (1999) A differential neural response to threatening and non-threatening negative facial expressions in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics. Psychiatry Research 92:1131.Google Scholar
Piccinelli, M. & Wilkinson, G. (2000) Gender differences in depression. Critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry 177:486–92.Google Scholar
Pickup, G. J. (2006) Theory of mind and its relation to schizotypy. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 11(2):177–92.Google Scholar
Pickup, G. J. & Frith, C. D. (2001) Theory of mind impairments in schizophrenia: Symptomatology, severity and specificity. Psychological Medicine 31:207–20.Google Scholar
Piefke, M. & Fink, G. R. (2005) Recollections of one's own past: The effects of aging and gender on the neural mechanisms of episodic autobiographical memory. Anatomy and Embryology 210:497512.Google Scholar
Pieper, A. A., Wu, X., Han, T. W., Estill, S. J., Dang, Q., Wu, L. C., Reece-Fincanon, S., Dudley, C. A., Richardson, J. A., Brat, D. J. & McKnight, S. L. (2005) The neuronal PAS domain protein 3 transcription factor controls FGF-mediated adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:14052–57.Google Scholar
Pilcher, D. L., Hammock, E. A. & Hopkins, W. D. (2001) Cerebral volumetric asymmetries in non-human primates: A magnetic resonance imaging study. Laterality 6:165–79.Google Scholar
Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Arbelle, S. & Mozes, T. (2000) Theory of mind abilities of children with schizophrenia, children with autism, and normally developing children. Schizophrenia Research 42:145–55.Google Scholar
Pinkham, A. E., Penn, D. L., Perkins, D. O. & Lieberman, J. (2003) Implications for the neural basis of social cognition for the study of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:815–24.Google Scholar
Piven, J., Bailey, J., Ranson, B. J. & Arndt, S. (1997) An MRI study of the corpus callosum in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:1051–56.Google Scholar
Pizzagalli, D., Lehmann, D. & Brugger, P. (2001) Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs. Psychopathology 34:7580.Google Scholar
Pizzagalli, D., Lehmann, D., Gianotti, L., Koenig, T., Tanaka, H., Wackermann, J. & Brugger, P. (2000) Brain electric correlates of strong belief in paranormal phenomena: Intracerebral EEG source and regional Omega complexity analyses. Psychiatry Research 100:139–54.Google Scholar
Plagge, A., Gordon, E., Dean, W., Boiani, R., Cinti, S., Peters, J. & Kelsey, G. (2004) The imprinted signaling protein XL alpha s is required for postnatal adaptation to feeding. Nature Genetics 36:818–26.Google Scholar
Planansky, K. & Johnston, R. (1962) The incidence and relationship of homosexual and paranoid features in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science 108:604–15.Google Scholar
Potash, J. B. (2006) Carving chaos: Genetics and the classification of mood and psychotic syndromes. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 14:4763.Google Scholar
Preti, A., Sardu, C. & Piga, A. (2007) Mixed-handedness is associated with the reporting of psychotic-like beliefs in a non-clinical Italian sample. Schizophrenia Research 92:1523.Google Scholar
Previc, F. H. (2007) Prenatal influences on brain dopamine and their relevance to the rising incidence of autism. Medical Hypotheses 68:4660.Google Scholar
Pring, L. (2005) Savant talent. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 47:500503.Google Scholar
Quintana, J., Davidson, T., Kovalik, E., Marder, S. R. & Mazziotta, J. C. (2001) A compensatory mirror cortical mechanism for facial affect processing in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:915–24.Google Scholar
Rapoport, J. L., Addington, A. M., Frangou, S. & Psych, M. R. (2005) The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: Update 2005. Molecular Psychiatry 10:434–49.Google Scholar
Räsänen, S., Pakaslahti, A., Syvälahti, R., Jones, P. B. & Isohanni, M. (2000) Sex differences in schizophrenia: A review. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 54:3745.Google Scholar
Redcay, E. & Courchesne, E. (2005) When is the brain enlarged in autism? A meta-analysis of all brain size reports. Biological Psychiatry 58:19.Google Scholar
Rees, S. & Inder, T. (2005) Fetal and neonatal origins of altered brain development. Early Human Development 81:753–61.Google Scholar
Reik, W., Constancia, M., Fowden, A., Anderson, N., Dean, W., Ferguson-Smith, A., Tycko, B. & Sibley, C. (2003) Regulation of supply and demand for maternal nutrients in mammals by imprinted genes. Journal of Physiology 547:3544.Google Scholar
Richardson, A. J. (1994) Dyslexia, handedness and syndromes of psychosis-proneness. International Journal of Psychophysiology 18:251–63.Google Scholar
Rickard, I. J., Russell, A. F. & Lummaa, V. (2007) Producing sons reduces lifetime reproductive success of subsequent offspring in pre-industrial Finns. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 274:2981–88.Google Scholar
Riedel, H. (2004) GRB10 exceeding the boundaries of a common signaling adapter. Frontiers in Bioscience 9:603–18.Google Scholar
Rilling, J. K. & Insel, T. R. (1999) Differential expansion of neural projection systems in primate brain evolution. Neuroreport 10:1453–59.Google Scholar
Rim, Y. (1994) Impulsivity, venturesomeness, empathy and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences 17:853–54.Google Scholar
Rimmer, J. & Jacobsen, B. (1976) Differential fertility of adopted schizophrenics and their half-siblings. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 54:161–66.Google Scholar
Rinaldi, T., Silberberg, G. & Markram, H. (2008) Hyperconnectivity of local neocortical microcircuitry induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid. Cerebral Cortex 18:763–70.Google Scholar
Rinehart, N. J., Bradshaw, J. L., Brereton, A. V. & Tonge, B. J. (2002a) A clinical and neurobehavioural review of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 36:762–70.Google Scholar
Rinehart, N. J., Bradshaw, J. L., Brereton, A. V. & Tonge, B. J. (2002b) Lateralization in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder: A frontostriatal model. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32:321–31.Google Scholar
Ripoll, N., Bronnec, M. & Bourin, M. (2004) Nicotinic receptors and schizophrenia. Current Medical Research and Opinion 20:1057–74.Google Scholar
Ristic, J., Mottron, L., Friesen, C. K., Iarocci, G., Burack, J. A. & Kingstone, A. (2005) Eyes are special but not for everyone: The case of autism. Cognitive Brain Research 24:715–18.Google Scholar
Rogers, S. J., Hepburn, S. & Wehner, E. (2003) Parent reports of sensory symptoms in toddlers with autism and those with other developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:631–42.Google Scholar
Ronald, A., Happé, F., Bolton, P., Butcher, L. M., Price, T. S., Wheelwright, S., Baron-Cohen, S. & Plomin, R. (2006) Genetic heterogeneity between the three components of the autism spectrum: A twin study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45(6):691–99.Google Scholar
Roof, E., Stone, W., MacLean, W., Feurer, I. D., Thompson, T. & Butler, M. G. (2000) Intellectual characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome: Comparison of genetic subtypes. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 44:2530.Google Scholar
Ross, C. A., Margolis, R. L., Reading, S. A. J., Pletnikov, M. & Coyle, J. T. (2006a) Neurobiology of schizophrenia. Neuron 52:139–53.Google Scholar
Ross, R. G., Heinlein, S. & Tregellas, H. (2006b) High rates of comorbidity are found in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 88:9095.Google Scholar
Rubenstein, J. L. & Merzenich, M. M. (2003) Model of autism: Increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes, Brain, and Behavior 2:255–67.Google Scholar
Russell, T. A., Reynaud, E., Herba, C., Morris, R. & Corcoran, R. (2006) Do you see what I see? Interpretations of intentional movement in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 81:101–11.Google Scholar
Sacco, R., Militerni, R., Frolli, A., Bravaccio, C., Gritti, A., Elia, M., Curatolo, P., Manzi, B., Trillo, S., Lenti, C., Saccani, M., Schneider, C., Melmed, R., Reichelt, K. L., Pascucci, T., Puglisi-Allegra, S. & Persico, A. M. (2007) Clinical, morphological, and biochemical correlates of head circumference in autism. Biological Psychiatry 62:1038–47.Google Scholar
Sack, A. T., van de Ven Vincent, G., Etschenberg, S., Schatz, D. & Linden, D. E. J. (2005) Enhanced vividness of mental imagery as a trait marker of schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 31:97104.Google Scholar
Sahoo, T., Peters, S. U., Madduri, N. S., Glaze, D. G., German, J. R., Bird, L. M., Barbieri-Welge, R., Bichell, T. J., Beaudet, A. L. & Bacino, C. A. (2006) Microarray based comparative genomic hybridization testing in deletion bearing patients with Angelman syndrome: Genotype-phenotype correlations. Journal of Medical Genetics 43:512–16.Google Scholar
Salazar-Fraile, J., Tabarés-Seisdedos, R., Selva-Vera, G., Balanzá-Martinez, V., Martínez-Aran, A., Catalán, J., Baldeweg, T., Vilela-Soler, C., Leal-Cercós, C., Vieta, E. & Gomez-Beneyto, M. (2004) Recall and recognition confabulation in psychotic and bipolar disorders: Evidence for two different types without unitary mechanisms. Comprehensive Psychiatry 45:281–82.Google Scholar
Salem, J. E. & Kring, A. M. (1998) The role of gender differences in the reduction of etiologic heterogeneity in schizophrenia. Clinical Psychology Review 18:795819.Google Scholar
Samaco, R. C., Hogart, A. & LaSalle, J. M. (2005) Epigenetic overlap in autism-spectrum neurodevelopmental disorders: MECP2 deficiency causes reduced expression of UBE3A and GABRB3. Human Molecular Genetics 14:483–92.Google Scholar
Samaco, R. C., Nagarajan, R. P., Braunschweig, D. & LaSalle, J. M. (2004) Multiple pathways regulate MeCP2 expression in normal brain development and exhibit defects in autism-spectrum disorders. Human Molecular Genetics 13:629–39.Google Scholar
Sander, D., Grafman, J. & Zalla, T. (2003) The human amygdala: An evolved system for relevance detection. Reviews in the Neurosciences 14:306–16.Google Scholar
Sass, L. A. & Parnas, J. (2003) Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self. Schizophrenia Bulleti