Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-pjpqr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-16T07:24:25.947Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 June 2008

Bernard Crespi
Killam Research Professor, Department of Biosciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canadacrespi@sfu.ca
Christopher Badcock
Department of Sociology, London School of Economics, London WC2A 2AE, United


Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also exhibit diametric patterns for traits related to social brain development, including aspects of gaze, agency, social cognition, local versus global processing, language, and behavior. Social cognition is thus underdeveloped in autistic-spectrum conditions and hyper-developed on the psychotic spectrum.;>We propose and evaluate a novel hypothesis that may help to explain these diametric phenotypes: that the development of these two sets of conditions is mediated in part by alterations of genomic imprinting. Evidence regarding the genetic, physiological, neurological, and psychological underpinnings of psychotic-spectrum conditions supports the hypothesis that the etiologies of these conditions involve biases towards increased relative effects from imprinted genes with maternal expression, which engender a general pattern of undergrowth. By contrast, autistic-spectrum conditions appear to involve increased relative bias towards effects of paternally expressed genes, which mediate overgrowth. This hypothesis provides a simple yet comprehensive theory, grounded in evolutionary biology and genetics, for understanding the causes and phenotypes of autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions.

Main Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abel, K. M. (2004) Foetal origins of schizophrenia: Testable hypotheses of genetic and environmental influences. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:383–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abel, K. M. & Allin, M. (2006) Placental programming leading to mental ill health: Fetal growth and schizophrenia. In: The placenta and neurodisability, ed. Baker, P. & Sibley, C., pp. 118–36. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., Wieduwilt, K., Wolpert, C. M., Donnelly, S. A., Pericak-Vance, M. A. & Cuccaro, M. L. (2005) The relationship between restrictive and repetitive behaviors in individuals with autism and obsessive compulsive symptoms in parents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 36:155–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abu-Akel, A. (1999) Impaired theory of mind in schizophrenia. Pragmatics and Cognition 7:247–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abu-Akel, A. & Abushua'leh, K. (2004) “Theory of mind” in violent and nonviolent patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 69:4553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abu-Akel, A. & Bailey, A. L. (2000) The possibility of different forms of theory of mind impairment in psychiatric and developmental disorders [Letter to the editor]. Psychological Medicine 30:735–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adolphs, R., Baron-Cohen, S. & Tranel, D. (2002) Impaired recognition of social emotions following amygdala damage. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14:1264–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adolphs, R., Gosselin, F., Buchanan, T. W., Tranel, D., Schyns, P. & Damasio, A. R. (2005) A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature 433:6872.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akefeldt, A., Ekman, R., Gillberg, C. & Mansson, J. E. (1998) Cerebrospinal fluid monoamines in Prader-Willi syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 44:1321–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Akhondzadeh, S., Rezaei, F., Larijani, B., Nejatisafa, A. A., Kashani, L. & Abbasi, S. H. (2006) Correlation between testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin and severity of negative symptoms in male patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 84:405–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aleman, A. & Kahn, R. S. (2005) Strange feelings: Do amygdala abnormalities dysregulate the emotional brain in schizophrenia? Progress in Neurobiology 77:283–98.Google ScholarPubMed
Aleman, A., Kahn, R. S. & Selten, J. P. (2003) Sex differences in risk for schizophrenia: Evidence from meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:565–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, A. L., Lee, J. E., Lazar, M., Boudos, R., Dubray, M. B., Oakes, T. R., Miller, J. N., Lu, J., Jeong, E., McMahon, W. M., Bigler, E. D. & Lainhart, J. E. (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in autism. NeuroImage 34:6173.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alexander, R. D. (1979) Darwinism and human affairs. Pitman.Google Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1987) The biology of moral systems. Aldine De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Alexander, R. D. (1989) Evolution of the human psyche. In: The human revolution: Behavioural and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans, ed. Mellars, P. & Stringer, C., pp. 455513. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
Anderson, G. M., Jacobs-Stannard, A., Chawarska, K., Volkmar, F. R. & Kliman, H. J. (2007) Placental trophoblast inclusions in autism spectrum disorder. Biological Psychiatry 61:487–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andersson, M. B. (1994) Sexual selection. Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angiolini, E., Fowden, A., Coan, P., Sandovici, I., Smith, P., Dean, W., Burton, G., Tycko, B., Reik, W., Sibley, C. & Constância, M. (2006) Regulation of placental efficiency for nutrient transport by imprinted genes. Placenta 27(A):98102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antshel, K. M., Aneja, A., Strunge, L., Peebles, J., Fremont, W. P., Stallone, K., Abdulsabur, N., Higgins, A. M., Shprintzen, R. J. & Kates, W. R. (2007) Autistic spectrum disorders in velo-cardio facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1776–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arató, M., Frecska, E., Beck, C., An, M. & Kiss, H. (2004) Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28:191–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbelle, S., Sigman, M. D. & Kasari, C. (1994) Compliance with parental prohibition in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24:693702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbib, M. A. & Mundhenk, T. N. (2005) Schizophrenia and the mirror system: An essay. Neuropsychologia 43:268–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Asperger, H. (1991) Autistic psychopathy in childhood. In: Autism and asperger syndrome, ed. Frith, U.. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Atlas, J. A. & Lapidus, L. B. (1987) Patterns of symbolic expression in subgroups of the childhood psychoses. Journal of Clinical Psychology 43:177–88.3.0.CO;2-9>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Avila, M., Thaker, G. & Adami, H. (2001) Genetic epidemiology and schizophrenia: A study of reproductive fitness. Schizophrenia Research 47:233–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bachmann, S., Pantel, J., Flender, A., Bottmer, C., Essig, M. & Schroder, J. (2003) Corpus callosum in first-episode patients with schizophrenia – A magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychological Medicine 33:1019–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badcock, C. R. (2000) Evolutionary psychology: A critical introduction. Polity Press.Google Scholar
Badcock, C. R. (2004) Mentalism and mechanism: The twin modes of human cognition. In: Human nature and social values: Implications of evolutionary psychology for public policy, ed. Crawford, C. & Salmon, C., pp. 99116. Erlbaum. (Published online in 2002).Google Scholar
Badcock, C. & Crespi, B. (2006) Imbalanced genomic imprinting in brain development: An evolutionary basis for the aetiology of autism. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1007–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baethge, C., Baldessarini, R. J., Freudenthal, K., Streeruwitz, A., Bauer, M. & Bschor, T. (2005) Hallucinations in bipolar disorder: Characteristics and comparison to unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders 7:136–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bailey, A. A. & Hurd, P. L. (2005) Depression in men is associated with more feminine finger length ratios. Personality and Individual Differences 39: 829–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barak, Y., Achiron, A., Mandel, M., Mirecki, I. & Aizenberg, D. (2005) Reduced cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia. Cancer 104:2817–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, K. J. & Corballis, M. C. (2002) Ambidexterity and magical ideation. Laterality 7:7584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, K. J., Corballis, M. C. & Kirk, I. J. (2005) Symmetry of callosal information transfer in schizophrenia: A preliminary study. Schizophrenia Research 74:171–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, K. J. & Kirk, I. J. (2005) Lack of asymmetrical transfer for linguistic stimuli in schizophrenia: An ERP study. Clinical Neurophysiology 116:1019–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (2002) The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:248–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S. (2003) The essential difference: The truth about the male and female brain. Basic Books/Penguin.Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. & Belmonte, M. K. (2005) Autism: A window onto the development of the social and the analytic brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 28:109–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S., Knickmeyer, R. C. & Belmonte, M. K. (2005) Sex differences in the brain: Implications for explaining autism. Science 310:819–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Bullmore, E. T., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C. & Williams, S. C. (2000) The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:355–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J. & Clubley, E. (2001) The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:517.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2004) Creativity and madness revisited from current psychological perspectives. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11:5878.Google Scholar
Bassett, A. S., Bury, A., Hodgkinson, K. A. & Honer, W. G. (1996) Reproductive fitness in familial schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 21:151–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayliss, A. P., di Pellegrino, G. & Tipper, S. P. (2005) Sex differences in eye gaze and symbolic cueing of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 58:631–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Behrendt, R. P. (2004) A neuroanatomical model of passivity phenomena. Consciousness and Cognition 13:579609.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bejerot, S. (2007) An autistic dimension: A proposed subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Autism 11:101–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bejerot, S. & Nylander, L. (2003) Low prevalence of smoking in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Psychiatry Research 119:177–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bellgrove, M. A., Vance, A. & Bradshaw, J. L. (2003) Local-global processing in early-onset schizophrenia: Evidence for an impairment in shifting the spatial scale of attention. Brain and Cognition 51:4865.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belmonte, M. K., Allen, G., Beckel-Mitchener, A., Boulanger, L. M., Carper, R. A. & Webb, S. J. (2004a) Autism and abnormal development of brain connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience 24:9228–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belmonte, M. K. & Bourgeron, T. (2006) Fragile X syndrome and autism at the intersection of genetic and neural networks. Nature Neuroscience 9:1221–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belmonte, M. K., Cook, E. H. Jr., Anderson, G. M., Rubenstein, J. L., Greenough, W. T., Beckel-Mitchener, A., Courchesne, E., Boulanger, L. M., Powell, S. B., Levitt, P. R., Perry, E. K., Jiang, Y. H., DeLorey, T. M. & Tierney, E. (2004b) Autism as a disorder of neural information processing: Directions for research and targets for therapy. Molecular Psychiatry 9:646–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benes, F. M. & Berretta, S. (2001) GABAergic interneurons: Implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:127.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ben Shalom, D. (2000) Developmental depersonalization: The prefrontal cortex and self-functions in autism. Consciousness and Cognition 9:457–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P. (2003a) Madness explained: Psychosis and human nature. Allen Lane.Google Scholar
Bentall, R. P. (2003b) The paranoid self. In: The self in neuroscience and psychiatry, ed. Kircher, T. & David, A., pp. 293318. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Berretta, S., Munno, D. W. & Benes, F. M. (2001) Amygdalar activation alters the hippocampal GABA system: “Partial” modelling for postmortem changes in schizophrenia. Journal of Comparative Neurology 431:129–38.3.0.CO;2-6>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bersani, G., Maneschi, M. L., Tarolla, E. & Pancheri, P. (2006) Dyslexia as a possible aspect of neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:265–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertella, L., Girelli, L., Grugni, G., Marchi, S., Molinari, E. & Semenza, C. (2005) Mathematical skills in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49:159–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bertone, A., Mottron, L., Jelenic, P. & Faubert, J. (2005) Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain 128:2430–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bigler, E. D., Mortensen, S., Neeley, E. S., Ozonoff, S., Krasny, L., Johnson, M., Lu, J., Provencal, S. L., McMahon, W. & Lainhart, J. E. (2007) Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism. Developmental Neuropsychology 31:217–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birchwood, M., Gilbert, P., Gilbert, J., Trower, P., Meaden, A., Hay, J., Murray, E. & Miles, J. N. (2004) Interpersonal and role-related schema influence the relationship with the dominant “voice” in schizophrenia: A comparison of three models. Psychological Medicine 34:1571–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittel, D. C. & Butler, M. G. (2005) Prader-Willi syndrome: Clinical genetics, cytogenetics and molecular biology. Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine 7:120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bittel, D. C., Kibiryeva, N., Talebizadeh, Z. & Butler, M. G. (2003) Microarray analysis of gene/transcript expression in Prader-Willi syndrome: Deletion versus UPD. Journal of Medical Genetics 40:568–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blackwood, D. H. R., Pickard, B. J., Thomson, P. A., Evans, K. L., Porteous, D. J. & Muir, W. J. (2007) Are some genetic risk factors common to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression? Evidence from DISC1, GRIK4 and NRG1. Neurotoxicity Research 11:7383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blackwood, N. J., Howard, R. J., Bentall, R. P. & Murray, R. M. (2001) Cognitive neuropsychiatric models of persecutory delusions. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:527–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blair, R. J. R. (2005) Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition 14:698718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanc, R., Adrien, J. L., Roux, S. & Barthélémy, C. (2005) Dysregulation of pretend play and communication development in children with autism. Autism 9:229–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanton, R. E., Levitt, J. G., Peterson, J. R., Fadale, D., Sporty, M. L., Lee, M., To, D., Mormino, E. C., Thompson, P. M., McCracken, J. T. & Toga, A. W. (2004) Gender differences in the left inferior frontal gyrus in normal children. NeuroImage 22:626–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boks, M. P., de Vette, M. H., Sommer, I. E., van Rijn, S., Giltay, J. C., Swaab, H. & Kahn, R. S. (2007a) Psychiatric morbidity and X-chromosomal origin in a Klinefelter sample. Schizophrenia Research 93:399402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boks, M. P., Leask, S., Vermunt, J. K. & Kahn, R. S. (2007b) The structure of psychosis revisited: The role of mood symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 93:178–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bölte, S. & Poustka, F. (2006) The broader cognitive phenotype of autism in parents: How specific is the tendency for local processing and executive dysfunction? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:639–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boucher, J. (2007) Memory and generativity in very high functioning autism: A firsthand account, and an interpretation. Autism 11:255–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowler, D. M. (1992) “Theory of mind” in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 33:877–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, J. L. & Nettleton, N. C. (1983) Human cerebral asymmetry. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Brake, W. G., Sullivan, R. M. & Gratton, A. (2000) Perinatal distress leads to lateralized medial prefrontal cortical dopamine hypofunction in adult rats. Journal of Neuroscience 20:5538–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brambilla, P., Cerini, R., Gasparini, A., Versace, A., Andreone, N., Vittorini, E., Barbui, C., Pelizza, L., Nosè, M., Barlocco, L., Marrella, G., Gregis, M., Tournikioti, K., David, A. S., Keshavan, M. S. & Tansella, M. (2005) Investigation of corpus callosum in schizophrenia with diffusion imaging. Schizophrenia Research 79:201–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brambilla, P., Hardan, A. Y., di Nemi, S. U., Caverzasi, E., Soares, J. C., Perez, J. & Barale, F. (2004) The functional neuroanatomy of autism. Functional Neurology 19:917.Google ScholarPubMed
Broks, P. (1997) Brain, self, and others: The neuropsychology of social cognition. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. Claridge, G., pp. 98123. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brothers, L. (1990) The social brain: A project for integrating primate behavior and neurophysiology in a new domain. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:2751.Google Scholar
Brown, W. M. (2001) Genomic imprinting and the cognitive architecture mediating human culture. Journal of Cognition and Culture 1:251–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Browne, K. R. (2005) Women in science: Biological factors should not be ignored. Cardozo's Women's Law Journal 11:509–28.Google Scholar
Brugger, P. (2001) From haunted brain to haunted science: A cognitive neuroscience view of paranormal and pseudoscientific thought. In: Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives, ed. Houran, J. & Lange, R., pp. 195213. McFarland.Google Scholar
Brugger, P. & Graves, R. E. (1997a) Right hemispatial inattention and magical ideation. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 247:5557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brugger, P. & Graves, R. E. (1997b) Testing vs. believing hypothesis: Magical ideation in the judgement of contingencies. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2:251–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brüne, M. (2004) Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:4153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brüne, M. & Brüne-Cohrs, U. (2006) Theory of mind – Evolution, ontogeny, brain mechanisms and psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30:437–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brunet, A., Datta, S. R. & Greenberg, M. E. (2001) Transcription-dependent and -independent control of neuronal survival by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 11:297305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brunet-Gouet, E. & Decety, J. (2006) Social brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia: A review of neuroimaging studies. Psychiatry Research 148:7592.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buck, C., Hobbs, G. E., Simpson, H. & Wanklin, J. M. (1975) Fertility of the sibs of schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry 127:235–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burd, L. & Kerbeshian, J. (1988) Familial pervasive development disorder, Tourette disorder and hyperlexia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 12:233–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burgess, N., Maguire, E. A. & O'Keefe, J. (2002) The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron 35:625–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bürgy, M. (2007) Obsession in the strict sense: A helpful psychopathological phenomenon in the differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. Psychopathology 40:102–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, J. K. (2004) An evolutionary theory of schizophrenia: Cortical connectivity, metarepresentation, and the social brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:831–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burns, J. K. (2006a) Psychosis: A costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 30:797814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bursch, B., Ingman, K., Vitti, L., Hyman, P. & Zeltzer, L. K. (2004) Chronic pain in individuals with previously undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Pain 5:290–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burt, A. & Trivers, R. (2006) Genes in conflict: The biology of selfish genetic elements. Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butler, M. G., Dasouki, M. J., Zhou, X. P., Talebizadeh, Z., Brown, M., Takahashi, T. N., Miles, J. H., Wang, C. H., Stratton, R., Pilarski, R. & Eng, C. (2005) Subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and extreme macrocephaly associated with germline PTEN tumour suppressor gene mutations. Journal of Medical Genetics 42:318–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cahill, L., Uncapher, M., Kilpatrick, L., Alkire, M. T. & Turner, J. (2004) Sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: An fMRI investigation. Learning and Memory 11:261–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caligiuri, M. P., Hellige, J. B., Cherry, B. J., Kwok, W., Lulow, L. L. & Lohr, J. B. (2005) Lateralized cognitive dysfunction and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 80:151–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Camisa, K. M., Bockbrader, M. A., Lysaker, P., Rae, L. L., Brenner, C. A. & O'Donnell, B. F. (2005) Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders. Psychiatry Research 133:2333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cannon, M., Jones, P. B., Gilvarry, C., Rifkin, L., McKenzie, K., Foerster, A. & Murray, R. M. (1997) Premorbid social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Similarities and differences. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:1544–50.Google ScholarPubMed
Cannon, M., Jones, P. B. & Murray, R. M. (2002) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: Historical and meta-analytic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1080–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cannon, T. D., Rosso, I. M., Hollister, J. M., Bearden, C. E., Sanchez, L. E. & Hadley, T. (2000) A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in the etiology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 26:351–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Capps, L., Kasari, C., Yirmiya, N. & Sigman, M. (1993) Parental perception of emotional expressiveness in children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61:475–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carper, R. A., Moses, P., Tigue, Z. D. & Courchesne, E. (2002) Cerebral lobes in autism: Early hyperplasia and abnormal age effects. NeuroImage 16:1038–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, J. M. & Chiew, K. Y. (2006) Sex and discipline differences in empathising, systemising and autistic symptomatology: Evidence from a student population. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:949–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carter, C. S., Robertson, L. C., Nordahl, T. E., Chaderjian, M. & Oshora-Celaya, L. (1996) Perceptual and attentional asymmetries in schizophrenia: Further evidence for a left hemisphere deficit. Psychiatry Research 62:111–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cascio, C., McGlone, F., Folger, S., Tannan, V., Baranek, G., Pelphrey, K. A. & Essick, G. (2008) Tactile perception in adults with autism: A multidimensional psychophysical study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:127–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castelli, F. (2005) Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism 9:428–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castelli, F., Frith, C., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2002) Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain: A Journal of Neurology 125:1839–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Catalano, P. M. & Kirwan, J. P. (2001) Maternal factors that determine neonatal size and body fat. Current Diabetes Reports 1:7177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cattanach, B. M., Beechey, C. V. & Peters, J. (2004) Interactions between imprinting effects in the mouse. Genetics 168:397413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cederlund, M. & Gillberg, C. (2004) One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: A clinical study of background and associated factors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 46:652–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cerrato, F., Sparago, A., Di Matteo, I., Zou, X., Dean, W., Sasaki, H., Smith, P., Genesio, R., Bruggemann, M., Reik, W. & Riccio, A. (2005) The two-domain hypothesis in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: Autonomous imprinting of the telomeric domain of the distal chromosome 7 cluster. Human Molecular Genetics 14:503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. & Mead, A. P. (1953) Social behaviour and primate evolution. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 7:395439.Google Scholar
Chance, S. A., Esiri, M. M. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Macroscopic brain asymmetry is changed along the antero-posterior axis in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 74:163–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charalambous, M., Smith, F. M., Bennett, W. R., Crew, T. E., Mackenzie, F. & Ward, A. (2003) Disruption of the imprinted GRB10 gene leads to disproportionate overgrowth by an IGF2-independent mechanism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:8292–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, F., Planche, P., Lemonnier, E. & Lazartigues, A. (2007) How could language interact with visuo-spatial performance in autism? Medical Hypotheses 69:695–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, M., Haluzik, M., Wolf, N. J., Lorenzo, J., Dietz, K. R., Reitman, M. L. & Weinstein, L. S. (2004) Increased insulin sensitivity in paternal GNAS knockout mice is associated with increased lipid clearance. Endocrinology 145:40944102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, Y., Bidwell, L. C. & Holzman, P. S. (2005) Visual motion integration in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and patients with bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research 74:271–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, Y., Tzeng, O. J. L., Decety, J., Imada, T. & Hsieh, J. (2006) Gender differences in the human mirror system: A magnetoencephalography study. Neuroreport 17:1115–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chi, J. G., Dooling, E. C. & Gilles, F. H. (1977) Gyral development of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 1:8693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiron, C., Leboyer, M., Leon, F., Jambaqué, I., Nuttin, C. & Syrota, A. (1995) SPECT of the brain in childhood autism: Evidence for a lack of normal hemispheric asymmetry. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 37:849–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christoff, K., Ream, J. M. & Gabrieli, J. D. (2004) Neural basis of spontaneous thought processes. Cortex 40:623–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chua, S. E., Wright, I. C., Poline, J. B., Liddle, P. F., Murray, R. M., Frackowiak, R. S., Friston, K. J. & McGuire, P. K. (1997) Grey matter correlates of syndromes in schizophrenia: A semi-automated analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. British Journal of Psychiatry 170:406–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claridge, G. (1997) Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Claridge, G. & Beech, T. (1995) Fully and quasi-dimensional constructions of schizotypy. In: Schizotypal personality, ed. Raine, A., Lencz, T. & Mednick, S. A., pp. 192216. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Claridge, G., Clark, K. & Davis, C. (1997) Nightmares, dreams, and schizotypy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 36:377–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Claridge, G., Pryor, R. & Watkins, G. (1990) Sounds from the bell jar: Ten psychotic authors. Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coan, P. M., Burton, G. J. & Ferguson-Smith, A. C. (2005) Imprinted genes in the placenta – A review. Placenta 26(Suppl. A):S1020.Google ScholarPubMed
Cody, H., Pelphrey, K. & Piven, J. (2002) Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 20:421–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, D., Pichard, N., Tordjman, S., Baumann, C., Burglen, L., Excoffier, E., Lazar, G., Mazet, P., Pinquier, C., Verloes, A. & Héron, D. (2005) Specific genetic disorders and autism: Clinical contribution towards their identification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35:103–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collinson, S. L., Mackay, C. E., James, A. C., Quested, D. J., Phillips, T., Roberts, N. & Crow, T. J. (2003) Brain volume, asymmetry and intellectual impairment in relation to sex in early-onset schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 183:114–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Condray, R. (2005) Language disorder in schizophrenia as a developmental learning disorder. Schizophrenia Research 73:520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Connolly, A. M., Chez, M., Streif, E. M., Keeling, R. M., Golumbek, P. T., Kwon, J. M., Riviello, J. J., Robinson, R. G., Neuman, R. J. & Deuel, R. M. (2006) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and autoantibodies to neural antigens in sera of children with autistic spectrum disorders, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and epilepsy. Biological Psychiatry 59:354–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Constantino, J. N. & Todd, R. D. (2005) Intergenerational transmission of subthreshold autistic traits in the general population. Biological Psychiatry 57:655–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conti-Ramsden, G., Simkin, Z. & Botting, N. (2006) The prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 47:621–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costello, E. J., Worthman, C., Erkanli, A. & Angold, A. (2007) Prediction from low birth weight to female adolescent depression: A test of competing hypotheses. Archives of General Psychiatry 64:338–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E. (2004) Brain development in autism: Early overgrowth followed by premature arrest of growth. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 10:106–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E. & Pierce, K. (2005a) Brain overgrowth in autism during a critical time in development: Implications for frontal pyramidal neuron and interneuron development and connectivity. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 23:153–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E. & Pierce, K. (2005b) Why the frontal cortex in autism might be talking only to itself: Local over-connectivity but long-distance disconnection. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 15:225–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E., Redcay, E. & Kennedy, D. P. (2004) The autistic brain: Birth through adulthood. Current Opinion in Neurology 17:489–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N. A., Saitoh, O., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, A. J., James, H. E., Haas, R. H., Schreibman, L. & Lau, L. (1994) Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behavioral Neuroscience 108:848–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craddock, N. & Forty, L. (2006) Genetics of affective (mood) disorders. European Journal of Human Genetics 14:660–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craig, J. & Baron-Cohen, S. (1999) Creativity and imagination in autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29:319–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Craig, J. S., Hatton, C., Craig, F. B. & Bentall, R. P. (2004) Persecutory beliefs, attributions and theory of mind: Comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls. Schizophrenia Research 69:2933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespi, B. J. (2000) The evolution of maladaptation. Heredity 84:623–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespi, B. J. (2006) The natural selection of psychosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:410–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crespi, B. & Semeniuk, C. (2004) Parent-offspring conflict in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode. American Naturalist 163:635–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crespi, B., Summers, K. & Dorus, S. (2007) Adaptive evolution of genes underlying schizophrenia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274:2801–810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (1995) A Darwinian approach to the origins of psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 167:1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1997) Schizophrenia as failure of hemispheric dominance for language. Trends in Neurosciences 20:339–43.Google ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (1998) From Kraepelin to Kretschmer leavened by Schneider: The transition from categories to psychosis to dimensions of variation intrinsic to Homo sapiens. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:502504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2000) Schizophrenia as the price that Homo sapiens pays for language: A resolution of the central paradox in the origin of the species. Brain Research Reviews 31:118–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2004a) Auditory hallucinations as primary disorders of syntax: An evolutionary theory of the origins of language. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 9:125–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (2004b) Cerebral asymmetry and the lateralization of language: Core deficits in schizophrenia as pointers to the gene. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 17:97106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J. (2004c) What Marian Annett can teach Noam Chomsky and could have taught Stephen Jay Gould if he'd had time to listen. Cortex 40:120–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crow, T. J., Crow, L. R., Done, D. J. & Leask, S. (1998) Relative hand skill predicts academic ability: Global deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia 36:1275–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J., Done, D. J. & Sacker, A. (1996) Cerebral lateralization is delayed in children who later develop schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 22:181–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cunnane, S. C. & Crawford, M. A. (2003) Survival of the fattest: Fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology 136:1726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curley, J. P., Barton, S., Surani, A. & Keverne, E. B. (2004) Coadaptation in mother and infant regulated by a paternally expressed imprinted gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 271:1303–309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalton, K. M., Nacewicz, B. M., Johnstone, T., Schaefer, H. S., Gernsbacher, M. A., Goldsmith, H. H., Alexander, A. L. & Davidson, R. J. (2005a) Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nature Neuroscience 8:519–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalton, S. O., Mellemkjaer, L., Thomassen, L., Mortensen, P. B. & Johansen, C. (2005b) Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969–1993. Schizophrenia Research 75:315–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dan, B. & Boyd, S. G. (2003) Angelman syndrome reviewed from a neurophysiological perspective. The UBE3A-GABRB3 hypothesis. Neuropediatrics 34:169–76.Google ScholarPubMed
Dapretto, M., Davies, M. S., Pfeifer, J. H., Scott, A. A., Sigman, M., Bookheimer, S. Y. & Iacoboni, M. (2006) Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nature Neuroscience 9:2830.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, P., Kemp, A. H., Flynn, G., Harris, A. W. F., Liddell, B. J., Whitford, T. J., Peduto, A., Gordon, E. & Williams, L. M. (2007) Functional disconnections in the direct and indirect amygdala pathways for fear processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 90:284–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, W., Isles, A. R., Burgoyne, P. S. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2006) X-linked imprinting: Effects on brain and behaviour. Bioessays 28:3544.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, W., Isles, A. R., Smith, R., Karunadasa, D., Burrmann, D., Humby, T., Ojarikre, O., Biggin, C., Skuse, D., Burgoyne, P. & Wilkinson, L. (2005) Xlr3b is a new imprinted candidate for X-linked parent-of-origin effects on cognitive function in mice. Nature Genetics 37:625–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davies, W., Isles, A. R. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2001) Imprinted genes and mental dysfunction. Annals of Medicine 33:428–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J. O., Phelps, J. A. & Bracha, H. S. (1995) Prenatal development of monozygotic twins and concordance for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 21:357–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, P. J. & Gibson, M. G. (2000) Recognition of posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:445–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Fossé, L., Hodge, S. M., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Caviness, V. S. Jr., McGrath, L., Steele, S., Ziegler, D. A., Herbert, M. R., Frazier, J. A., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Harris, G. J. (2004) Language-association cortex asymmetry in autism and specific language impairment. Annals of Neurology 56:757–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de la Fuente-Sandoval, C., Portillo, V., Fresán, A. & Apiquian, R. (2005) Replication of a computer model of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Actas Españolas De Psiquiatría 33:141–46.Google ScholarPubMed
De Luca, V., Wong, A. H. C., Muller, D. J., Wong, G. W. H., Tyndale, R. F. & Kennedy, J. L. (2004) Evidence of association between smoking and alpha7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene in schizophrenia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1522–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeLisi, L. E., Maurizio, A. M., Svetina, C., Ardekani, B., Szulc, K., Nierenberg, J., Leonard, J. & Harvey, P. D. (2005) Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) as a genetic model for psychotic disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 135:1523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeLisi, L. E., Svetina, C., Razi, K., Shields, G., Wellman, N. & Crow, T. J. (2002) Hand preference and hand skill in families with schizophrenia. Laterality 7:321–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deng, Y., Bhattacharya, S., Swamy, O. R., Tandon, R., Wang, Y., Janda, R. & Riedel, H. (2003) Growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (GRB10) as a partner of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in metabolic insulin action. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278:39311–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devriendt, K. (2005) Hydatidiform mole and triploidy: The role of genomic imprinting in placental development. Human Reproduction Update 11:137–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DiCicco-Bloom, E., Lord, C., Zwaigenbaum, L., Courchesne, E., Dager, S. R., Schmitz, C., Schultz, R. T., Crawley, J. & Young, L. J. (2006) The developmental neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder. The Journal of Neuroscience 26:68976906.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dinn, W. M., Harris, C. L., Aycicegi, A., Greene, P. & Andover, M. S. (2002) Positive and negative schizotypy in a student sample: Neurocognitive and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Research 56:171–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dissanayake, C., Bui, Q. M., Huggins, R. & Loesch, D. Z. (2006) Growth in stature and head circumference in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder during the first 3 years of life. Development and Psychopathology 18:381–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dolinoy, D. C., Weidman, J. R. & Jirtle, R. L. (2006) Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease. Reproductive Toxicology 23:297307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dollfus, S., Razafimandimby, A., Delamillieure, P., Brazo, P., Joliot, M., Mazoyer, B. & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2005) Atypical hemispheric specialization for language in right-handed schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry 57:1020–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downhill, J. E. Jr., Buchsbaum, M. S., Wei, T., Spiegel-Cohen, J., Hazlett, E. A., Haznedar, M. M., Silverman, J. & Siever, L. J. (2000) Shape and size of the corpus callosum in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research 42:193208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Downs, A. & Smith, T. (2004) Emotional understanding, cooperation, and social behavior in high-functioning children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:625–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dunger, D. B., Petry, C. J. & Ong, K. K. (2006) Genetic variations and normal fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(3):3440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dykens, E. M., Hodapp, R. M. & Finucane, B. M. (2000) Genetics and mental retardation syndromes: A new look at behavior and interventions. Brookes.Google Scholar
Dykes, M. & McGhie, A. (1976) A comparative study of attentional strategies of schizophrenic and highly creative normal subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry 128:5056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Edgar, J. C., Yeo, R. A., Gangestad, S. W., Blake, M. B., Davis, J. T., Lewine, J. D. & Cañive, J. M. (2006) Reduced auditory M100 asymmetry in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Applying a developmental instability approach to assess atypical brain asymmetry. Neuropsychologia 44:289–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Egaas, B., Courchesne, E. & Saitoh, O. (1995) Reduced size of corpus callosum in autism. Archives of Neurology 52:794801.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eggermann, T., Meyer, E., Obermann, C., Heil, I., Schüler, H., Ranke, M. B., Eggermann, K. & Wollmann, H. A. (2005) Is maternal duplication of 11p15 associated with Silver-Russell syndrome? Journal of Medical Genetics 42:e26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eggermann, T., Schönherr, N., Meyer, E., Obermann, C., Mavany, M., Eggermann, K., Ranke, M. B. & Wollmann, H. A. (2006) Epigenetic mutations in 11p15 in Silver-Russell syndrome are restricted to the telomeric imprinting domain. Journal of Medical Genetics 43:615–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eliez, S. (2007) Autism in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46:433–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eliez, S. & van Amelsvoort, T. (2005) Neuroimaging in velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A model for understanding microdeletion disorders ed. Murphy, K. C. & Scambler, P. J., pp. 165–80. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellison, Z., van Os, J. & Murray, R. (1998) Special feature: Childhood personality characteristics of schizophrenia: Manifestations of, or risk factors for, the disorder? Journal of Personality Disorders 12:247–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emamian, E. S., Hall, D., Birnbaum, M. J., Karayiorgou, M. & Gogos, J. A. (2004) Convergent evidence for impaired AKT1-GSK3beta signaling in schizophrenia. Nature Genetics 36:131–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Emery, N. J. (2000) The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24:581604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Endrass, T., Mohr, B. & Rockstroh, B. (2002) Reduced interhemispheric transmission in schizophrenia patients: Evidence from event-related potentials. Neuroscience Letters 320:5760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Engstrom, H. A., Ohlson, S., Stubbs, E. G., Maciulis, A., Caldwell, V., Odell, J. D. & Torres, A. R. (2003) Decreased expression of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) on CD4+ T-lymphocytes from participants with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 15:155–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escalante-Mead, P. R., Minshew, N. J. & Sweeney, J. A. (2003) Abnormal brain lateralization in high-functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:539–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fañanás, L. & Bertranpetit, J. (1995) Reproductive rates in families of schizophrenic patients in a case-control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:202204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fanous, A., Gardner, C., Walsh, D. & Kendler, K. S. (2001) Relationship between positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypal symptoms in nonpsychotic relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry 58:669–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fatemi, S. H. & Halt, A. R. (2001) Altered levels of Bcl2 and p53 proteins in parietal cortex reflect deranged apoptotic regulation in autism. Synapse 42:281–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feinstein, C., Eliez, S., Blasey, C. & Reiss, A. L. (2002) Psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: Usefulness as phenotypic indicators of schizophrenia risk. Biological Psychiatry 51:312–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feinstein, C. & Singh, S. (2007) Social phenotypes in neurogenetic syndromes. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:631–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fineberg, N. A., Saxena, S., Zohar, J. & Craig, K. J. (2007) Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Boundary issues. CNS Spectrums 12:359–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finger, E. C., Marsh, A. A., Kamel, N., Mitchell, D. G. V. & Blair, J. R. (2006) Caught in the act: The impact of audience on the neural response to morally and socially inappropriate behavior. NeuroImage 33:414–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fisher, J. E., Mohanty, A., Herrington, J. D., Koven, N. S., Miller, G. A. & Heller, W. (2004) Neuropsychological evidence for dimensional schizotypy: Implications for creativity and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality 38:2431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, R. A., Hodges, M. D., Rees, H. C., Sebire, N. J., Seckl, M. J., Newlands, E. S., Genest, D. R. & Castrillon, D. H. (2002) The maternally transcribed gene p57(KIP2) (CDNK1C) is abnormally expressed in both androgenetic and biparental complete hydatidiform moles. Human Molecular Genetics 11:3267–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fitzgerald, M. (2004) Autism and creativity: Is there a link between autism in men and exceptional ability? Brunner-Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzgerald, M. (2005) The genesis of artistic creativity: Asperger's syndrome and the arts. Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
Flagg, E. J., Cardy, J. E., Roberts, W. & Roberts, T. P. (2005) Language lateralization development in children with autism: Insights from the late field magnetoencephalogram. Neuroscience Letters 386:8287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fletcher, P. C., Happé, F., Frith, U., Baker, S. C., Dolan, R. J., Frackowiak, R. S. & Frith, C. D. (1995) Other minds in the brain: A functional imaging study of “theory of mind” in story comprehension. Cognition 57:109–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flor-Henry, P. (1969) Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. A controlled investigation. Epilepsia 10:363–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foley, R. A. & Lee, P. C. (1991) Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 334:223–31.Google ScholarPubMed
Folstein, S. E. & Rosen-Sheidley, B. (2001) Genetics of autism: Complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder. Nature Reviews. Genetics 2:943–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, K. R., Wenseleers, T., Ratnieks, F. L. W. & Queller, D. C. (2006) There is nothing wrong with inclusive fitness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:599600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowden, A. L., Sibley, C., Reik, W. & Constancia, M. (2006) Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth. Hormone Research 65(Suppl. 3):5058.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fox, R., Sinatra, R. B., Mooney, M. A., Feurer, I. D. & Butler, M. G. (1999) Visual capacity and Prader-Willi syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 36:331–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Franck, N., Daprati, E., Michel, F., Saoud, M., Daléry, J., Marie-Cardine, M. & Georgieff, N. (1998) Gaze discrimination is unimpaired in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 81:6775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Fisher, S. E., Laval, S. H., Rue, J. E., Stein, J. F. & Monaco, A. P. (2003a) Confirmatory evidence for linkage of relative hand skill to 2p12-q11. American Journal of Human Genetics 72:499502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francks, C., DeLisi, L. E., Shaw, S. H., Fisher, S. E., Richardson, A. J., Stein, J. F. & Monaco, A. P. (2003b) Parent-of-origin effects on handedness and schizophrenia susceptibility on chromosome 2p12-q11. Human Molecular Genetics 12:3225–30.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Francks, C., Maegawa, S., Lauren, J., Abrahams, B. S., Velayos-Baeza, A., Medland, S. E., Colella, S., Groszer, M., McAuley, E. Z., Caffrey, T. M., Timmusk, T., Pruunsild, P., Koppel, I., Lind, P. A., Matsumoto-Itaba, N., Nicod, J., Xiong, L., Joober, R., Enard, W., Krinsky, B., Nanba, E., Richardson, A. J., Riley, B. P., Martin, N. G., Strittmatter, S. M., Moller, H. J., Rujescu, D., St Clair, D., Muglia, P., Roos, J. L., Fisher, S. E., Wade-Martins, R., Rouleau, G. A., Stein, J. F., Karayiorgou, M., Geschwind, D. H., Ragoussis, J., Kendler, K. S., Airaksinen, M. S., Oshimura, M., Delisi, L. E. & Monaco, A. P. (2007) LRRTM1 on chromosome 2p12 is a maternally suppressed gene that is associated paternally with handedness and schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 12(12):1129–39, 1057.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. D. (1992) The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Psychology Press/Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (1996) The role of the prefrontal cortex in self-consciousness: The case of auditory hallucinations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 351:1505–12.Google ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. D. (2004) Schizophrenia and theory of mind. Psychological Medicine 34:385–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. D. (2005b) The self in action: Lessons from delusions of control. Consciousness and Cognition 14:752–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. D. & Allen, H. A. (1988) Language disorders in schizophrenia and their implications for neuropsychology. In: Schizophrenia: The major issues, ed. Bebbington, P. & McGuffin, P.. Heinemann.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D., Blakemore, S. J. & Wolpert, D. M. (2000) Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 355:1771–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, C. D. & Frith, U. (1991) Elective affinities in schizophrenia and childhood autism. In: Social psychiatry: Theory, methodology and practice, ed. Bebbington, P., pp. 6588. Transactions Press.Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. & Frith, U. (1999) Interacting minds – A biological basis. Science 286:1692–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frith, U. (2003) Autism: Explaining the enigma. Blackwell.Google Scholar
Frith, U. (2004) Emanuel Miller lecture: Confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:672–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frith, U. & Happé, F. (2005) Autism spectrum disorder. Current Biology 15:R786–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fukumoto, A., Hashimoto, T., Ito, H., Nishimura, M., Tsuda, Y., Miyazaki, M., Mori, K., Arisawa, K. & Kagami, S. (2008) Growth of head circumference in autistic infants during the first year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 38:411–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fults, D. W. (2005) Modeling medulloblastoma with genetically engineered mice. Neurosurgical Focus 19:E7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaebel, W. & Wölwer, W. (2004) Facial expressivity in the course of schizophrenia and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 254:335–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gagnon, R. (2003) Placental insufficiency and its consequences. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 110(1):S99107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galaburda, A. M. (1984) Anatomical asymmetries. In: Cerebral dominance, ed. Geschwind, N. & Galaburda, A. M., pp. 1125. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Gale, C. R. & Martyn, C. N. (2004) Birthweight and later risk of depression in a national birth cohort. British Journal of Psychiatry 184:2833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallese, V. (2006) Intentional attunement: A neurophysiological perspective on social cognition and its disruption in autism. Brain Research 1079:1524.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardiner, J. M. (2002) Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: A first-person approach. In: Episodic memory: New directions in research, ed. Baddeley, A., Aggleton, J. P. & Conway, M. A.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gardiner, J. M., Bowler, D. M. & Grice, S. J. (2003) Further evidence of preserved priming and impaired recall in adults with Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:259–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garrity, A. G., Pearlson, G. D., McKiernan, K., Lloyd, D., Kiehl, K. A. & Calhoun, V. D. (2007) Aberrant “default mode” functional connectivity in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 164:450–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ge, Y., Grossman, R. I., Babb, J. S., Rabin, M. L., Mannon, L. J. & Kolson, D. L. (2002) Age-related total gray matter and white matter changes in normal adult brain. Part I: Volumetric MR imaging analysis. American Journal of Neuroradiology 23:1327–33.Google ScholarPubMed
Gernsbacher, M. A., Dawson, M. & Mottron, L. (2006) Autism: Common, heritable, but not harmful. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:413–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geuze, E., Vermetten, E. & Bremner, J. D. (2005) MR-based in vivo hippocampal volumetrics: 2. Findings in neuropsychiatric disorders. Molecular Psychiatry 10:160–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gianotti, L. R., Mohr, C., Pizzagalli, D., Lehmann, D. & Brugger, P. (2001) Associative processing and paranormal belief. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 55:595603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, M. A. & Mace, R. (2003) Strong mothers bear more sons in rural Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 270(Suppl. 1):S108109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillessen-Kaesbach, G., Robinson, W., Lohmann, D., Kaya-Westerloh, S., Passarge, E. & Horsthemke, B. (1995) Genotype-phenotype correlation in a series of 167 deletion and non-deletion patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. Human Genetics 96:638–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gisabella, B., Bolshakov, V. Y. & Benes, F. M. (2005) Regulation of synaptic plasticity in a schizophrenia model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:13301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gläscher, J. & Adolphs, R. (2003) Processing of the arousal of subliminal and supraliminal emotional stimuli by the human amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience 23:10274–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goel, V., Grafman, J., Sadato, N. & Hallett, M. (1995) Modeling other minds. Neuroreport 6:1741–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goghari, V. M., Rehm, K., Carter, C. S. & Macdonald, A. W. III (2007) Regionally specific cortical thinning and gray matter abnormalities in the healthy relatives of schizophrenia patients. Cerebral Cortex 17:415–24.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldacre, M. J., Kurina, L. M., Wotton, C. J., Yeates, D. & Seagroat, V. (2005) Schizophrenia and cancer: An epidemiological study. British Journal of Psychiatry 187:334–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, G., Johnson, C. R. & Minshew, N. J. (2001a) Attentional processes in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:433–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, G., Minshew, N. J., Allen, D. N. & Seaton, B. E. (2002) High-functioning autism and schizophrenia: A comparison of an early and late onset neurodevelopmental disorder. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 17:461–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstein, J. M., Seidman, L. J., Horton, N. J., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Caviness, V. S. Jr., Faraone, S. V. & Tsuang, M. T. (2001b) Normal sexual dimorphism of the adult human brain assessed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex 11:490–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldstone, A. P. (2004) Prader-Willi syndrome: Advances in genetics, pathophysiology and treatment. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 15:1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomot, M., Bernard, F. A., Davis, M. H., Belmonte, M. K., Ashwin, C., Bullmore, E. T. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006) Change detection in children with autism: An auditory event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage 29:475–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Good, C. D., Johnsrude, I., Ashburner, J., Henson, R. N., Friston, K. J. & Frackowiak, R. S. (2001) Cerebral asymmetry and the effects of sex and handedness on brain structure: A voxel-based morphometric analysis of 465 normal adult human brains. NeuroImage 14:685700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goos, L. M., Ezzatian, P. & Schachar, R. (2007) Parent-of-origin effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Research 149(1–3):19.Google Scholar
Gorlova, O. Y., Amos, C. I., Wang, N. W., Shete, S., Turner, S. T. & Boerwinkle, E. (2003) Genetic linkage and imprinting effects on body mass index in children and young adults. European Journal of Human Genetics 11:425–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gothelf, D. (2007) Velocardiofacial syndrome. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 16:677–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goussé, V., Plumet, M. H., Chabane, N., Mouren-Siméoni, M., Ferradian, N. & Leboyer, M. (2002) Fringe phenotypes in autism: A review of clinical, biochemical and cognitive studies. European Psychiatry 17:120–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grandin, T. (1995) Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Grandin, T. (2004) Label of “autism” could hold back gifted children. Nature 430:399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granholm, E., Perry, W., Filoteo, J. V. & Braff, D. (1999) Hemispheric and attentional contributions to perceptual organization deficits on the global-local task in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 13:271–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gray, J. A. (1998) Integrating schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:249–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, L. A., Fein, D., Modahl, C., Feinstein, C., Waterhouse, L. & Morris, M. (2001) Oxytocin and autistic disorder: Alterations in peptide forms. Biological Psychiatry 50:609–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, M. J. & Phillips, M. L. (2004) Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28:333–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greicius, M. D., Flores, B. H., Menon, V., Glover, G. H., Solvason, H. B., Kenna, H., Reiss, A. L. & Schatzberg, A. F. (2007) Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: Abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Biological Psychiatry 62:429–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greicius, M. D., Krasnow, B., Reiss, A. L. & Menon, V. (2003) Functional connectivity in the resting brain: A network analysis of the default mode hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100:253–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A. & Volkmar, F. (2003) Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 44:1079–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossberg, S. (2000b) The imbalanced brain: From normal behavior to schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:8198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnell, D. & Holly, J. M. (2004) Hypothesis: Do insulin-like growth factors underlie associations of birth complications, fetal and pre-adult growth with schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research 71:191–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnell, D., Rasmussen, F., Fouskakis, D., Tynelius, P. & Harrison, G. (2003) Patterns of fetal and childhood growth and the development of psychosis in young males: A cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 158:291300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunter, H. L., Ghaziuddin, M. & Ellis, H. D. (2002) Asperger syndrome: Tests of right hemisphere functioning and interhemispheric communication. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 32:263–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, R. C., Alsop, D., Glahn, D., Petty, R., Swanson, C. L., Maldjian, J. A., Turetsky, B. I., Detre, J. A., Gee, J. & Gur, R. E. (2000) An fMRI study of sex differences in regional activation to a verbal and a spatial task. Brain and Language 74:157–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gur, R. E., Keshavan, M. S. & Lawrie, S. M. (2007) Deconstructing psychosis with human brain imaging. Schizophrenia Bulletin 33:921–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, R. E., Kohler, C., Turetsky, B. I., Siegel, S. J., Kanes, S. J., Bilker, W. B., Brennan, A. R. & Gur, R. C. (2004) A sexually dimorphic ratio of orbitofrontal to amygdala volume is altered in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 55:512–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gur, R. E., McGrath, C., Chan, R. M., Schroeder, L., Turner, T., Turetsky, B. I., Kohler, C., Alsop, D., Maldjian, J., Ragland, J. D. & Gur, R. C. (2002) An fMRI study of facial emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 159:1992–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J. & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006) Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cerebral Cortex 16:1276–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R. M., Snyder, J. & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007) Abnormal activation of the social brain during face perception in autism. Human Brain Mapping 28:441–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haig, D. (1993) Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68:495532.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haig, D. (1996) Placental hormones, genetic imprinting, and maternal-fetal communication. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9:357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haig, D. (1999b) Genetic conflicts of pregnancy and childhood. In: Evolution in health and disease, ed. Stearns, C., pp. 7790. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2000a) Genomic imprinting, sex-biased dispersal, and social behavior. In: Evolutionary perspectives on human reproductive behavior, ed. LeCroy, D. & Moller, P.. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907:149–63.Google Scholar
Haig, D. (2000b) The kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haig, D. (2003) On intrapersonal reciprocity. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:418–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haig, D. (2004a) Evolutionary conflicts in pregnancy and calcium metabolism – A review. Placenta 25(Suppl. A):S10S15.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haig, D. (2004b) Genomic imprinting and kinship: How good is the evidence? Annual Review of Genetics 38:553–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haig, D. (2006) Intragenomic politics. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 113:6874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haig, D. & Wharton, R. (2003) Prader-Willi syndrome and the evolution of human childhood. American Journal of Human Biology 15:320–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halbreich, U. & Kahn, L. S. (2003) Hormonal aspects of schizophrenias: An overview. Psychoneuroendocrinology 28(2):116.Google ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, A. F., de, C., Brindley, R. M. & Frith, U. (2007) Imitation and action understanding in autistic spectrum disorders: How valid is the hypothesis of a deficit in the mirror neuron system? Neuropsychologia 45:1859–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (2005) Narrow roads of gene land, vol. 3: Last words, ed. Ridley, M.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Han, S., Weaver, J. A., Murray, S. O., Kang, X., Yund, E. W. & Woods, D. L. (2002) Hemispheric asymmetry in global/local processing: Effects of stimulus position and spatial frequency. NeuroImage 17:1290–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Happé, F. (1994) Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. UCL Press.Google Scholar
Happé, F., Ehlers, S., Fletcher, P., Frith, U., Johansson, M., Gillberg, C., Dolan, R., Frackowiak, R. & Frith, C. (1996) “Theory of mind” in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport 8:197201.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Happé, F. & Frith, U. (2006) The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Happé, F., Ronald, A. & Plomin, R. (2006) Time to give up on a single explanation for autism. Nature Neuroscience 9(10):1218–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardan, A. Y., Muddasani, S., Vemulapalli, M., Keshavan, M. S. & Minshew, N. J. (2006) An MRI study of increased cortical thickness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry 163:1290–92.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrington, L., Langdon, R., Siegert, R. J. & McClure, J. (2005a) Schizophrenia, theory of mind, and persecutory delusions. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:87104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrington, L., Siegert, R. J. & McClure, J. (2005b) Theory of mind in schizophrenia: A critical review. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:249–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, B. J., Yücel, M., Pujol, J. & Pantelis, C. (2007) Task-induced deactivation of midline cortical regions in schizophrenia assessed with fMRI. Schizophrenia Research 91:8286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrison, P. J. (1999) The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their interpretation. Brain 122(Pt 4):593624.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartmann, W., Koch, A., Brune, H., Waha, A., Schuller, U., Dani, I., Denkhaus, D., Langmann, W., Bode, U., Wiestler, O. D., Schilling, K. & Pietsch, T. (2005) Insulin-like growth factor II is involved in the proliferation control of medulloblastoma and its cerebellar precursor cells. American Journal of Pathology 166:1153–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hashimoto, T., Bergen, S. E., Nguyen, Q. L., Xu, B., Monteggia, L. M., Pierri, J. N., Sun, Z., Sampson, A. R. & Lewis, D. A. (2005) Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia. Journal of Neuroscience 25:372–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haskins, B. G. & Silva, J. A. (2006) Asperger's disorder and criminal behavior: Forensic-psychiatric considerations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 34:374–84.Google ScholarPubMed
Hattori, J., Ogino, T., Abiru, K., Nakano, K., Oka, M. & Ohtsuka, Y. (2006) Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders? Brain and Development 28:371–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haukka, J., Suvisaari, J., Hakkinen, L. & Lönnqvist, J. (2008) Growth pattern and risk of schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 38:6370.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haukka, J., Suvisaari, J. & Lönnqvist, J. (2003) Fertility of patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and the general population: A cohort study from 1950 to 1959 in Finland. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:460–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaton, P. & Wallace, G. L. (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:899911.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heerey, E. A., Keltner, D. & Capps, L. M. (2003) Making sense of self-conscious emotion: Linking theory of mind and emotion in children with autism. Emotion 3:394400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heim, S., Kissler, J., Elbert, T. & Rockstroh, B. (2004) Cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia and dyslexia: Neuromagnetic responses to auditory stimuli. Neuropsychologia 42:692–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbert, M. R. (2005) Large brains in autism: The challenge of pervasive abnormality. Neuroscientist 11:417–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbert, M. R., Harris, G. J., Adrien, K. T., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Kennedy, D. N., Lange, N. T., Chabris, C. F., Bakardjiev, A., Hodgson, J., Takeoka, M., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2002) Abnormal asymmetry in language association cortex in autism. Annals of Neurology 52:588–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbert, M. R. & Kenet, T. (2007) Brain abnormalities in language disorders and in autism. Pediatric Clinics of North America 54:563–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Deutsch, C. K., O'Brien, L. M., Kennedy, D. N., Filipek, P. A., Bakardjiev, A. I., Hodgson, J., Takeoka, M., Makris, N. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2005) Brain asymmetries in autism and developmental language disorder: A nested whole-brain analysis. Brain 128:213–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herbert, M. R., Ziegler, D. A., Makris, N., Filipek, P. A., Kemper, T. L., Normandin, J. J., Sanders, H. A., Kennedy, D. N. & Caviness, V. S. Jr. (2004) Localization of white matter volume increase in autism and developmental language disorder. Annals of Neurology 55:530–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrera, E. (2002) Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal development – A review. Placenta 23(Suppl. A):S9S19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Highley, J. R., DeLisi, L. E., Roberts, N., Webb, J. A., Relja, M., Razi, K. & Crow, T. J. (2003) Sex-dependent effects of schizophrenia: An MRI study of gyral folding, and cortical and white matter volume. Psychiatry Research 124:1123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, E. L. & Frith, U. (2003) Understanding autism: Insights from mind and brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:281–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, R. E., Hampson, M., Varanko, M. & McGlashan, T. H. (2004) Auditory hallucinations, network connectivity, and schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:860–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, A., Whittington, J. & Hinton, E. (2003) The paradox of Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic model of starvation. Lancet 362:989–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holm, V. A., Cassidy, S. B., Butler, M. G., Hanchett, J. M., Greenswag, L. R., Whitman, B. Y. & Greenberg, F. (1993) Prader-Willi syndrome: Consensus diagnostic criteria. Pediatrics 91:398402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holsen, L. & Thompson, T. (2004) Compulsive behavior and eye blink in Prader-Willi syndrome: Neurochemical implications. American Journal of Mental Retardation 109:197207.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holt, D. J., Kunkel, L., Weiss, A. P., Goff, D. C., Wright, C. I., Shin, L. M., Rauch, S. L., Hootnick, J. & Heckers, S. (2006) Increased medial temporal lobe activation during the passive viewing of emotional and neutral facial expressions in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 82:153–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holtmann, M., Bölte, S. & Poustka, F. (2007) Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 49:361–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honea, R., Crow, T. J., Passingham, D. & Mackay, C. E. (2005) Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2233–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honey, E., Leekam, S. R., Turner, M. & McConachie, H. (2006) Repetitive behaviour and play in typically developing children and children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 37:1107–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hooker, C. & Park, S. (2005) You must be looking at me: The nature of gaze perception in schizophrenia patients. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 10:327–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hrdy, S. B. (1999) Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. Pantheon.Google Scholar
Hubl, D., Koenig, T., Strik, W., Federspiel, A., Kreis, R., Boesch, C., Maier, S. E., Schroth, G., Lovblad, K. & Dierks, T. (2004) Pathways that make voices: White matter changes in auditory hallucinations. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:658–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hulshoff Pol, H. E., Schnack, H. G., Mandl, R. C. W., Brans, R. G. H., van Haren, H. E., Neeltje, E. M., Baaré, W. F. C., van Oel, C. J., Collins, D. L., Evans, A. C. & Kahn, R. S. (2006) Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage 31:482–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Humphrey, N. K. (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Growing points in ethology, ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Hinde, R. A., pp. 303–17. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. K. (1983) Consciousness regained. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hurlburt, R. T., Happé, F. & Frith, U. (1994) Sampling the form of inner experience in three adults with Asperger syndrome. Psychological Medicine 24:385–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hutchinson, G., Bhugra, D., Mallett, R., Burnett, R., Corridan, B. & Leff, J. (1999) Fertility and marital rates in first-onset schizophrenia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 34:617–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huxley, J., Mayr, E., Osmond, H. & Hoffer, A. (1964) Schizophrenia as a genetic morphism. Nature 204:220–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iacoboni, M. & Dapretto, M. (2006) The mirror neuron system and the consequences of its dysfunction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7:942–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ingudomnukul, E., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. & Knickmeyer, R. (2007) Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior 51:597604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isles, A. R., Davies, W. & Wilkinson, L. S. (2006) Genomic imprinting and the social brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 361(1476):2229–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jackson, M. (1997) Benign schizotypy? The case of spiritual experience. In: Schizotypy: Implications for illness and health, ed. Claridge, G.. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jahshan, C. S. & Sergi, M. J. (2007) Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research 89:278–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
James, A. C., Crow, T. J., Renowden, S., Wardell, A. M., Smith, D. M. & Anslow, P. (1999) Is the course of brain development in schizophrenia delayed? Evidence from onsets in adolescence. Schizophrenia Research 40:110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janssen, I., Krabbendam, L., Jolles, J. & van Os, J. (2003) Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108:110–17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jarrold, C., Butler, D. W., Cottington, E. M. & Jimenez, F. (2000) Linking theory of mind and central coherence bias in autism and in the general population. Developmental Psychology 36:126–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaspers-Fayer, F. & Peters, M. (2005) Hand preference, magical thinking and left-right confusion. Laterality 10:183–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jha, P., Sheth, D. & Ghaziuddin, M. (2007) Autism spectrum disorder and Klinefelter syndrome. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 16:305308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jiang, Y. H., Sahoo, T., Michaelis, R. C., Bercovich, D., Bressler, J., Kashork, C. D., Liu, Q., Shaffer, L. G., Schroer, R. J., Stockton, D. W., Spielman, R. S., Stevenson, R. E. & Beaudet, A. L. (2004) A mixed epigenetic/genetic model for oligogenic inheritance of autism with a limited role for UBE3A. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 131:110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, J. D. (2005) Dysfunction of the anterior hippocampus: The cause of fundamental schizophrenic symptoms? Medical Hypotheses 65:5560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, M. H. (2005) Subcortical face processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6:766–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, S. C. (2003) Detecting agents. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 358:549–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, W. & Bouchard, T. J. Jr. (2007) Sex differences in mental abilities: G masks the dimensions on which they lie. Intelligence 35:2339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnstone, K. A., DuBose, A. J., Futtner, C. R., Elmore, M. D., Brannan, C. I. & Resnick, J. L. (2006) A human imprinting centre demonstrates conserved acquisition but diverged maintenance of imprinting in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome imprinting defects. Human Molecular Genetics 15:393404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jolly, A. (1966) Lemur behaviour. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Jones, S. R. & Fernyhough, C. (2007) Thought as action: Inner speech, self-monitoring, and auditory verbal hallucinations. Consciousness and Cognition 16:391–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Josse, G. & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2004) Hemispheric specialization for language. Brain Research: Brain Research Reviews 44:112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A. & Minshew, N. J. (2004) Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain 127:1811–21.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Juul-Dam, N., Townsend, J. & Courchesne, E. (2001) Prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors in autism, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and the general population. Pediatrics 107:E63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalkman, H. O. (2006) The role of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B pathway in schizophrenia. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 110:117–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J. & Just, M. A. (2006) Sentence comprehension in autism: Thinking in pictures with decreased functional connectivity. Brain 129:2484–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanner, L. (1949) Problems of nosology and psychodynamics of early infantile autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19:416–26.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanner, L. (1965) Infantile autism and the schizophrenias. Behavioral Science 10:412–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasai, K., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F., Hirayasu, Y., Lee, C., Ciszewski, A. A., Yurgelun-Todd, D., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A. & McCarley, R. W. (2003a) Progressive decrease of left superior temporal gyrus gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:156–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasai, K., Shenton, M. E., Salisbury, D. F., Hirayasu, Y., Onitsuka, T., Spencer, M. H., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., Kikinis, R., Jolesz, F. A. & McCarley, R. W. (2003b) Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:766–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kayahan, B., Ozturk, O., Veznedaroglu, B. & Eraslan, D. (2005) Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia: Prevalence and clinical correlates. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 59:291–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kelemen, O., Kéri, S., Must, A., Benedek, G. & Janka, Z. (2004) No evidence for impaired “theory of mind” in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 110:146–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keller, J., Schatzberg, A. F. & Maj, M. (2007) Current issues in the classification of psychotic major depression. Schizophrenia Research 33:877–85.Google ScholarPubMed
Kempf, L., Hussain, N. & Potash, J. B. (2005) Mood disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia with mood features: Trouble at the borders. International Review of Psychiatry 17:919.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kennedy, D. P., Redcay, E. & Courchesne, E. (2006) Failing to deactivate: Resting functional abnormalities in autism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:8275–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kennedy, N., McDonough, M., Kelly, B. & Berrios, G. E. (2002) Erotomania revisited: Clinical course and treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry 43:16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerns, J. G. (2005) Positive schizotypy and emotion processing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:392401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keverne, E. B. (1999) GABA-ergic neurons and the neurobiology of schizophrenia and other psychoses. Brain Research Bulletin 48:467–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keverne, E. B. (2001a) Genomic imprinting and the maternal brain. Progress in Brain Research 133:279–85.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keverne, E. B. (2001b) Genomic imprinting, maternal care, and brain evolution. Hormones and Behavior 40:146–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kieseppä, T., van Erp, T. G., Haukka, J., Partonen, T., Cannon, T. D., Poutanen, V. P., Kaprio, J. & Lönnqvist, J. (2003) Reduced left hemispheric white matter volume in twins with bipolar I disorder. Biological Psychiatry 54:896905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kimhy, D., Goetz, R., Yale, S., Corcoran, C. & Malaspina, D. (2005) Delusions in individuals with schizophrenia: Factor structure, clinical correlates, and putative neurobiology. Psychopathology 38:338–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kington, J. M., Jones, L. A., Watt, A. A., Hopkin, E. J. & Williams, J. (2000) Impaired eye expression recognition in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 34:341–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirsch, P., Esslinger, C., Chen, Q., Mier, D., Lis, S., Siddhanti, S., Gruppe, H., Mattay, V. S., Gallhofer, B. & Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2005) Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 25:11489–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klejbor, I., Myers, J. M., Hausknecht, K., Corso, T. D., Gambino, A. S., Morys, J., Maher, P. A., Hard, R., Richards, J., Stachowiak, E. K. & Stachowiak, M. K. (2006) Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling affects development and function of dopamine neurons – Inhibition results in a schizophrenia-like syndrome in transgenic mice. Journal of Neurochemistry 97:1243–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knickmeyer, R. C., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P. & Taylor, K. (2005) Foetal testosterone, social relationships, and restricted interests in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 46:198210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knoch, D., Pascual-Leone, A., Meyer, K., Treyer, V. & Fehr, E. (2006) Diminishing reciprocal fairness by disrupting the right prefrontal cortex. Science 314:829–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolevzon, A., Gross, R. & Reichenberg, A. (2007) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: A review and integration of findings. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 161:326–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolvin, I. (1971) Studies in the childhood psychoses. I. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry 118:381–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Konstantareas, M. M. & Hewitt, T. (2001) Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: Diagnostic overlaps. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31(1):1928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kovalev, V. A., Kruggel, F. & von Cramon, D. Y. (2003) Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis. NeuroImage 19:895905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kramer, J. H., Ellenberg, L., Leonard, J. & Share, L. J. (1996) Developmental sex differences in global-local perceptual bias. Neuropsychology 10:402407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kravariti, E., Toulopoulou, T., Mapua-Filbey, F., Schulze, K., Walshe, M., Sham, P., Murray, R. M. & McDonald, C. (2006) Intellectual asymmetry and genetic liability in first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 188:186–87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B., eds. (1991) Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach. Blackwell Press.Google Scholar
Kremen, W. S., Faraone, S. V., Toomey, R., Seidman, L. J. & Tsuang, M. T. (1998) Sex differences in self-reported schizotypal traits in relatives of schizophrenic probands. Schizophrenia Research 34:2737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kucharska-Pietura, K., Russell, T. & Masiak, M. (2003) Perception of negative affect in schizophrenia – functional and structural changes in the amygdala. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio D: Medicina 58:453–58.Google ScholarPubMed
Kuhlmeier, V. A., Bloom, P. & Wynn, K. (2004) Do 5-month-old infants see humans as material objects? Cognition 94:95103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuperberg, G. R., Broome, M. R., McGuire, P. K., David, A. S., Eddy, M., Ozawa, F., Goff, D., West, W. C., Williams, S. C. R., van der Kouwe, A. J. W., Salat, D. H., Dale, A. M. & Fischl, B. (2003) Regionally localized thinning of the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:878–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kurita, M., Kuwajima, T., Nishimura, I. & Yoshikawa, K. (2006) Necdin downregulates CDC2 expression to attenuate neuronal apoptosis. Journal of Neuroscience 26:12003–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuroki, N., Kubicki, M., Nestor, P. G., Salisbury, D. F., Park, H. J., Levitt, J. J., Woolston, S., Frumin, M., Niznikiewicz, M., Westin, C. F., Maier, S. E., McCarley, R. W. & Shenton, M. E. (2006) Fornix integrity and hippocampal volume in male schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 60:2231.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuwako, K., Hosokawa, A., Nishimura, I., Uetsuki, T., Yamada, M., Nada, S., Okada, M. & Yoshikawa, K. (2005) Disruption of the paternal necdin gene diminishes TrkA signaling for sensory neuron survival. Journal of Neuroscience 25:7090–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuzawa, C. W. (1998) Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: An evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 27(Suppl.):177209.3.0.CO;2-B>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kwon, C. H., Luikart, B. W., Powell, C. M., Zhou, J., Matheny, S. A., Zhang, W., Li, Y., Baker, S. J. & Parada, L. F. (2006) Pten regulates neuronal arborization and social interaction in mice. Neuron 50:377–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lainhart, J. E. (2006) Advances in autism neuroimaging research for the clinician and geneticist. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 142:3339.Google Scholar
Lainhart, J. E., Bigler, E. D., Bocian, M., Coon, H., Dinh, E., Dawson, G., Deutsch, C. K., Dunn, M., Estes, A., Tager-Flusberg, H., Folstein, S., Hepburn, S., Hyman, S., McMahon, W., Minshew, N., Munson, J., Osann, K., Ozonoff, S., Rodier, P., Rogers, S., Sigman, M., Spence, M. A., Stodgell, C. J. & Volkmar, F. (2006) Head circumference and height in autism: A study by the collaborative program of excellence in autism. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part A 140:2257–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lajiness-O'Neill, R., Beaulieu, I., Asamoah, A., Titus, J. B., Bawle, E., Ahmad, S., Kirk, J. W. & Pollack, R. (2006) The neuropsychological phenotype of velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS): Relationship to psychopathology. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21:175–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Landry, R. & Bryson, S. E. (2004) Impaired disengagement of attention in young children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 45:1115–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lane, A., Byrne, M., Mulvany, F., Kinsella, A., Waddington, J. L., Walsh, D., Larkin, C. & O'Callaghan, E. (1995) Reproductive behaviour in schizophrenia relative to other mental disorders: Evidence for increased fertility in men despite decreased marital rate. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:222–28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (1999) Mentalising, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Cognition 71:4371.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2001) Visual perspective-taking and schizotypy: Evidence for a simulation-based account of mentalizing in normal adults. Cognition 82:126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2004) Recognition of metaphor and irony in young adults: The impact of schizotypal personality traits. Psychiatry Research 125:920.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R., Coltheart, M. & Ward, P. B. (2006a) Empathetic perspective-taking is impaired in schizophrenia: Evidence from a study of emotion attribution and theory of mind. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 11:133–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R., Coltheart, M., Ward, P. B. & Catts, S. (2002) Disturbed communication in schizophrenia: The role of poor pragmatics and poor mind-reading. Psychological Medicine 32:1273–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langdon, R., Corner, T., McLaren, J., Coltheart, M. & Ward, P. B. (2006b) Attentional orienting triggered by gaze in schizophrenia. Neuropsychologia 44:417–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, H. J., Eaton, W. W., Madsen, K. M., Vestergaard, M., Olesen, A. V., Agerbo, E., Schendel, D., Thorsen, P. & Mortensen, P. B. (2005) Risk factors for autism: Perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Epidemiology 161:916.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaRusso, L. (1978) Sensitivity of paranoid patients to nonverbal clues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:463–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LaSalle, J. M., Hogart, A. & Thatcher, K. N. (2005) Rett syndrome: A Rosetta stone for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of autism. International Review of Neurobiology 71:131–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawrence, P. A. (2006) Men, women, and ghosts in science. PLoS Biology 4:e19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawrie, S. M., Whalley, H. C., Job, D. E. & Johnstone, E. C. (2003) Structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985:445–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawson, J., Baron-Cohen, S. & Wheelwright, S. (2004) Empathising and systemising in adults with and without Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34:301–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawson, W. (1998) Life behind glass: A personal account of autism spectrum disorder. Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
Leask, S. J. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Lateralization of verbal ability in pre-psychotic children. Psychiatry Research 136:3542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, K. H., Farrow, T. F., Spence, S. A. & Woodruff, P. W. (2004) Social cognition, brain networks and schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 34:391400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, M. P. (2003) Genome-wide analysis of epigenetics in cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 983:101109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, S., Walker, C. L., Karten, B., Kuny, S. L., Tennese, A. A., O'Neill, M. A. & Wevrick, R. (2005) Essential role for the Prader-Willi syndrome protein necdin in axonal outgrowth. Human Molecular Genetics 14:627–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Legg, L. & Gilbert, P. (2006) A pilot study of gender of voice and gender of voice hearer in psychotic voice hearers. Psychology and Psychotherapy 79:517–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leonhard, D. & Brugger, P. (1998) Creative, paranormal, and delusional thought: A consequence of right hemisphere semantic activation? Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology 11:177–83.Google ScholarPubMed
Leung, A. & Chue, P. (2000) Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum 401:338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levav, I., Lipshitz, I., Novikov, I., Pugachova, I., Kohn, R., Barchana, M., Ponizovsky, A. & Werner, H. (2007) Cancer risk among parents and siblings of patients with schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 190:156–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis, C. M., Levinson, D. F., Wise, L. H., DeLisi, L. E., Straub, R. E., Hovatta, I., Williams, N. M., Schwab, S. G., Pulver, A. E., Faraone, S. V., Brzustowicz, L. M., Kaufmann, C. A., Garver, D. L., Gurling, H. M. D., Lindholm, E., Coon, H., Moises, H. W., Byerley, W., Shaw, S. H., Mesen, A., Sherrington, R., O'Neill, F. A., Walsh, D., Kendler, K. S., Ekelund, J., Paunio, T., Lönnqvist, J., Peltonen, L., O'Donovan, M. C., Owen, M. J., Wildenauer, D. B., Maier, W., Nestadt, G., Blouin, J., Antonarakis, S. E., Mowry, B. J., Silverman, J. M., Crowe, R. R., Cloninger, C. R., Tsuang, M. T., Malaspina, D., Harkavy-Friedman, J. M., Svrakic, D. M., Bassett, A. S., Holcomb, J., Kalsi, G., McQuillin, A., Brynjolfson, J., Sigmundsson, T., Petursson, H., Jazin, E., Zoëga, T. & Helgason, T. (2003) Genome scan meta-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, Part II: Schizophrenia. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:3448.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., Morgan, J., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Lainhart, J. E. (2006) Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:849–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindsay, R. S., Kobes, S., Knowler, W. C. & Hanson, R. L. (2002) Genome-wide linkage analysis assessing parent-of-origin effects in the inheritance of birth weight. Human Genetics 110:503509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linney, Y. M., Murray, R. M., Peters, E. R., MacDonald, A. M., Rijsdijk, F. & Sham, P. C. (2003) A quantitative genetic analysis of schizotypal personality traits. Psychological Medicine 33:803–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lippiello, P. M. (2006) Nicotinic cholinergic antagonists: A novel approach for the treatment of autism. Medical Hypotheses 66:985–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lombardo, M. V., Barnes, J. L., Wheelwright, S. J. & Baron-Cohen, S. (2007) Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE 2:e883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losh, M. & Capps, L. (2003) Narrative ability in high-functioning children with autism or Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 33:239–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Losh, M. & Capps, L. (2006) Understanding of emotional experience in autism: Insights from the personal accounts of high-functioning children with autism. Developmental Psychology 42:809–18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lossie, A. C., Whitney, M. M., Amidon, D., Dong, H. J., Chen, P., Theriaque, D., Hutson, A., Nicholls, R. D., Zori, R. T., Williams, C. A. & Driscoll, D. J. (2001) Distinct phenotypes distinguish the molecular classes of Angelman syndrome. Journal of Medical Genetics 38:834–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luders, E., Rex, D. E., Narr, K. L., Woods, R. P., Jancke, L., Thompson, P. M., Mazziotta, J. C. & Toga, A. W. (2003) Relationships between sulcal asymmetries and corpus callosum size: Gender and handedness effects. Cerebral Cortex 13:1084–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luna, B., Minshew, N. J., Garver, K. E., Lazar, N. A., Thulborn, K. R., Eddy, W. F. & Sweeney, J. A. (2002) Neocortical system abnormalities in autism: An fMRI study of spatial working memory. Neurology 59:834–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S. & Raggatt, P. (2002a) Foetal testosterone and eye contact in 12-month-old human infants. Infant Behavior and Development 25:327–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S. & Raggatt, P. (2002b) Foetal testosterone and vocabulary size in 18- and 24-month-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development 24:418–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lutchmaya, S., Baron-Cohen, S., Raggatt, P., Knickmeyer, R. & Manning, J. T. (2004) 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Human Development 77:2328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahmoud, G. S. & Grover, L. M. (2006) Growth hormone enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in area CA1 of rat hippocampus. Journal of Neurophysiology 95:2962–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manning, J. T., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. & Sanders, G. (2001) The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manning, J. T., Bundred, P. E. & Flanagan, B. F. (2002) The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A proxy for transactivation activity of the androgen receptor gene? Medical Hypotheses 59:334–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manning, J. T., Stewart, A., Bundred, P. E. & Trivers, R. L. (2004) Sex and ethnic differences in 2nd to 4th digit ratio of children. Early Human Development 80:161–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Margetts, C. D. E., Astuti, D., Gentle, D. C., Cooper, W. N., Cascon, A., Catchpoole, D., Robledo, M., Neumann, H. P. H., Latif, F. & Maher, E. R. (2005) Epigenetic analysis of HIC1:CASP8:FLIP,TSP1:DCR1:DCR2: DR4:DR5:KvDMR1:H19 and preferential 11p15.5 maternal-allele loss in von Hippel-Lindau and sporadic phaeochromocytomas. Endocrine-Related Cancer 12:161–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maric, N., Krabbendam, L., Vollebergh, W., de Graaf, R. & van Os, J. (2003) Sex differences in symptoms of psychosis in a non-selected, general population sample. Schizophrenia Research 63:8995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marjoram, D., Job, D. E., Whalley, H. C., Gountouna, V., McIntosh, A. M., Simonotto, E., Cunningham-Owens, D., Johnstone, E. C. & Lawrie, S. (2006) A visual joke fMRI investigation into theory of mind and enhanced risk of schizophrenia. NeuroImage 31:1850–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mata, I., Sham, P. C., Gilvarry, C. M., Jones, P. B., Lewis, S. W. & Murray, R. M. (2000) Childhood schizotypy and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients predict schizotypy in relatives. Schizophrenia Research 44:129–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mathes, B., Wood, S. J., Proffitt, T. M., Stuart, G. W., Buchanan, J. A., Velakoulis, D., Brewer, W. J., McGorry, P. D. & Pantelis, C. (2005) Early processing deficits in object working memory in first-episode schizophreniform psychosis and established schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 35:1053–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazza, M., De Risio, A., Surian, L., Roncone, R. & Casacchia, M. (2001) Selective impairments of theory of mind in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 47:299308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, G. M., Cheung, V., Cheung, C., Suckling, J., Lam, G. Y., Tai, K. S., Yip, L., Murphy, D. G. M. & Chua, S. E. (2005) Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain 128:268–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, G. M., Daly, E., Kumari, V., Critchley, H. D., van Amelsvoort, T., Suckling, J, Simmons, A, Sigmundsson, T., Greenwood, K., Russell, A., Schmitz, N, Happé, F., Howlin, P. & Murphy, D. G. M. (2002) Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. Brain 125:1594–606.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCabe, R., Leudar, I. & Antaki, C. (2004) Do people with schizophrenia display theory of mind deficits in clinical interactions? Psychological Medicine 34:401–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCaffery, P. & Deutsch, C. K. (2005) Macrocephaly and the control of brain growth in autistic disorders. Progress in Neurobiology 77:3856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCall, T., Chin, S. S., Salzman, K. L. & Fults, D. W. (2006) Tuberous sclerosis: A syndrome of incomplete tumor suppression. Neurosurgical Focus 20:E3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClure, E. B., Monk, C. S., Nelson, E. E., Zarahn, E., Leibenluft, E., Bilder, R. M., Charney, D. S., Ernst, M. & Pine, D. S. (2004) A developmental examination of gender differences in brain engagement during evaluation of threat. Biological Psychiatry 55:1047–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCreery, C. & Claridge, G. (1996) A study of hallucination in normal subjects. 1. Self-report. Personality and Individual Differences 21:739–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDonald, C., Bullmore, E. T., Sham, P. C., Chitnis, X., Wickham, H., Bramon, E. & Murray, R. M. (2004) Association of genetic risks for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with specific and generic brain structural endophenotypes. Archives of General Psychiatry 61:974–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDonald, C., Bullmore, E. T., Sham, P. C., Chitnis, X., Suckling, J., MacCabe, J., Walshe, M. & Murray, R. M. (2005) Regional volume deviations of brain structure in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder: Computational morphometry study. British Journal of Psychiatry 186:369–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McGlashan, T. H., Pedersen, C. B., Hoffman, R. E. & Mortensen, P. B. (2006) Fertility of schizophrenia and bipolar probands and their first-degree relatives. Schizophrenia Research 81(Suppl.):S17S18.Google Scholar
McGrath, J. J., Hearle, J., Jenner, L., Plant, K., Drummond, A. & Barkla, J. M. (1999) The fertility and fecundity of patients with psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 99:441–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McIntosh, A. M., Job, D. E., Moorhead, W. J., Harrison, L. K., Whalley, H. C., Johnstone, E. C. & Lawrie, S. M. (2006) Genetic liability to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and its relationship to brain structure. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics 141:7683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKay, R., Langdon, R. & Coltheart, M. (2005) Paranoia, persecutory delusions and attributional biases. Psychiatry Research 136:233–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McMinn, J., Wei, M., Schupf, N., Cusmai, J., Johnson, E. B., Smith, A. C., Weksberg, R., Thaker, H. M. & Tycko, B. (2006) Unbalanced placental expression of imprinted genes in human intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta 27:540–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mendrek, A. (2007) Reversal of normal cerebral sexual dimorphism in schizophrenia: Evidence and speculations. Medical Hypotheses 69:896902.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, J. L., Couch, J., Schmalfuss, I., He, G., Liu, Y. & Driscoll, D. J. (2007) Morphological brain abnormalities detected by three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in Prader-Willi syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part A 143:476–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mills, J. L., Hediger, M. L., Molloy, C. A., Chrousos, G. P., Manning-Courtney, P., Yu, K. F., Brasington, M. & England, L. J. (2007) Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder. Clinical Endocrinology 67:230–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milne, E., White, S., Campbell, R., Swettenham, J., Hansen, P. & Ramus, F. (2006) Motion and form coherence detection in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:225–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G. & Siegel, D. J. (1997) Neuropsychologic functioning in autism: Profile of a complex information processing disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 3:303–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, R. L. C. & Crow, T. J. (2005) Right hemisphere language functions and schizophrenia: The forgotten hemisphere? Brain 128:963–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, T. N., Free, S. L., Merschhemke, M., Lemieux, L., Sisodiya, S. M. & Shorvon, S. D. (2003) Reliable callosal measurement: Population normative data confirm sex-related differences. American Journal of Neuroradiology 24:410–18.Google ScholarPubMed
Miyazaki, K., Narita, N., Sakuta, R., Miyahara, T., Naruse, H., Okado, N. & Narita, M. (2004) Serum neurotrophin concentrations in autism and mental retardation: A pilot study. Brain and Development 26:292–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mohr, C., Krummenacher, P., Landis, T., Sandor, P. S., Fathi, M. & Brugger, P. (2005) Psychometric schizotypy modulates levodopa effects on lateralized lexical decision performance. Journal of Psychiatric Research 39:241–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mohr, C., Röhrenbach, C. M., Laska, M. & Brugger, P. (2001) Unilateral olfactory perception and magical ideation. Schizophrenia Research 47:255–64.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moises, H. W., Zoega, T. & Gottesman, I. I. (2002) The glial growth factors deficiency and synaptic destabilization hypothesis of schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry 2:8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, D. & Moore, G. E. (2004) Intrauterine growth restriction – Genetic causes and consequences. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 9:371–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montag, C., Heinz, A., Kunz, D. & Gallinat, J. (2007) Self-reported empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 92:8589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moriarty, P. J., Lieber, D., Bennett, A., White, L., Parrella, M., Harvey, P. D. & Davis, K. L. (2001) Gender differences in poor outcome patients with lifelong schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 27:103–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., Burack, J. A. (2006) Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:2743.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mouridsen, S. E., Rich, B. & Isager, T. (2008) Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study. Journal of Neural Transmission 115(1):135–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mraz, K. D., Green, J., Dumont-Mathieu, T., Makin, S. & Fein, D. (2007) Correlates of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Neurology 22:700–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mucci, A., Galderisi, S., Bucci, P., Tresca, E., Forte, A., Koenig, T. & Maj, M. (2005) Hemispheric lateralization patterns and psychotic experiences in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Research 139:141–54.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murray, D., Lesser, M. & Lawson, W. (2005) Attention, monotropism and the diagnostic criteria for autism. Autism 9:139–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nakamura, M., Matsushima, E., Ohta, K., Ando, K. & Kojima, T. (2003) Relationship between attention and arousal level in schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 57:472–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narr, K. L., Bilder, R. M., Toga, A. W., Woods, R. P., Rex, D. E., Szeszko, P. R., Robinson, D., Sevy, S., Gunduz-Bruce, H., Wang, Y. P., DeLuca, H. & Thompson, P. M. (2005) Mapping cortical thickness and gray matter concentration in first episode schizophrenia. Cerebral Cortex 15:708–19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narr, K. L., Thompson, P. M., Szeszko, P., Robinson, D., Jang, S., Woods, R. P., Kim, S., Hayashi, K. M., Asunction, D., Toga, A. W. & Bilder, R. M. (2004) Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia. NeuroImage 21:1563–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narr, K. L., van Erp, T. G., Cannon, T. D., Woods, R. P., Thompson, P. M., Jang, S., Blanton, R., Poutanen, V. P., Huttunen, M., Lönnqvist, J., Standerksjold-Nordenstam, C. G., Kaprio, J., Mazziotta, J. C. & Toga, A. W. (2002) A twin study of genetic contributions to hippocampal morphology in schizophrenia. Neurobiology of Disease 11:8395.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, K. B. (2001) Toward a biology of autism: Possible role of certain neuropeptides and neurotrophins. Clinical Neuroscience Research 1:300306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nesse, R. M. (2005) Maladaptation and natural selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 80:6270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nettle, D. (2001) Strong imagination: Madness, creativity and human nature. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nettle, D. (2006) Schizotypy and mental health amongst poets, visual artists, and mathematicians. Journal of Research in Personality 40:876–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nettle, D. (2007) Empathizing and systemizing: What are they, and what do they contribute to our understanding of psychological sex differences? British Journal of Psychology, Part 2 98:237–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nettle, D. & Clegg, H. (2006) Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 273:611–15.Google ScholarPubMed
Niculescu, A. B. (2005) Genomic studies of mood disorders – The brain as a muscle? Genome Biology 6:215.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niebauer, C. L. (2004) Handedness and the fringe of consciousness: Strong handers ruminate while mixed handers self-reflect. Consciousness and Cognition 13:730–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niemi, L. T., Suvisaari, J. M., Haukka, J. K. & Lönnqvist, J. K. (2005) Childhood growth and future development of psychotic disorder among Helsinki high-risk children. Schizophrenia Research 76:105–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nilsson, E., Stålberg, G., Lichtenstein, P., Cnattingius, S., Olausson, P. O. & Hultman, C. M. (2005) Fetal growth restriction and schizophrenia: A Swedish twin study. Twin Research and Human Genetics 8:402408.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nishimura, K., Nakamura, K., Anitha, A., Yamada, K., Tsujii, M., Iwayama, Y., Hattori, E., Toyota, T., Takei, N., Miyachi, T., Iwata, Y., Suzuki, K., Matsuzaki, H., Kawai, M., Sekine, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Sugihara, G., Suda, S., Ouchi, Y., Sugiyama, T., Yoshikawa, T. & Mori, N. (2007a) Genetic analyses of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in autism. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 356:200206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noesselt, T., Driver, J., Heinze, H. J. & Dolan, R. (2005) Asymmetrical activation in the human brain during processing of fearful faces. Current Biology 15:424–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nurmi, E. L., Bradford, Y., Chen, Y., Hall, J., Arnone, B., Gardiner, M. B., Hutcheson, H. B., Gilbert, J. R., Pericak-Vance, M. A.,