Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Digit ratio (2D:4D) as a marker for mental disorders: Low (masculinized) 2D:4D in autism-spectrum disorders, high (feminized) 2D:4D in schizophrenic-spectrum disorders

  • Martin Voracek (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Augmenting and supplementing the arguments of Crespi & Badcock (C&B), I show that digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, indeed appears differentially altered in autism-spectrum disorders (lower/masculinized) versus schizophrenic-spectrum disorders (higher/feminized). Consistent with C&B's framework, some evidence (substantial heritability, assortative mating, sex-specific familial transmission) points to possible sex chromosome and imprinted genes effects on 2D:4D expression.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Arató , E. Frecska , C. Beck , M. An & H Kiss . (2004) Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28:191–94.

C. C. C. Cohen-Bendahan , C. van de Beek & S. A Berenbaum . (2005) Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: Methods and findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29:353–84.

E. I. de Bruin , F. Verheij , T. Wiegman & R. F Ferdinand . (2006) Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48:962–65.

K. L. Gobrogge , S. M. Breedlove & K. L Klump . (2008) Genetic and environmental influences on 2D:4D finger length ratios: A study of monozygotic and dizygotic male and female twins. Archives of Sexual Behavior 37:112–18.

R. C. Knickmeyer , S. Wheelwright , R. Hoekstra & S Baron-Cohen . (2006) Age of menarche in females with autism spectrum conditions. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48:10071008.

J. T. Manning , S. Baron-Cohen , S. Wheelwright & G Sanders . (2001) The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.

J. T. Manning , P. E. Bundred , D. J. Newton & B. F Flanagan . (2003) The second to fourth digit ratio and variation in the androgen receptor gene. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:399405.

J. T. Manning , D. Scutt , J. Wilson & D. I Lewis-Jones . (1998) The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Human Reproduction 13:30003004.

D. McFadden , J. G. Westhafer , E. G. Pasanen , C. L. Carlson & D. M Tucker . (2005) Physiological evidence of hypermasculinization in boys with the inattentive type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Neuroscience Research 5:233–45.

E. Milne , S. White , R. Campbell , J. Swettenham , P. Hansen & F Ramus . (2006) Motion and form coherence detection in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:225–37.

M. Peters , K. Mackenzie & P Bryden . (2002) Finger length and distal finger extent patterns in humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117:209–17.

M. Procopio , R. J. Davies & P Marriott . (2006) The hormonal environment in utero as a potential aetiological agent for schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256(2):7781.

D. A. Putz , S. J. C. Gaulin , R. J. Sporter & D. H McBurney . (2004) Sex hormones and finger length: What does 2D:4D indicate? Evolution and Human Behavior 25:182–99.

A. Ramesh & J. S Murty . (1977) Variation and inheritance of relative length of index finger in man. Annals of Human Biology 4:479–84.

J. C. Stevenson , P. M. Everson , D. C. Williams , G. Hipskind , M. Grimes & E. R Mahoney . (2007) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample. American Journal of Human Biology 19:4150.

M. Voracek & S. G Dressler . (2006) Lack of correlation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and Baron-Cohen's “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test, empathy, systemising, and autism-spectrum quotients in a general population sample. Personality and Individual Differences 41:1481–91.

M. Voracek & S. G Dressler . (2007) Digit ratio (2D:4D) in twins: Heritability estimates and evidence for a masculinized trait expression in women from opposite-sex pairs. Psychological Reports 100:115–26.

M. Voracek & D Offenmüller . (2007) Digit ratios (2D:4D and other) and relative thumb length: A test of developmental stability. Perceptual and Motor Skills 105:143–52.

M. Voracek & S Pavlovic . (2007) The tell-tale hand: The relationship of 2D:4D to perceived attractiveness, sex typicality, and other attributes of palms. Journal of Individual Differences 28:8897.

M. Voracek , B. Reimer , C. Ertl & S. G Dressler . (2006) Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing. Perceptual and Motor Skills 103:427–46.

D. J. Walder , T. L. C. Andersson , A. L. McMillan , S. M. Breedlove & E. F Walker . (2006a) Sex differences in digit ratio (2D:4D) are disrupted in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder: Altered prenatal gonadal hormone levels as a risk factor. Schizophrenia Research 86:118–22.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×