Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Zhu, Yi-Kang Li, Chun-Bo Jin, Jin Wang, Ji-Jun Lachmann, Bernd Sariyska, Rayna and Montag, Christian 2014. The 2D:4D ratio of the hand and schizotypal personality traits in schizophrenia patients and healthy control persons. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 9, p. 67.

    Teatero, Missy L. and Netley, Charles 2013. A Critical Review of the Research on the Extreme Male Brain Theory and Digit Ratio (2D:4D). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Vol. 43, Issue. 11, p. 2664.

    JAMES, WILLIAM H 2012. A potential explanation of some established major risk factors for autism. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, Vol. 54, Issue. 4, p. 301.

    Bloom, Michael S. Houston, Allison S. Mills, James L. Molloy, Cynthia A. and Hediger, Mary L. 2010. Finger bone immaturity and 2D:4D ratio measurement error in the assessment of the hyperandrogenic hypothesis for the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 100, Issue. 3, p. 221.

    Collinson, Simon Lowes Lim, Matthew Chaw, Jia Hui Verma, Swapna Sim, Kang Rapisarda, Attilio and Chong, Siow Ann 2010. Increased ratio of 2nd to 4th digit (2D:4D) in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 176, Issue. 1, p. 8.

    Ferraro, B. Wilder, F.V. and Leaverton, P.E. 2010. Site specific osteoarthritis and the index to ring finger length ratio. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Vol. 18, Issue. 3, p. 354.

    Gooding, Diane Carol Johnson, Madeline and Peterman, Joel Stephen 2010. Schizotypy and altered digit ratios: A second look. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 178, Issue. 1, p. 73.

    Martel, Michelle M. 2009. Conscientiousness as a mediator of the association between masculinized finger-length ratios and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 50, Issue. 7, p. 790.

    Voracek, Martin 2009. Who wants to believe? Associations between digit ratio (2D:4D) and paranormal and superstitious beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 47, Issue. 2, p. 105.

    Voracek, Martin and Loibl, Lisa Mariella 2009. SCIENTOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) RESEARCH, 1998-20081,2. Psychological Reports, Vol. 104, Issue. 3, p. 922.



Digit ratio (2D:4D) as a marker for mental disorders: Low (masculinized) 2D:4D in autism-spectrum disorders, high (feminized) 2D:4D in schizophrenic-spectrum disorders

  • Martin Voracek (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2008

Augmenting and supplementing the arguments of Crespi & Badcock (C&B), I show that digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action, indeed appears differentially altered in autism-spectrum disorders (lower/masculinized) versus schizophrenic-spectrum disorders (higher/feminized). Consistent with C&B's framework, some evidence (substantial heritability, assortative mating, sex-specific familial transmission) points to possible sex chromosome and imprinted genes effects on 2D:4D expression.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Arató , E. Frecska , C. Beck , M. An & H Kiss . (2004) Digit length pattern in schizophrenia suggests disturbed prenatal hemispheric lateralization. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 28:191–94.

C. C. C. Cohen-Bendahan , C. van de Beek & S. A Berenbaum . (2005) Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: Methods and findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29:353–84.

E. I. de Bruin , F. Verheij , T. Wiegman & R. F Ferdinand . (2006) Differences in finger length ratio between males with autism, pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified, ADHD, and anxiety disorders. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48:962–65.

K. L. Gobrogge , S. M. Breedlove & K. L Klump . (2008) Genetic and environmental influences on 2D:4D finger length ratios: A study of monozygotic and dizygotic male and female twins. Archives of Sexual Behavior 37:112–18.

R. C. Knickmeyer , S. Wheelwright , R. Hoekstra & S Baron-Cohen . (2006) Age of menarche in females with autism spectrum conditions. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 48:10071008.

J. T. Manning , S. Baron-Cohen , S. Wheelwright & G Sanders . (2001) The 2nd to 4th digit ratio and autism. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 43:160–64.

J. T. Manning , P. E. Bundred , D. J. Newton & B. F Flanagan . (2003) The second to fourth digit ratio and variation in the androgen receptor gene. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:399405.

J. T. Manning , D. Scutt , J. Wilson & D. I Lewis-Jones . (1998) The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: A predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen. Human Reproduction 13:30003004.

D. McFadden , J. G. Westhafer , E. G. Pasanen , C. L. Carlson & D. M Tucker . (2005) Physiological evidence of hypermasculinization in boys with the inattentive type of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Neuroscience Research 5:233–45.

E. Milne , S. White , R. Campbell , J. Swettenham , P. Hansen & F Ramus . (2006) Motion and form coherence detection in autistic spectrum disorder: Relationship to motor control and 2:4 digit ratio. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:225–37.

M. Peters , K. Mackenzie & P Bryden . (2002) Finger length and distal finger extent patterns in humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117:209–17.

M. Procopio , R. J. Davies & P Marriott . (2006) The hormonal environment in utero as a potential aetiological agent for schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 256(2):7781.

D. A. Putz , S. J. C. Gaulin , R. J. Sporter & D. H McBurney . (2004) Sex hormones and finger length: What does 2D:4D indicate? Evolution and Human Behavior 25:182–99.

A. Ramesh & J. S Murty . (1977) Variation and inheritance of relative length of index finger in man. Annals of Human Biology 4:479–84.

J. C. Stevenson , P. M. Everson , D. C. Williams , G. Hipskind , M. Grimes & E. R Mahoney . (2007) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and digit ratios in a college sample. American Journal of Human Biology 19:4150.

M. Voracek & S. G Dressler . (2006) Lack of correlation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and Baron-Cohen's “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test, empathy, systemising, and autism-spectrum quotients in a general population sample. Personality and Individual Differences 41:1481–91.

M. Voracek & S. G Dressler . (2007) Digit ratio (2D:4D) in twins: Heritability estimates and evidence for a masculinized trait expression in women from opposite-sex pairs. Psychological Reports 100:115–26.

M. Voracek & D Offenmüller . (2007) Digit ratios (2D:4D and other) and relative thumb length: A test of developmental stability. Perceptual and Motor Skills 105:143–52.

M. Voracek & S Pavlovic . (2007) The tell-tale hand: The relationship of 2D:4D to perceived attractiveness, sex typicality, and other attributes of palms. Journal of Individual Differences 28:8897.

M. Voracek , B. Reimer , C. Ertl & S. G Dressler . (2006) Digit ratio (2D:4D), lateral preferences, and performance in fencing. Perceptual and Motor Skills 103:427–46.

D. J. Walder , T. L. C. Andersson , A. L. McMillan , S. M. Breedlove & E. F Walker . (2006a) Sex differences in digit ratio (2D:4D) are disrupted in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder: Altered prenatal gonadal hormone levels as a risk factor. Schizophrenia Research 86:118–22.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *