This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
C. D. Adams & A. Dickinson (1981) Instrumental responding following reinforcer devaluation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Comparative and Physiological Psychology 33(B):109–22.
S. Adams , R. P. Kesner & M. E. Ragozzino (2001) Role of the medial and lateral caudate-putamen in mediating an auditory conditional response association. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 76:106–16.
J. P. Aggleton (1993) The contribution of the amygdala to normal and abnormal emotional states. Trends in Neurosciences 16(8):328–33.
S. H. Ahmed & G. F. Koob (1997) Cocaine- but not food-seeking behavior is reinstated by stress after extinction. Psychopharmacology 132(3):289–95.
S. H. Ahmed & G. F. Koob (1998) Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: Change in hedonic set point. Science 282:298–300.
S. H. Ahmed & G. F. Koob (1999) Long-lasting increase in the set point for cocaine self-administration after escalation in rats. Psychopharmacology 146(3):303–12.
S. H. Ahmed & G. F. Koob (2005) Transition to drug addiction: A negative reinforcement model based on an allostatic decrease in reward function. Psychopharmacology 180:473–90.
G. Ainslie & J. Monterosso (2004) Behavior: A marketplace in the brain? Science 306(5695):421–23.
S. M. Alessi & N. M. Petry (2003) Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure. Behavioural Processes 64(3):345–54.
S. G. Anagnostaras , T. Schallert & T. E. Robinson (2002) Memory processes governing amphetamine-induced psychomotor sensitization. Neuropsychopharmacology 26(6):703–15.
P. A. Arbisi , C. J. Billington & A. S. Levine (1999) The effect of naltrexone on taste detection and recognition threshold. Appetite 32(2):241–49.
G. W. Arbuthnott & J. Wickens (2007) Space, time and dopamine. Trends in Neurosciences 30(2):62–69.
A. F. T. Arnsten , J. X. Cai , B. L. Murphy & P. S. Goldman-Rakic (1994) Dopamine D1 receptor mechanisms in the cognitive performance of young adult and aged monkeys. Psychopharmacology 116:143–51.
B. B. Averbeck & D. Lee (2007) Prefrontal neural correlates of memory for sequences. Journal of Neuroscience 27(9):2204–11.
J. L. Azolosa , M. L. Stitzer & M. K. Greenwald (1994) Opioid physical dependence development: Effects of single versus repeated morphine pretreatments and of subjects' opioid exposure history. Psychopharmacology 114(1):71–80.
D. J. K. Balfour & K. O. Fagerström (1996) Pharmacology of nicotine and its therapeutic use in smoking cessation and neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 72(1):51–81.
B. W. Balleine & A. Dickinson (1998) Goal-directed instrumental action: Contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacology 37(4–5):407–19.
B. W. Balleine & S. B. Ostlund (2007) Still at the choice-point: Action selection and initiation in instrumental conditioning. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1104:147–71.
R. Bals-Kubik , A. Herz & T. Shippenberg (1989) Evidence that the aversive effects of opioid antagonists and κ-agonists are centrally mediated. Psychopharmacology 98:203–206.
R. L. Balster (1973) Fixed-interval schedule of cocaine reinforcement: Effect of dose and infusion duration. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior 20(1):119–29.
R. A. Barkley (2001) The executive functions and self-regulation: An evolutionary neuropsychological perspective. Neuropsychology Review 11(1):1–29.
R. A. Barkley , G. Edwards , M. Laneri , K. Fletcher & L. Metevia (2001) Executive functioning, temporal discounting, and sense of time in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29(6):541–56.
C. A. Barnes (1979) Memory deficits associated with senescence: A neurophysiological and behavioral study in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93:74–104.
C. A. Barnes , L. Nadel & W. K. Honig (1980) Spatial memory deficit in senescent rats. Canadian Journal of Psychology 34(1):29–39.
H. M. Bayer & P. Glimcher (2005) Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron 47:129–41.
A. Bechara , S. Dolan , N. Denburg , A. Hindes , S. W. Andersen & P. E. Nathan (2001) Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia 39:376–89.
G. S. Becker & K. M. Murphy (1988) A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy 96(4):675–700.
D. G. Beiser , S. E. Hua & J. C. Houk (1997) Network models of the basal ganglia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7(2):185–90.
N. L. Benowitz (1996) Pharmacology of nicotine: Addiction and therapeutics. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 36:597–613.
B. D. Bernheim & A. Rangel (2004) Addiction and cue-triggered decision processes. The American Economic Review 94(5):1558–90.
K. C. Berridge (2007) The debate over dopamine's role in reward: The case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology 191(3):391–431.
K. C. Berridge & T. E. Robinson (1998) What is the role of dopamine in reward: Hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience? Brain Research Reviews 28:309–69.
K. C. Berridge & T. E. Robinson (2003) Parsing reward. Trends in Neurosciences 26(9):507–13.
W. K. Bickel & L. A. Marsch (2001) Toward a behavioral economic understanding of drug dependence: Delay discounting processes. Addiction 96:73–86.
W. K. Bickel , M. L. Miller , R. Yi , B. P. Kowal , D. M. Lindquist & J. A. Pitcock (2007) Behavioral and neuroeconomics of drug addiction: Competing neural systems and temporal discounting processes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 90(S1):S85–S91.
R. C. Bolles (1972) Reinforcement, expectancy, and learning. Psychological Review 79(5):394–409.
J. M. Bossert , U. E. Ghitza , L. Lu , D. H. Epstein & Y. Shaham (2005) Neurobiology of relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking: An update and clinical implications. European Journal of Pharmacology 526(1–3):36–50.
M. E. Bouton (2002) Context, ambiguity, and unlearning: Sources of relapse after behavioral extinction. Biological Psychiatry 52:976–86.
M. E. Bouton (2004) Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Learning and Memory 11(5):485–94.
D. C. Broom , E. M. Jutkiewicz , J. E. Folk , J. R. Traynor , K. C. Rice & J. H. Woods (2002) Nonpeptidic δ-opioid receptor agonists reduce immobility in the forced swim assay in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 26:744–55.
R. L. Buckner & D. C. Carroll (2007) Self-projection and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(2):49–57.
G. Buzsáki (1996) The hippocampo-neocortical dialogue. Cerebral Cortex 6(2):81–92.
B. Cagniard , J. A. Beeler , J. P. Britt , D. S. McGehee , M. Marinelli & X. Zhuang (2006) Dopamine scales performance in the absence of new learning. Neuron 51(5):541–47.
S. Caillé & L. H. Parsons (2003) SR141716A reduces the reinforcing properties of heroin but not heroin-induced increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine in rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 18(11):3145–49.
E. J. Capaldi (1957) The effect of different amounts of alternating partial reinforcement on resistance to extinction. American Journal of Psychology 70(3):451–52.
S. L. Cappendijk , Y. L. Hurd , I. Nylander , J. M. van Ree & L. Terenius (1999) A heroin-, but not a cocaine-expecting, self-administration state preferentially alters endogenous brain peptides. European Journal of Pharmacology 365(2–3):175–82.
R. M. Carelli (2002) Nucleus accumbens cell firing during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine vs. “natural” reinforcement. Physiology and Behavior 76(3):379–87.
R. M. Carelli & M. O. West (1991) Representation of the body by single neurons in the dosolateral striatum of the awake, unrestrained rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 309:231–49.
H. Carr & J. B. Watson (1908) Orientation in the white rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology 18:27–44.
S. R. Chamberlain , U. Muller , T. W. Robbins & B. J. Sahakian (2006) Neuropharmacological modulation of cognition. Current Opinion in Neurology 19(6):607–12.
Q. Chang & P. E. Gold (2004) Inactivation of dorsolateral striatum impairs acquisition of response learning in cue-deficient, but not cue-available, conditions. Behavioral Neuroscience 118(2):383–88.
G. Chastain (2006) Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. Journal of General Psychology 133(4):329–35.
C. Chavkin , I. F. James & A. Goldstein (1982) Dynorphin is a specific endogenous ligand of the kappa opioid receptor. Science 215(4531):413–15.
R. Chen , M. R. Tilley , H. Wei , F. Zhou , F.-M. Zhou , S. Ching , N. Quan , R. L. Stephens , E. R. Hill , T. Nottoli , D. D. Han & H. H. Gu (2006) Abolished cocaine reward in mice with a cocaine-insensitive dopamine transporter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103(24):9333–38.
C. Chiamulera (2005) Cue reactivity in nicotine and tobacco dependence: A “multiple-action” model of nicotine as a primary reinforcement and as an enhancer of the effects of smoking-associated stimuli. Brain Research Reviews 48(1):74–97.
A. R. Childress , P. D. Mozley , W. McElgin , J. Fitzgerald , M. Reivich & C. P. O'Brien (1999) Limbic activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. The American Journal of Psychiatry 156:11–18.
D. A. Ciraulo , J. Piechniczek-Buczek & E. N. Iscan (2003) Outcome predictors in substance use disorders. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America 26:381–409.
L. Clark & T. W. Robbins (2002) Decision-making deficits in drug addiction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6(9):361–63.
R. E. Clark & L. R. Squire (1998) Classical conditioning and brain systems: The role of awareness. Science 280:77–81.
N. J. Cohen & L. R. Squire (1980) Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 210:207–10.
E. Coutureau & S. Killcross (2003) Inactivation of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex reinstates goal-directed responding in overtrained rats. Behavioural Brain Research 146:167–74.
J. C. Crabbe (2002) Genetic contributions to addiction. Annual Review of Psychology 53(1):435–62.
K. M. Cummings (2002) Programs and policies to discourage the use of tobacco products. Oncogene 21(48):7349–64.
T. Curran (2001) Implicit learning revealed by the method of opposition. Trends in Cognitive Science 5(12):503–504.
J. W. Dalley , R. N. Cardinal & T. W. Robbins (2004) Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions in rodents: Neural and neurochemical substrates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 28(7):771–84.
J. W. Daly & B. B. Fredholm (1998) Caffeine – an atypical drug of dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 51:199–206.
J. A. Dani & S. Heinemann (1996) Molecular and cellular aspects of nicotine abuse. Neuron 16:905–908.
J. R. Davis & E. Tunks (1991) Environments and addiction: A proposed taxonomy. The International Journal of the Addictions 25(7A & 8A):805–26.
N. D. Daw , A. C. Courville & D. S. Touretzky (2006) Representation and timing in theories of the dopamine system. Neural Computation 18:1637–77.
N. D. Daw , Y. Niv & P. Dayan (2005) Uncertainty-based competition between prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal systems for behavioral control. Nature Neuroscience 8:1704–11.
L. B. Day , M. Weisend , R. J. Sutherland & T. Schallert (1999) The hippocampus is not necessary for a place response but may be necessary for pliancy. Behavioral Neuroscience 113(5):914–24.
P. Dayan & B. W. Balleine (2002) Reward, motivation, and reinforcement learning. Neuron 36:285–98.
P. Dayan , S. Kakade & P. R. Montague (2000) Learning and selective attention. Nature Neuroscience 3:1218–23.
F. V. DeFeudis (1978) Environmental theory of drug addiction. General Pharmacology 9(5):303–306.
R. de la Fuente-Fernandez , A. G. Phillips , M. Zamburlini , V. Sossi , D. B. Calne , T. J. Ruth & A. J. Stoessl (2002) Dopamine release in human ventral striatum and expectation of reward. Behavioural Brain Research 136:359–63.
W. Dennis (1932) Multiple visual discrimination in the block elevated maze. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 13:391–96.
V. Deroche-Gamonet , D. Belin & P. V. Piazza (2004) Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 305(5686):1014–17.
L. D. Devenport (1979) Superstitious bar pressing in hippocampal and septal rats. Science 205(4407):721–23.
L. D. Devenport (1980) Response-reinforcer relations and the hippocampus. Behavioral and Neural Biology 29(1):105–10.
L. D. Devenport , J. A. Devenport & F. A. Holloway (1981a) Necessity of the hippocampus for alcohol's indirect but not behavioral action. Behavioral and Neural Biology 33(4):476–87.
L. D. Devenport , J. A. Devenport & F. A. Holloway (1981b) Reward-induced stereotypy: Modulation by the hippocampus. Science 212(4500):1288–89.
L. D. Devenport & F. A. Holloway (1980) The rat's resistance to superstition: Role of the hippocampus. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 94(4):691–705.
H. de Wit , & J. Stewart (1981) Reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced responding in the rat. Psychopharmacology 75(2):134–43.
G. Di Chiara (1999) Drug addiction as dopamine-dependent associative learning disorder. European Journal of Pharmacology 375(1–3):13–30.
D. M. Dick , K. Jones , N. Saccone , A. Hinrichs , J. C. Wang , A. Goate , L. Bierut , L. Almasy , M. Schuckit , V. Hesselbrock , J. Tischfield , T. Foroud , H. Edenberg , B. Porjesz & H. Begleiter (2006) Endophenotypes successfully lead to gene identification: Results from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism. Behavior Genetics 36(1):112–26.
A. Dickinson (1985) Actions and habits: The development of behavioural autonomy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 308:67–78.
A. Dickinson , N. Wood & J. W. Smith (2002) Alcohol seeking by rats: Action or habit? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section B 55(4):331–48.
B. V. D. DiMattia & R. P. Kesner (1988) Spatial cognitive maps: Differential role of parietal cortex and hippocampal formation. Behavioral Neuroscience 102(4):471–80.
N. Dowling , D. Smith & T. Thomas (2005) Electronic gaming machines: Are they the “crack cocaine” of gambling? Addiction 100(1):33–45.
K. Doya (2000b) Reinforcement learning in continuous time and space. Neural Computation 12:219–45.
K. Doya (2002) Metalearning and neuromodulation. Neural Networks 15(4–6):495–506.
J. Doyon , R. Laforce , G. Bouchard , D. Gaudreau , J. Roy , M. Poirer , P. J. Bedard , F. Bedard & J. P. Bouchard (1998) Role of the striatum, cerebellum and frontal lobes in the automatization of a repeated visuomotor sequence of movements. Neuropsychologia 36(7):625–41.
D. C. Drummond (2001) Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction 96(1):33–46.
S. A. Dudish-Poulsen & D. K. Hatsukami (1997) Dissociation between subjective and behavioral responses after cocaine stimuli presentations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 47(1):1–9.
R. Ehrman , J. Ternes , C. P. O'Brien & A. T. McLellan (1992) Conditioned tolerance in human opiate addicts. Psychopharmacology 108(1–2):218–24.
D. H. Epstein & K. L. Preston (2003) The reinstatement model and relapse prevention: A clinical perspective. Psychopharmacology 168:31–41.
S. M. Evans (1998) Behavioral pharmacology of caffeine. In: Handbook of substance abuse: Neurobehavioral pharmacology, ed. R. E. Tarter , R. T. Ammerman & P. J. Ott , pp. 69–96. Plenum.
B. J. Everitt , A. Dickinson & T. W. Robbins (2001) The neuropsychological basis of addictive behavior. Brain Research Reviews 36:129–38.
B. J. Everitt & T. W. Robbins (2005) Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: From actions to habits to compulsion. Nature Neuroscience 8(11):1481–89.
A. Faure , U. Haberland , C. C. Fran & N. E. Massioui (2005) Lesion to the nigrostriatal dopamine system disrupts stimulus-response habit formation. Journal of Neuroscience 25:2771–80.
J. Ferbinteanu , P. J. Kennedy & M. L. Shapiro (2006) Episodic memory – from brain to mind. Hippocampus 16(9):704–15.
J. Ferbinteanu & M. L. Shapiro (2003) Prospective and retrospective memory coding in the hippocampus. Neuron 40(6):1227–39.
F. R. Ferraro , D. A. Balota & L. T. Connor (1993) Implicit memory and the formation of new associations in non-demented Parkinson's disease individuals and individuals with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: A serial reaction time (SRT) investigation. Brain and Cognition 21(2):163–80.
C. B. Ferster & B. F. Skinner (1957) Schedules of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
D. M. Finch (1996) Neurophysiology of converging synaptic inputs from rat prefrontal cortex, amygdala, midline thalamus, and hippocampal formation onto single neurons of the caudate/putamen and nucleus accumbens. Hippocampus 6:495–512.
C. M. Flores , M. I. Dávila-García , Y. M. Ulrich & K. J. Kellar (1997) Differential regulation of neuronal nicotinic receptor binding sites following chronic nicotine administration. Journal of Neurochemistry 69:2216–19.
M. J. Frank , L. C. Seeberger & R. C. O'Reilly (2004) By carrot or by stick: Cognitive reinforcement learning in Parkinsonism. Science 306(5703):1940–43.
S. Frederick , G. Loewenstein & T. O'Donoghue (2002) Time discounting and time preference: A critical review. Journal of Economic Literature 40(2):351–401.
H. Garavan , J. Pankiewicz , A. Bloom , J.-K. Cho , L. Sperry , T. J. Ross , B. J. Salmeron , R. Risinger , D. Kelley & E. A. Stein (2000) Cue-induced cocaine craving: Neuroanatomical specificity for drug users and drug stimuli. American Journal of Psychiatry 157(11):1789–98.
T. W. Gardiner & S. T. Kitai (1992) Single-unit activity in the globus pallidus and neostriatum of the rat during performance of a trained head-movement. Experimental Brain Research 88:517–30.
F. H. Gawin (1991) Cocaine addiction: Psychology and neuropsychology. Science 251(5001):1580–86.
F. Georges , C. L. Moine & G. Aston-Jones (2006) No effect of morphine on ventral tegmental dopamine neurons during withdrawal. Journal of Neuroscience 26:5720–26.
P. W. German & H. L. Fields (2007a) How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: A probabilistic model. Journal of Neurophysiology 97(3):2083–93.
P. W. German & H. L. Fields (2007b) Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward. Journal of Neurophysiology 97(3):2094–106.
L. A. Giordano , W. K. Bickel , G. Loewenstein , E. A. Jacobs , L. Marsch & G. J. Badger (2002) Mild opioid deprivation increases the degree that opioid-dependent outpatients discount delayed heroin and money. Psychopharmacology 163(2):174–82.
P. W. Glimcher & A. Rustichini (2004) Neuroeconomics: The consilience of brain and decision. Science 306(5695):447–52.
P. Gold (2004) Coordination of multiple memory systems. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 82(3):230–42.
D. Goldman , G. Oroszi & F. Ducci (2005) The genetics of addictions: Uncovering the genes. Nature Reviews Genetics 6(7):521–32.
P. S. Goldman , H. E. Rosvold & M. Mishkin (1970) Evidence for behavioral impairment following prefrontal lobectomy in the infant monkey. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 70(3):454–63.
P. S. Goldman-Rakic , S. Funahashi & C. J. Bruce (1990) Neocortical memory circuits. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 55:1025–38.
Y. Goto & A. A. Grace (2005a) Dopamine-dependent interactions between limbic and prefrontal cortical plasticity in the nucleus accumbens: Disruption by cocaine sensitization. Neuron 47(2):255–66.
Y. Goto & A. A. Grace (2005b) Dopaminergic modulation of limbic and cortical drive of nucleus accumbens in goal-directed behavior. Nature Neuroscience 8(6):805–12.
J. E. Grant , M. N. Potenza , E. Hollander , R. Cunningham-Williams , T. Nurminen , G. Smits & A. Kallio (2006) Multicenter investigation of the opioid antagonist nalmefene in the treatment of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry 163(2):303–12.
S. Grant , C. Contoreggi & E. D. London (2000) Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision making. Neuropsychologia 38(8):1180–87.
S. Grant , E. D. London , D. B. Newlin , V. L. Villemagne , X. Liu , C. Contoreggi , R. L. Phillips , A. S. Kimes & A. Margolin (1996) Activation of memory circuits during cue-elicited cocaine craving. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93(21):12040–45.
J. W. Grimm , B. T. Hope , R. A. Wise & Y. Shaham (2001) Neuroadaptation: Incubation of cocaine craving after withdrawal. Nature 412:141–42.
S. Grossberg (1976) Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding: I. Parallel development and coding of neural feature detectors. Biological Cybernetics 23:121–34.
M. Grossman & F. J. Chaloupka (1998) The demand for cocaine by young adults: A rational addiction approach. Journal of Health Economics 17:427–74.
B. S. Gutkin , S. Dehaene & J.-P. Changeux (2006) A neurocomputational hypothesis for nicotine addiction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103(4):1106–11.
K. Hanson , S. Allen , S. Jensen & D. Hatsukami (2003) Treatment of adolescent smokers with the nicotine patch. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 5(4):515–26.
A. C. Harris & J. C. Gewirtz (2005) Acute opioid dependence: Characterizing the early adaptations underlying drug withdrawal. Psychopharmacology 178(4):353–66.
M. E. Hasselmo (1993) Acetylcholine and learning in a cortical associative memory. Neural Computation 5:32–44.
M. E. Hasselmo & J. M. Bower (1993) Acetylcholine and memory. Trends in Neurosciences 16(6):218–22.
R. Hastie (2001) Problems for judgment and decision making. Annual Review of Psychology 52:653–83.
K. F. Hauser , P. J. McLaughlin & I. S. Zagon (1987) Endogenous opioids regulate dendritic growth and spine formation in developing rat brain. Brain Research 416(1):157–61.
K. F. Hauser , P. J. McLaughlin & I. S. Zagon (1989) Endogenous opioid systems and the regulation of dendritic growth and spine formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology 281(1):13–22.
S. J. Heishman & J. E. Henningfield (2000) Tolerance to repeated nicotine administration on performance, subjective, and physiological responses in nonsmokers. Psychopharmacology 152(3):321–34.
A. Herz (1997) Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology 129:99–111.
S. T. Higgins , S. M. Alessi & R. L. Dantona (2002) Voucher-based incentives: A substance abuse treatment innovation. Addictive Behaviors 27:887–910.
O. Hikosaka , K. Miyashita , S. Miyachi , K. Sakai & X. Lu (1998) Differential roles of the frontal cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum in visuomotor sequence learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory): 70(1–2):137–49.
O. Hikosaka , H. Nakahara , M. K. Rand , K. Sakai , X. Lu , K. Nakamura , S. Miyachi & K. Doya (1999) Parallel neural networks for learning sequential procedures. Trends in Neurosciences 22(10):464–71.
O. Hikosaka , K. Nakamura & H. Nakahara (2006) Basal ganglia orient eyes to reward. Journal of Neurophysiology 95:567–84.
N. Hiroi & S. Agatsuma (2005) Genetic susceptibility to substance dependence. Molecular Psychiatry 10:336–44.
R. Hirsh (1974) The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: A theory. Behavioral Biology 12:421–44.
K. L. Hoffmann & B. L. McNaughton (2002) Coordinated reactivation of distributed memory traces in primate neocortex. Science 297(5589):2070–73.
C. Holden (2001) “Behavioral” addictions: Do they exist? Science 294:980–82.
J. J. Hopfield (1982) Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 79:2554–58.
D. Hu & A. Amsel (1995) A simple test of the vicarious trial-and-error hypothesis of hippocampal function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92:5506–5509.
D. Hu , X. Xu & F. Gonzalez-Lima (2006) Vicarious trial-and-error behavior and hippocampal cytochrome oxidase activity during Y-maze discrimination learning in the rat. International Journal of Neuroscience 116(3):265–80.
Y.-Y. Huang , E. R. Kandel , L. Vashavsky , E. P. Brandon , M. Qi , R. L. Idzerda , G. S. McKnight & R. Bourtchouladze (1995) A genetic test of the effects of mutations in PKA on mossy fiber LTP and its relation to spatial and contextual learning. Cell 83:1211–22.
J. R. Hughes & D. Hatsukami (1986) Signs and symptoms of tobacco withdrawal. Archives of General Psychiatry 43(3):289–94.
W. A. Hunt (1998) Pharmacology of alcohol. In: Handbook of substance abuse: Neurobehavioral pharmacology, ed. R. E. Tarter , R. T. Ammerman & P. J. Ott , pp. 7–22. Plenum.
Y. L. Hurd & M. Herkenham (1993) Molecular alterations in the neostriatum of human cocaine addicts. Synapse 13(4):357–69.
S. R. Hursh (1991) Behavioral economics of drug self-administration and drug abuse policy. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior 56(2):377–93.
S. R. Hursh , C. M. Galuska , G. Winger & J. H. Woods (2005) The economics of drug abuse: A quantitative assessment of drug demand. Molecular Interventions 5:20–28.
M. Husain , A. Parton , T. L. Hodgson , D. Mort & G. Rees (2003) Self-control during response conflict by human supplementary eye field. Nature Neuroscience 6:117–18.
S. E. Hyman (2005) Addiction: A disease of learning and memory. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:1414–22.
S. Ikemoto & J. Panksepp (1999) The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: A unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking. Brain Research Reviews 31(1):6–41.
S. Ikemoto , M. Qin & Z.-H. Liu (2006) Primary reinforcing effects of nicotine are triggered from multiple regions both inside and outside the ventral tegmental area. Journal of Neuroscience 26:723–30.
J. E. Irvin , P. S. Hendricks & T. H. Brandon (2003) The increasing recalcitrance of smokers in clinical trials: II. Pharmacotherapy trials. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 5(1):27–35.
M. Isoda & O. Hikosaka (2007) Switching from automatic to controlled action by monkey medial frontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 10:240–48.
H. Itoh , H. Nakahara , O. Hikosaka , R. Kawagoe , Y. Takikawa & K. Aihara (2003) Correlation of primate caudate neural activity and saccade parameters in reward-oriented behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology 89(4):1774–83.
S. D. Iversen & M. Mishkin (1970) Perseverative interference in monkeys following selective lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity. Experimental Brain Research 11(4):376–86.
G. M. Jackson , S. R. Jackson , J. Harrison , L. Henderson & C. Kennard (1995) Serial reaction time learning and Parkinson's disease: Evidence for a procedural learning deficit. Neuropsychologia 33(5):577–93.
O. Jensen & J. E. Lisman (2005) Hippocampal sequence-encoding driven by a cortical multi-item working memory buffer. Trends in Neurosciences 28(2):67–72.
J. D. Jentsch & J. R. Taylor (1999) Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: Implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli. Psychopharmacology 146:373–90.
M. S. Jog , Y. Kubota , C. I. Connolly , V. Hillegaart & A. M. Graybiel (1999) Building neural representations of habits. Science 286:1746–49.
A. Johnson & A. D. Redish (2005) Hippocampal replay contributes to within session learning in a temporal difference reinforcement learning model. Neural Networks 18(9):1163–71.
B. T. Jones , W. Corbin & K. Fromme (2001) A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction 96:57–72.
M. W. Jung , Y. Qin , B. L. McNaughton & C. A. Barnes (1998) Firing characteristics of deep layer neurons in prefrontal cortex in rats performing spatial working memory tasks. Cerebral Cortex 8:437–50.
P. W. Kalivas , J. Peters & L. Knackstedt (2006) Animal models and brain circuits in drug addiction. Molecular Interventions 6:339–44.
P. W. Kalivas & N. D. Volkow (2005) The neural basis of addiction: A pathology of motivation and choice. American Journal of Psychiatry 162(8):1403–13.
P. W. Kalivas , N. D. Volkow & J. Seamans (2005) Unmanageable motivation in addiction: A pathology in prefrontal-accumbens glutamate transmission. Neuron 45(5):647–50.
J. L. Katz & S. T. Higgins (2003) The validity of the reinstatement model of craving and relapse. Psychopharmacology 168:21–30.
R. Kawagoe , Y. Takikawa & O. Hikosaka (2004) Reward-predicting activity of dopamine and caudate neurons – a possible mechanism of motivational control of saccadic eye movement. Journal of Neurophysiology 91(2):1013–24.
A. E. Kelley (1999a) Functional specificity of ventral striatal compartments in appetitive behaviors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 877:71–90.
A. E. Kelley (2004a) Memory and addiction: Shared neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms. Neuron 44:161–79.
A. E. Kelley , V. P. Bakshi , S. N. Haber , T. L. Steininger , M. J. Will & M. Zhang (2002) Opioid modulation of taste hedonics within the ventral striatum. Physiology and Behavior 76(3):365–77.
P. J. Kenny & A. Markou (2005) Conditioned nicotine withdrawal profoundly decreases the activity of brain reward systems. Journal of Neuroscience 25(26):6208–12.
C. G. Kentros , N. T. Agnihotri , S. Streater , R. D. Hawkins & E. R. Kandel (2004) Increased attention to spatial context increases both place field stability and spatial memory. Neuron 42:283–95.
I. Kermadi , Y. Jurquet , M. Arzi & J. Joseph (1993) Neural activity in the caudate nucleus of monkeys during spatial sequencing. Experimental Brain Research 94:352–56.
R. P. Kesner , G. Farnsworth & B. V. DiMattia (1989) Double dissociation of egocentric and allocentric space following medial prefrontal and parietal cortex lesions in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience 103(5):956–61.
F. Kiefer & K. Mann (2005) New achievements and pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of alcohol dependence. European Journal of Pharmacology 526(1–3):163–71.
B. L. Kieffer (1999) Opioids: First lessons from knockout mice. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 20(1):19–26.
S. Killcross & E. Coutureau (2003) Coordination of actions and habits in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. Cerebral Cortex 13(8):400–408.
K. N. Kirby , N. M. Petry & W. K. Bickel (1999) Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128(1):78–87.
E. A. Kiyatkin (1994) Behavioral significance of phasic changes in mesolimbic dopamine-dependent electrochemical signal associated with heroin self-injections. Journal of Neural Transmission, General Section 96(3):197–214.
E. A. Kiyatkin & A. Gratton (1994) Electrochemical monitoring of extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens of rats lever-pressing for food. Brain Research 652:225–34.
E. A. Kiyatkin & G. V. Rebec (1997) Activity of presumed dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area during heroin self-administration. NeuroReport 8(11):2581–85.
E. A. Kiyatkin & G. V. Rebec (2001) Impulse activity of ventral tegmental area neurons during heroin self-administration in rats. Neuroscience 102(3):565–80.
D. S. Knopman & M. J. Nissen (1987) Implicit learning in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 37(5):784–88.
D. S. Knopman & M. J. Nissen (1991) Procedural learning is impaired in Huntington's disease: Evidence from the serial reaction time task. Neuropsychologia 29(3):245–54.
R. A. Koene , A. Gorchetchnikov , R. C. Cannon & M. E. Hasselmo (2003) Modeling goal-directed spatial navigation in the rat based on physiological data from the hippocampal formation. Neural Networks 16(5–6):577–84.
G. F. Koob & F. E. Bloom (1988) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence. Science 242:715–23.
G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (1997) Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science 278(5335):52–58.
G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (2001) Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 24(2):97–129.
G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (2005) Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the ‘dark side’ of drug addiction. Nature Neuroscience 8(11):1442–44.
G. F. Koob & M. Le Moal (2006) Neurobiology of addiction. Elsevier Academic.
M. J. Kreek , D. A. Nielsen , E. R. Butelman & K. S. LaForge (2005) Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nature Neuroscience 8:1450–57.
C. R. Laing & C. C. Chow (2001) Stationary bumps in networks of spiking neurons. Neural Computation 13(7):1473–14.
E. J. Langer & J. Roth (1975) Heads I win, tails it's chance: The illusion of control as a function of the sequence of outcomes in a purely chance task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32(6):951–55.
A. M. Lavoie & S. J. Y. Mizumori (1994) Spatial-, movement- and reward-sensitive discharge by medial ventral striatum neurons in rats. Brain Research 638:157–68.
F. Leri , J. Bruneau & J. Stewart (2003) Understanding polydrug use: Review of heroin and cocaine co-use. Addiction 98(1):7–23.
M. G. LeSage , D. Burroughs , M. Dufek , D. E. Keyler & P. R. Pentel (2004) Reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats by presentation of nicotine-paired stimuli, but not nicotine priming. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 79(3):507–13.
A. S. Levine & C. J. Billington (2004) Opioids as agents of reward-related feeding: A consideration of the evidence. Physiology and Behavior 82:57–61.
W. B. Levy (1996) A sequence predicting CA3 is a flexible associator that learns and uses context to solve hippocampal-like tasks. Hippocampus 6(6):579–91.
W. B. Levy , A. Sanyal , P. Rodriguez , D. W. Sullivan & X. B. Wu (2005) The formation of neural codes in the hippocampus: Trace conditioning as a prototypical paradigm for studying the random recoding hypothesis. Biological Cybernetics 92:409–26.
Y. Li , M. J. Acerbo & T. E. Robinson (2004) The induction of behavioural sensitization is associated with cocaine-induced structural plasticity in the core (but not shell) of the nucleus accumbens. European Journal of Neuroscience 20(6):1647–54.
D. Liao , H. Lin , P. Y. Law & H. H. Loh (2005) Mu-opioid receptors modulate the stability of dendritic spines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 102(5):1725–30.
J. E. Lisman & A. A. Grace (2005) The hippocampal-VTA loop: Controlling the entry of information into long-term memory. Neuron 46(5):703–13.
J.-L. Liu , J.-T. Liu , J. K. Hammit & S.-Y. Chou (1999) The price elasticity of opium in Taiwan, 1914–1942. Journal of Health Economics 18:795–810.
D. I. Lubman , L. A. Peters , K. Mogg , B. P. Bradley & J. F. Deakin (2000) Attentional bias for drug cues in opiate dependence. Psychological Medicine 30:169–75.
D. I. Lubman , M. Yücel & C. Pantelis (2004) Addiction, a condition of compulsive behaviour? Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence of inhibitory dysregulation. Addiction 99:1491–1502.
R. J. MacCoun (1993) Drugs and the law: A psychological analysis of drug prohibition. Psychological Bulletin 113(3):497–512.
J. MacKillop , E. J. Anderson , B. A. Castelda , R. E. Mattson & P. J. Donovick (2006) Convergent validity of measures of cognitive distortions, impulsivity, and time perspective with pathological gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 20(1):75–79.
J. MacKillop & P. M. Monti (2007) Advances in the scientific study of craving for alcohol and tobacco. In: Translation of addiction science into practice, ed. P. M. Miller & D. Kavanagh , Ch. 10, pp. 187–207. Elsevier.
E. Maddahian , M. D. Newcomb & P. M. Bentler (1986) Adolescents' substance use: Impact of ethnicity, income, and availability. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 5(3):63–78.
G. J. Madden , W. K. Bickel & E. A. Jacobs (1999) Discounting of delayed rewards in opioid-dependent outpatients exponential or hyperbolic discounting functions? Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 7(3):284–93.
G. J. Madden , N. M. Petry , G. J. Badger & W. K. Bickford (1997) Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control patients: Drug and monetary rewards. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 5(3):256–62.
H. D. Mansvelder & D. S. McGehee (2000) Long-term potentiation of excitatory inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine. Neuron 27:349–57.
H. D. Mansvelder & D. S. McGehee (2002) Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of nicotine addiction. Journal of Neurobiology 53(4):606–17.
T. L. Mark , G. E. Woody , T. Juday & H. D. Kleber (2001) The economic costs of heroin addiction in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 61(2):195–206.
D. Marr (1971) Simple memory: A theory of archicortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 262(841):23–81.
P. D. Martin (2001) Locomotion towards a goal alters the synchronous firing of neurons recorded simultaneously in the subiculum and nucleus accumbens of rats. Behavioral Brain Research 124(1):19–28.
P. D. Martin & T. Ono (2000) Effects of reward anticipation, reward presentation, and spatial parameters on the firing of single neurons recorded in the subiculum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Behavioural Brain Research 116:23–38.
D. Martinez , R. Narendran , R. W. Foltin , M. Slifstein , D.-R. Hwang , A. Broft , Y. Huang , T. B. Cooper , M. W. Fischman , H. D. Kleber & M. Laruelle (2007) Amphetamine-induced dopamine release: Markedly blunted in cocaine dependence and predictive of the choice to self-administer cocaine. American Journal of Psychiatry 164(4):622–29.
H. W. D. Matthes , R. Maldonado , F. Simonin , O. Valverde , S. Slowe , I. Kitchen , K. Befort , A. Dierich , M. L. Meur , P. Dolĺe , E. Tzavara , J. Hanoune , B. P. Roques & B. L. Kieffer (1996) Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect, and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the μ-opioid-receptor gene. Nature 383:819–23.
J. E. Mazur (2001) Hyperbolic value addition and general models of animal choice. Psychological Review 108(1):96–112.
M. E. McCaul & N. M. Petry (2003) The role of psychosocial treatments in pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. The American Journal on Addictions 12:S41–S52.
S. M. McClure , G. S. Berns & P. R. Montague (2003) Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum. Neuron 38(2):339–46.
R. J. McDonald & N. M. White (1994) Parallel information processing in the water maze: Evidence for independent memory systems involving dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Behavioral and Neural Biology 61:260–70.
A. J. McGeorge & R. L. Faull (1989) The organization of the projection from the cerebral cortex to the striatum in the rat. Neuroscience 29(3):503–37.
R. Meyer & S. Mirin (1979) The heroin stimulus. Plenum.
M. R. Milad & G. J. Quirk (2002) Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature 420:70–74.
F. J. Miles , B. J. Everitt & A. Dickinson (2003) Oral cocaine seeking by rats: Action or habit? Behavioral Neuroscience 117(5):927–38.
M. Mishkin & T. Appenzeller (1987) The anatomy of memory. Scientific American 256(6):80–89.
S. Miyachi , O. Hikosaka , K. Miyashita , Z. Kárádi & M. K. Rand (1997) Differential roles of monkey striatum in learning of sequential hand movement. Experimental Brain Research 115:1–5.
K. Miyazaki , E. Mogi , N. Araki & G. Matsumoto (1998) Reward-quality dependent anticipation in rat nucleus accumbens. NeuroReport 9:3943–48.
G. J. Mogenson , D. L. Jones & C. Y. Yim (1980) From motivation to action: Functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system. Progress in Neurobiology 14:69–97.
P. R. Montague , P. Dayan , C. Person & T. J. Sejnowski (1995) Bee foraging in uncertain environments using predictive Hebbian learning. Nature 377(6551):725–28.
D. Morgan , K. A. Grant , H. D. Gage , R. H. Mach , J. R. Kaplan , O. Prioleau , S. H. Nader , N. Buchheimer , R. L. Ehrenkaufer & M. A. Nader (2002) Social dominance in monkeys: Dopamine D2 receptors and cocaine self-administration. Nature Neuroscience 5(2):169–74.
R. G. M. Morris , P. Garrud , J. N. P. Rawlins & J. O'Keefe (1982) Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. Nature 297:681–83.
R. F. Mucha & A. Herz (1985) Motivational properties of kappa and mu opioid receptor agonists studied with place and taste preference conditioning. Psychopharmacology 86:274–80.
B. L. Murphy , A. F. T. Arnsten , P. S. Goldman-Rakic & R. H. Roth (1996) Increased dopamine turnover in the prefrontal cortex impairs spatial working memory performance in rats and monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93(3):1325–29.
H. Mushiake , M. Saito , K. Sakamoto , Y. Itoyama & J. Tanji (2006) Activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex reflects multiple steps of future events in action plans. Neuron 50(4):631–41.
K. M. Myers & M. Davis (2002) Behavioral and neural analysis of extinction. Neuron 36(4):567–84.
K. M. Myers & M. Davis (2007) Mechanisms of fear extinction. Molecular Psychiatry 12:120–50.
L. Nadel & V. Bohbot (2001) Consolidation of memory. Hippocampus 11:56–60.
L. Nadel & M. Moscovitch (1997) Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 7:217–27.
H. Nakahara , H. Itoh , R. Kawagoe , Y. Takikawa & O. Hikosaka (2004) Dopamine neurons can represent context-dependent prediction error. Neuron 41:269–80.
A. Nehlig (1999) Are we dependent upon coffee and caffeine? A review on human and animal data. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 23(4):563–76.
A. Nehlig & S. Boyet (2000) Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence. Brain Research 858(1):71–77.
A. Nelson & S. Killcross (2006) Amphetamine exposure enhances habit formation. Journal of Neuroscience 26(14):3805–12.
O. G. Nilsson , M. L. Shapiro , F. H. Gage , D. S. Olton & A. Bjorklund (1987) Spatial learning and memory following fimbria-fornix transection and grafting of fetal septal neurons to the hippocampus. Experimental Brain Research 67:195–215.
T. Nishioku , T. Shimazoe , Y. Yamamoto , H. Nakanishi & S. Watanabe (1999) Expression of long-term potentiation of the striatum in methamphetamine-sensitized rats. Neuroscience Letters 268(2):81–84.
M. J. Nissen & P. Bullemer (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology 19:1–32.
M. J. Nissen , D. S. Knopman & D. L. Schacter (1987) Neurochemical dissociation of memory systems. Neurology 37(5):789–94.
Y. Niv , N. D. Daw , D. Joel & P. Dayan (2007) Tonic dopamine: Opportunity costs and the control of response vigor. Psychopharmacology 191(3):507–20.
J. I. Nurnberger & L. Bierut (2007) Seeking the connections: Alcoholism and our genes. Scientific American 296(4):46–53.
C. P. O'Brien (2005) Anticraving medications for relapse prevention: A possible new class of psychoactive medications. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:1423–31.
C. P. O'Brien , L. A. Volpicelli & J. R. Volpicelli (1996) Naltrexone in the treatment of alcoholism: A clinical review. Alcohol 13(1):35–39.
J. P. O'Doherty (2004) Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14:769–76.
J. O'Doherty , P. Dayan , J. Schultz , R. Deichmann , K. Friston & R. J. Dolan (2004) Dissociable roles of ventral and dorsal striatum in instrumental conditioning. Science 304(5669):452–54.
C. M. P. O'Tuatheigh , C. Salum , A. M. J. Young , A. D. Pickering , M. H. Joseph & P. M. Moran (2003) The effect of amphetamine on Kamin blocking and overshadowing. Behavioral Pharmacology 14:315–22.
T. P. S. Oei & A. R. Baldwin (2002) Expectancy theory: A two-process model of alcohol use and abuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 55:525–34.
M. C. Olmstead , M. V. Lafond , B. J. Everitt & A. Dickinson (2001) Cocaine seeking by rats is a goal-directed action. Behavioral Neuroscience 115(2):394–402.
S. Ostlund & B. W. Balleine (2007) Orbitofrontal cortex mediates outcome encoding in Pavlovian but not instrumental conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience 27(18):4819–25.
A. M. Owen (1997) Cognitive planning in humans: Neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological perspectives. Progress in Neurobiology 53(4):431–50.
M. G. Packard (1999) Glutamate infused post-training into the hippocampus or caudate-putamen differentially strengthens place and response learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96(22):12881–86.
M. G. Packard & J. L. McGaugh (1992) Double dissociation of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on acquisition of two water maze tasks: Further evidence for multiple memory systems. Behavioral Neuroscience 106(3):439–46.
M. G. Packard & J. L. McGaugh (1996) Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response learning. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 65:65–72.
C. Padoa-Schioppa & J. A. Assad (2006) Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value. Nature 441:223–26.
T. A. Paine , H. C. Dringenberg & M. C. Olmstead (2003) Effects of chronic cocaine on impulsivity: Relation to cortical serotonin mechanisms. Behavioural Brain Research 147(1–2):135–47.
W.-X. Pan , R. Schmidt , J. R. Wickens & B. I. Hyland (2005) Dopamine cells respond to predicted events during classical conditioning: Evidence for eligibility traces in the reward-learning network. Journal of Neuroscience 25(26):6235–42.
D. Paré , G. J. Quirk & J. E. Ledoux (2004) New vistas on amygdala networks in conditioned fear. Journal of Neurophysiology 92:1–9.
J. Parke & M. Griffiths (2004) Gambling addiction and the evolution of the “near miss.” Addiction Research and Theory 12(5):407–11.
C. M. A. Pennartz , H. J. Groenewegen & F. H. Lopes da Silva (1994) The nucleus accumbens as a complex of functionally distinct neuronal ensembles: An integration of behavioural, electrophysiological, and anatomical data. Progress in Neurobiology 42:719–61.
C. M. A. Pennartz , E. Lee , J. Verheul , P. Lipa , C. A. Barnes & B. L. McNaughton (2004) The ventral striatum in off-line processing: Ensemble reactivation during sleep and modulation by hippocampal ripples. Journal of Neuroscience 24(29):6446–56.
L. L. Peoples , A. J. Uzwiak , F. Gee & M. O. West (1999) Tonic firing of rat nucleus accumbens neurons: Changes during the first two weeks of daily cocaine self-administration sessions. Brain Research 822:231–36.
K. A. Perkins (2001) Reinforcing effects of nicotine as a function of smoking status. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 9 (8):250.
K. A. Perkins , J. E. Grobe , D. Weiss , C. Fonte & A. Caqquila (1996) Nicotine preference in smokers as a function of smoking abstinence. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 55(2):257–63.
J. L. Perry , E. B. Larson , J. P. German , G. J. Madden & M. E. Carroll (2005) Impulsivity (delay discounting) as a predictor of acquisition of IV cocaine self-administration in female rats. Psychopharmacology 178(2–3):193–201.
N. M. Petry (2001) Pathological gamblers, with and without substance abuse disorders, discount delayed rewards at high rates. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110(3):482–87.
N. M. Petry & W. K. Bickel (1998) Polydrug abuse in heroin addicts: A behavioral economic analysis. Addiction 93(3):321–35.
N. M. Petry , W. K. Bickel & M. Arnett (1998) Shortened time horizons and insensitivity to future consequences in heroin addicts. Addiction 93(5):729–38.
E. A. Phelps & J. E. LeDoux (2005) Contributions of the amygdala to emotion processing: From animal models to human behavior. Neuron 48(2):175–87.
P. E. M. Phillips , G. D. Stuber , M. L. A. V. Heien , R. M. Wightman & R. M. Carelli (2003) Subsecond dopamine release promotes cocaine seeking. Nature 422:614–18.
H. Plassmann , J. O'Doherty & A. Rangel (2007) Orbitofrontal cortex encodes willingness to pay in everyday economic transactions. Journal of Neuroscience 27(37):9984–88.
R. A. Poldrack , J. Clark , E. J. Paré-Blagoev , D. Shohamy , J. C. Moyano , C. Myers & M. A. Gluck (2001) Interactive memory systems in the human brain. Nature 414:546–50.
R. A. Poldrack & M. G. Packard (2003) Competition among multiple memory systems: Converging evidence from animal and human studies. Neuropsychologia 41:245–51.
L. J. Porrino , J. B. Daunais , H. R. Smith & M. A. Nader (2004a) The expanding effects of cocaine: Studies in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 27(8):813–20.
L. J. Porrino , D. Lyons , H. R. Smith , J. B. Daunais & M. A. Nader (2004b) Cocaine self-administration produces a progressive involvement of limbic, association, and sensorimotor striatal domains. Journal of Neuroscience 24(14):3554–62.
M. N. Potenza (2006) Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions? Addiction 101(S1):142–51.
M. N. Potenza , T. R. Kosten & B. J. Rounsaville (2001) Pathological gambling. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(2):141–44.
C. X. Poulos , A. D. Le & J. L. Parker (1995) Impulsivity predicts individual susceptibility to high levels of alcohol self-administration. Behavioral Pharmacology 6(8):810–14.
K. Preuschoff , P. Bossaerts & S. R. Quartz (2006) Neural differentiation of expected reward and risk in human subcortical structures. Neuron 51:381–90.
G. J. Quirk , R. Garcia & F. González-Lima (2006) Prefrontal mechanisms in extinction of conditioned fear. Biological Psychiatry 60(4):337–43.
M. E. Ragozzino , J. Jih & A. Tzavos (2002a) Involvement of the dorsomedial striatum in behavioral flexibility: Role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Brain Research 953(1–2):205–14.
M. E. Ragozzino , K. E. Ragozzino , S. J. Y. Mizumori & R. P. Kesner (2002b) The role of the dorsomedial striatum in behavioral flexibility for response and visual cue discrimination learning. Behavioral Neuroscience 116:105–15.
R. Ranaldi , P. Bauco , S. McCormick , A. R. Cools & R. A. Wise (2001) Equal sensitivity to cocaine reward in addiction-prone and addiction-resistant rat genotypes. Behavioural Pharmacology 12(6–7):527–34.
M. K. Rand , O. Hikosaka , S. Miyachi , X. Lu & K. Miyashita (1998) Characteristics of a long-term procedural skill in the monkey. Experimental Brain Research 118:293–97.
M. K. Rand , O. Hikosaka , S. Miyachi , X. Lu , K. Nakamura , K. Kitaguchi & Y. Shimo (2000) Characteristics of sequential movements during early learning period in monkeys. Experimental Brain Research 131:293–304.
A. Rapoport & T. S. Wallsten (1972) Individual decision behavior. Annual Review of Psychology 23:131–76.
N. Raylu & T. P. S. Oei (2002) Pathological gambling. A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review 22(7):1009–61.
A. D. Redish (2004) Addiction as a computational process gone awry. Science 306(5703):1944–47.
A. D. Redish , S. Jensen , A. Johnson & Z. Kurth-Nelson (2007) Reconciling reinforcement learning models with behavioral extinction and renewal: Implications for addiction, relapse, and problem gambling. Psychological Review 114(3):784–805.
A. D. Redish & A. Johnson (2007) A computational model of craving and obsession. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1104(1):324–39.
A. D. Redish & D. S. Touretzky (1998) The role of the hippocampus in solving the Morris water maze. Neural Computation 10(1):73–111.
R. A. Rescorla (1988) Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is. American Psychologist 43(3):151–60.
B. R. Reynolds (2006) A review of delay-discounting research with humans: Relations to drug use and gambling. Behavioural Pharmacology 17(8):651–67.
J. N. J. Reynolds , B. I. Hyland & J. R. Wickens (2001) A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning. Nature 413:67–70.
J. N. J. Reynolds & J. R. Wickens (2002) Dopamine-dependent plasticity of corticostriatal synapses. Neural Networks 15(4–6):507–21.
M. E. Rice & S. J. Cragg (2004) Nicotine enhances reward-related dopamine signals in striatum. Nature Neuroscience 7(6):583–84.
M. C. Ritz , R. J. Lamb , S. R. Goldberg & M. J. Kuhar (1987) Cocaine receptors on dopamine transporters are related to self-administration of cocaine. Science 237:1219–23.
T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (1999) Drug addiction: Bad habits add up. Nature 398(6728):567–70.
T. W. Robbins & B. J. Everitt (2006) A role for mesencephalic dopamine in activation: Commentary on Berridge. Psychopharmacology 191(3):433–37.
T. E. Robinson (2004) Neuroscience: Addicted rats. Science 305(5686):951–53.
T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews 18(3):247–336.
T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (2001) Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli: Incentive sensitization and addiction. Addiction 96:103–14.
T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (2003) Addiction. Annual Reviews of Psychology 54(1):25–53.
T. E. Robinson & K. C. Berridge (2004) Incentive-sensitization and drug “wanting” (Reply). Psychopharmacology 171:352–53.
T. E. Robinson , G. Gorny , E. Mitton & B. Kolb (2001) Cocaine self-administration alters the morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens and neocortex. Synapse 39(3):257–66.
T. E. Robinson , G. Gorny , V. R. Savage & B. Kolb (2002) Widespread but regionally specific effects of experimenter- versus self-administered morphine on dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and neocortex of adult rats. Synapse 46(4):271–79.
T. E. Robinson & B. Kolb (1999) Alterations in the morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex following repeated treatment with amphetamine or cocaine. European Journal of Neuroscience 11(5):1598–1604.
M. R. Roesch , D. J. Calu & G. Schoenbaum (2007) Dopamine neurons encode the better option in rats deciding between differently delayed or sized rewards. Nature Neuroscience 10:1615–24.
M. F. Roitman , G. D. Stuber , P. E. M. Phillips , R. M. Wightman & R. M. Carelli (2004) Dopamine operates as a subsecond modulator of food seeking. Journal of Neuroscience 24(6):1265–71.
J. E. Rose , J. E. Herskovic , Y. Trilling & M. E. Jarvik (1985) Transdermal nicotine reduces cigarette craving and nicotine preference. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38(4):450–56.
M. F. S. Rushworth , M. J. Buckley , T. E. J. Behrens , M. E. Walton & D. M. Bannerman (2007) Functional organization of the medial frontal cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 17(2):220–27.
M. A. H. Russell (1990) The nicotine addiction trap: A 40-year sentence for four cigarettes. British Journal of Addiction 85:293–300.
J. A. Saint-Cyr , A. E. Taylor & A. E. Lang (1988) Procedural learning and neostriatal dysfunction in man. Brain 111:941–59.
M. Sakagami & X. Pan (2007) Functional role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in decision making. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 17(2):228–33.
M. Sakagami , X. Pan & B. Uttl (2006) Behavioral inhibition and prefrontal cortex in decision-making. Neural Networks 19(8):1255–65.