This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
E. Adkins-Regan (2005) Hormones and animal social behavior. Princeton University Press.
E. S. Allen & D. H. Baucom (2004) Adult attachment and patterns of extradyadic involvement. Family Process 43:467–88.
J. Archer & M. Mehdikhani (2000) Strategic pluralism: Men and women start from a different point. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:588.
R. J. Auchus & W. E. Rainey (2004) Adrenarche – physiology, biochemistry and human disease. Clinical Endocrinology 60:288–96.
O. Aviezer , A. Sagi , G. Resnick & M. Gini (2002) School competence in young adolescence: Links to early attachment relationships beyond concurrent self-perceived competence and representations of relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development 26:397–409.
M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , M. H. van IJzendoorn , C. L. Bokhorst & C. Schuengel (2004) The importance of shared environment in infant-father attachment: A behavioral genetic study of the Attachment Q-sort. Journal of Family Psychology 18:545–49.
M. W. Baldwin & B. Fehr (1995) On the instability of attachment style ratings. Personal Relationships 2:247–61.
N. Barber (2000) On the relationship between country sex ratios and teen pregnancy rates: A replication. Cross-Cultural Research 34:26–37.
K. Bartholomew (1990) Avoidance of intimacy: An attachment perspective. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 7:147–78.
K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz (1991) Attachment styles in young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:226–44.
P. Bateson (2005) The return of the whole organism. Journal of Biosciences 30:101–109.
J. Belsky (1997a) Attachment, mating and parenting: An evolutionary interpretation. Human Nature 8:361–81.
J. Belsky (1997b) Variation in susceptibility to environmental influence: An evolutionary argument. Psychological Inquiry 8:82–186.
J. Belsky (2000) Fixed versus flexible strategies: Individual differences in facultative responsiveness? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:591–92.
J. Belsky (2002) Developmental origins of attachment styles. Attachment and Human Development 4:166–70.
J. Belsky , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg & M. H. van IJzendoorn (2007a) For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16:300–304.
J. Belsky , L. D. Steinberg , R. M. Houts , S. L. Friedman , G. DeHart , E. Cauffman , G. I. Roisman , B. L. Halpern-Felsher , E. Susman & The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network (2007b) Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Development 78:1302–21.
J. Belsky , L. Steinberg & P. Draper (1991) Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development 62:647–70.
D. Benoit & K. C. H. Parker (1994) Stability and transmission of attachment across three generations. Child Development 65:1444–56.
G. Bernroider , M. Holztrattner & K. Rottner (1996) Sex steroid-opioid interactions associated with the temporal component of avian calling patterns. Hormones and Behavior 30:583–89.
L. Betzig (1989) Causes of conjugal dissolution: A cross-cultural study. Current Anthropology 30:654–76.
G. E. Birnbaum (2007) Beyond the borders of reality: Attachment orientations and sexual fantasies. Personal Relationships 14:321–42.
D. F. Bjorklund (1997) The role of immaturity in human development. Psychological Bulletin 122:153–69.
A. F. Bogaert & S. Sadava (2002) Adult attachment and sexual behavior. Personal Relationships 9:191–204.
B. Bogin (1999) Evolutionary perspective on human growth. Annual Review of Anthropology 28:109–53.
C. L. Bokhorst , M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg , R. M. P. Fearon , M. H. van IJzendoorn , P. Fonagy & C. Schuengel (2003) The importance of shared environment in mother-infant attachment security: A behavioral genetic study. Child Development 74:1769–82.
C. Booth-Laforce , W. Oh , A. Hayoung Kim , K. H. Rubin , L. Rose-.Krasnor & K. Burgess (2006) Attachment, self-worth, and peer-group functioning in middle childhood. Attachment and Human Development 8:309–25.
A. Brassard , P. R. Shaver & Y. Lussier (2007) Attachment, sexual experience, and sexual pleasure in romantic relationships: A dyadic approach. Personal Relationships 14:475–93.
I. Bretherton & K. A. Munholland (1999) Internal working models in attachment relationships: A construct revisited. In: Handbook of Attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications, ed. J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver . Guilford.
M. J. Brussoni , K. Lang , W. J. Livesley & T. M. Macbeth (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on adult attachment styles. Personal Relationships 7:283–89.
W. M. Bukowski , L. A. Sippola & A. F. Newcomb (2000) Variations in patterns of attraction to same- and other-sex peers during early adolescence. Developmental Psychology 36:147–54.
D. M. Buss & D. P. Schmitt (1993) Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review 100:204–32.
A. Campbell (2000) Putting people before parasites and places. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:596–97.
B. Campbell & J. R. Udry (1995) Stress and age at menarche of mothers and daughters. Journal of Biosocial Science 27:127–34.
V. Carlson , D. Cicchetti , D. Barnett & K. Braunwald (1989) Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Developmental Psychology 25:525–31.
C. S. Carter (1998) Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:779–818.
E. Cashdan (1996) Women's mating strategies. Evolutionary Anthropology 5:134–43.
J. Cassidy (1988) Child-mother attachment and the self in six-year-olds. Child Development 59:121–34.
J. Cassidy (2003) Continuity and change in the measurement of infant attachment: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology 39:409–12.
J. Cassidy & L. Berlin (1994) The insecure/ambivalent pattern of attachment: Theory and research. Child Development 65:971–91.
A. Chasiotis , D. Scheffer , R. Restemeier & H. Keller (1998) Intergenerational context discontinuity affects the onset of puberty: A comparison of parent–child dyads in West and East Germany. Human Nature 9:321–39.
J. S. Chisholm (1993) Death, hope, and sex: Life-history theory and the development of reproductive strategies. Current Anthropology 34:1–24.
J. S. Chisholm , J. A. Quinlivan , R. W. Petersen & D. A. Coall (2005b) Early stress predicts age at menarche and first birth, adult attachment, and expected lifespan. Human Nature 16:233–65.
A. Clark & M. Daly (2005) What is the significance of cross-national variability in sociosexuality? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28:280.
T. H. Clutton-Brock (1991) The evolution of parental care. Princeton University Press.
T. H. Clutton-Brock (2002) Breeding together: Kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science 296:69–72.
N. L. Collins & S. J. Read (1990) Adult attachment, working models and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58:644–63.
D. E. Comings , D. Muhlemann , J. P. Johnson & J. P. Mac Murray (2002) Parent-daughter transmission of the androgen receptor gene as an explanation of the effect of father absence on age of menarche. Child Development 73:1046–51.
M. L. Cooper , P. R. Shaver & N. L. Collins (1998) Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1380–97.
J. A. Crowell , D. Treboux & E. Waters (2002) Stability of attachment representations: The transition to marriage. Developmental Psychology 38:467–79.
F. M. Cummings (2003) Toward assessing attachment on an emotional security continuum: Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology 39:405–408.
D. H. David & K. Lyons-Ruth (2005) Differential attachment responses of male and female infants to frightening maternal behavior: Tend or befriend versus fight or flight? Infant Mental Health Journal 26:1–18.
M. DeKlyen , M. Speltz & M. T. Greenberg (1999) Fathering and early onset conduct problems: Positive and negative parenting, father–son attachment, and the marital context. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 1:3–21.
M. Del Giudice (2008) Sex-biased ratio of avoidant/ambivalent attachment in middle childhood. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 26:369–79.
A. W. Delton , T. E. Robertson & D. T. Kenrick (2006) The mating game isn't over: A reply to Buller's critique of the evolutionary psychology of mating. Evolutionary Psychology 4:262–73.
P. Draper (1989) African marriage systems: Perspectives from evolutionary ecology. Ethology and Sociobiology 10:145–69.
P. Draper & H. Harpending (1982) Father absence and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Anthropological Research 38:255–73.
P. Draper & H. Harpending (1988) A sociobiological perspective on the development of human reproductive strategies. In: Sociobiological perspectives on human development, ed. K. B. MacDonald , pp. 340–72. Springer-Verlag.
J. Ducharme , A. B. Doyle & D. Markiewicz (2002) Attachment security with mother and father: Associations with adolescents' reports of interpersonal behavior with parents and peers. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 19:203–31.
R. I. M. Dunbar & S. Schultz (2007) Evolution in the social brain. Science 317:1344–47.
V. Egan & S. Angus (2004) Is social dominance a sex-specific strategy for infidelity? Personality and Individual Differences 36:575–86.
I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1989) Human ethology. Aldine de Gruyter.
B. J. Ellis (2004) Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin 130:920–58.
B. J. Ellis , J. J. Jackson & W. T. Boyce (2006) The stress response system: Universality and adaptive individual differences. Developmental Review 26:175–212.
D. Emlen (1997) Alternative reproductive tactics and male dimorphism in the horned beetle Onthophagus acuminatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41:335–41.
M. F. Erickson , L. A. Sroufe & B. Egeland (1985) The relationship between quality of attachment and behavior problems in preschool in a high-risk sample. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50:147–66.
J. A. Feeney & P. Noller (1990) Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58:281–91.
A. J. Figueredo , G. Vásquez , B. Brumbach , S. M. R. Schneider , J. A. Sefcek , I. R. Tal , D. Hill , C. J. Wenner & W. J. Jacobs (2006) Consilience and life history theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review 26:243–75.
D. Finkel , D. E. Wille & A. P. Matheny (1998) Preliminary results from a twin study of infant-caregiver attachment. Behavior Genetics 28:1–8.
R. A. Finnegan , E. Hodges & D. Perry (1996) Preoccupied and avoidant coping during middle childhood. Child Development 67:1318–28.
R. C. Fraley (2002) Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-analysis and dynamic modeling of developmental mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review 6:123–51.
R. C. Fraley & S. J. Spieker (2003) Are infant attachment patterns continuously or categorically distributed? A taxometric analysis of Strange Situation behavior. Developmental Psychology 39:387–404.
F. F. Furstenberg & C. W. Nord (1985) Parenting apart: Patterns of childrearing after marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family 47:893–904.
F. F. Furstenberg , J. L. Peterson , C. W. Nord & N. Zill (1983) The life course of children of divorce: Marital disruption and marital contact. American Sociological Review 48:656–68.
S. W. Gangestad & J. A. Simpson (1990) Towards an evolutionary history of female sociosexual variation. Journal of Personality 58:69–96.
S. W. Gangestad & J. A. Simpson (2000) The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:573–87; discussion 597–644.
D. C. Geary (1998) Male, female. The evolution of human sex differences. American Psychological Association.
D. C. Geary (2000) Evolution and proximal expression of human paternal investment. Psychological Bulletin 126:55–77.
D. C. Geary (2002) Sexual selection and human life history. Advances in Child Development and Behavior 30:41–101.
D. C. Geary & D. F. Bjorklund (2000) Evolutionary developmental psychology. Child Development 71:57–65.
D. C. Geary & M. V. Flinn (2001) Evolution of human parental behavior and the human family. Parenting: Science and Practice 1:5–61.
A. L. Gentzler & K. A. Kerns (2004) Associations between insecure attachment and sexual experiences. Personal relationships 11:249–65.
C. George & M. West (1999) Developmental vs. social personality models of adult attachment and mental ill health. British Journal of Medical Psychology 72:285–303.
I. I. Gottesmann (1966) Genetic variance in an adaptive personality trait. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 7:199–208.
J. Green , C. Stanley , V. Smith & R. Goldwyn (2000) A new method of evaluating attachment representations in school-age children: The Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. Attachment and Human Development 2:48–70.
M. R. Gross (1996) Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics: Diversity within sexes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:92–98.
K. E. Grossmann , K. Grossmann & P. Zimmermann (1999) A wider view of attachment and exploration: stability and change during the years of immaturity. In: Handbook of Attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications, ed. J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver . Guilford.
M. Gurven & R. Walker (2006) Energetic demand of multiple dependents and the evolution of slow human growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 273:835–41.
E. H. Hagen & P. Hammerstein (2005) Evolutionary biology and the strategic view of ontogeny: Genetic strategies provide robustness and flexibility in the life course. Research in Human Development 2:87–101.
C. E. Hamilton (2000) Continuity and discontinuity of attachment from infancy through adolescence. Child Development 71:690–94.
W. D. Hamilton (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour, Parts I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–52.
J. Harel & A. Scher (2003) Insufficient responsiveness in ambivalent mother-infant relationships: Contextual and affective aspects. Infant Behavior and Development 26:371–83.
J. R. Harris (1995) Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review 102:458–89.
C. Hazan & P. R. Shaver (1987) Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:511–24.
A. J. Z. Henderson , K. Bartholomew & D. G. Dutton (1997) He loves me, he loves me not: Attachment and separation resolution of abused women. Journal of Family Violence 12:169–91.
E. Hesse (1999) The Adult Attachment Interview: Historical and current perspectives. In: Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications, ed. J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver . Guilford.
E. Hesse & M. Main (2006) Frightening, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in low-risk samples: Description, discussion, and interpretations. Development and Psychopathology 18:309–43.
K. Hill (1993) Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evolutionary Anthropology 2:78–88.
J. Höglund & B. C. Sheldon (1998) The cost of reproduction and sexual selection. Oikos 83:478–83.
S. B. Hrdy (1999) Mother nature. Pantheon Books.
S. B. Hrdy (2000) The optimal number of fathers: evolution, demography, and history in the shaping of female mate preferences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907:75–96.
L. Ibáñez , J. Dimartino-Nardi , N. Potau & P. Saenger (2000) Premature adrenarche – normal variant or forerunner of adult disease. Endocrine Reviews 21:671–96.
T. R. Insel (2000) Toward a neurobiology of attachment. Review of General Psychology 4:176–85.
T. R. Insel & L. J. Young (2001) The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Neuroscience 2:129–36.
J. J. Jackson & L. A. Kirkpatrick (2007) The structure and measurement of human mating strategies: Towards a multidimensional model of sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:382–91.
S. A. Jang , S. W. Smith & T. R. Levine (2002) To stay or to leave? The role of attachment styles in communication patterns and potential termination of romantic relationships following discovery of deception. Communication Monographs 69:236–52.
J. Juvonen , S. Graham & M. A. Schuster (2003) Bullying among young adolescents: The strong, the weak, and the troubled. Pediatrics 112:1231–37.
S. Kanazawa (2001) Why father absence might precipitate early menarche: The role of polygyny. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:329–34.
H. Kaplan , K. Hill , J. Lancaster & A. M. Hurtado (2000) A theory of human life history evolution: Diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology 9:156–85.
H. Kaplan & A.J. Robson (2002) The emergence of humans: The coevolution of intelligence and longevity with intergenerational transfers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:10221–226.
L. Karavasilis , A. B. Doyle & D. Markiewicz (2003) Associations between parenting style and attachment to mother in middle childhood and adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development 27:153–64.
K. A. Kerns , M. M. Abraham , A. Schlegelmilch & T. A. Morgan (2007) Mother-child attachment in later middle childhood: Assessment approaches and associations with mood and emotion regulation. Attachment and Human Development 9:33–53.
K. A. Kerns , P. L. Tomich , J. E. Aspelmeier & J. M. Contreras (2000) Attachment-based assessments of parent-child relationships in middle childhood. Developmental Psychology 36:614–26.
K. M. Kirk , S. P. Blomberg , D. L. Duffy , A. C. Heath , I. P. F. Owens & N. G. Martin (2001) Natural selection and quantitative genetics of life-history traits in western women: A twin study. Evolution 55:423–35.
L. A. Kirkpatrick & K. E. Davis (1994) Attachment style, gender and relationship stability: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66:502–12.
H. Kokko (1997) Evolutionary stable strategies of age-dependent sexual advertisement. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41:99–107.
S. M. Korte , J. M. Koolhaas , J. C. Wingfield & B. S. McEwen (2005) The Darwinian concept of stress: Benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 29:3–38.
K. L. Kramer (2005) Children's help and the pace of reproduction: Cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology 14:224–37.
F. Labrie , V. Luu-The , A. Belanger , S. G. Lin , J. Simard , G. Pelletier & C. Labrie (2005) Is dehydroepiandrosterone a hormone? Journal of Endocrinology 187:169–96.
M. A. Landolt , M. L. Lalumiere & V. L. Quinsey (1995) Sex differences in intra-sex variation in human mating tactics: An evolutionary approach. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:3–23.
M. Lewis , C. Feiring & S. Rosenthal (2000) Attachment over time. Child Development 71:707–20.
M. Lieberman , A. Doyle & D. Markiewicz (1999) Developmental patterns in security of attachment to mother and father in late childhood and early adolescence: Associations with peer relations. Child Development 70:202–13.
Y. Liu (2007) An examination of three models of the relationships between parental attachment and adolescents' social functioning and depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 37:941–52.
M. Lynch (1987) Evolution of intrafamilial interactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 84:8507–11.
E. E. Maccoby (1991) Different reproductive strategies in males and females. Child Development 62:676–81.
R. Mace (2000b) Evolutionary ecology of human life history. Animal Behaviour 59:1–10.
M. Main (1990) Cross-cultural strategies of attachment and attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies. Human Development 33:48–61.
F. Marlowe (2000) Paternal investment and the human mating system. Behavioural Processes 51:45–61.
F. Marlowe (2003) The mating system of foragers in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Cross-Cultural Research 37:282–306.
M. M. McCarthy , C. H. McDonald , P. J. Brooks & D. Goldman (1996) An anxiolytic action of oxytocin is enhanced by estrogen in the mouse. Physiology and Behavior 60:1209–15.
M. McClintock & G. Herdt (1996) Rethinking puberty: The development of sexual attraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science 5:178–83.
J. M. McNamara & A. I. Houston (1996) State-dependent life histories. Nature 380:215–21.
E. M. Miller (1994) Paternal provisioning versus mate seeking in human populations. Personality and Individual Differences 17: 227–55.
T. E. Moffitt , A. Caspi & J. Belsky (1992) Childhood experience and the onset of menarche: A test of a sociobiological model. Child Development 63:47–58.
P. Morison & A. S. Masten (1991) Peer reputation in middle childhood as a predictor of adaptation in adolescence: A seven-year follow-up. Child Development 62:991–1007.
E. Moss , D. Rousseau , S. Parent , D. St-Laurent & J. Saintonge (1998) Correlates of attachment at school age: Maternal reported stress, mother-child interaction, and behavior problems. Child Development 69:1390–1405.
D. Nettle (2006) The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals. American Psychologist 61:622–31.
T. G. O'Connor & C. M. Croft (2001) A twin study of attachment in preschool children. Child Development 72:1501–11.
T. G. O'Connor , C. M. Croft & H. Steele (2000) The contributions of behavioural genetic studies to attachment theory. Attachment and Human Development 2:107–22.
M. R. Palmert , D. L. Hayden , J. Mansfield , J. F. Crigler , W. F. Crowley , D. W. Chandler & P. A. Boepple (2001) The longitudinal study of adrenal maturation during gonadal suppression: Evidence that adrenarche is a gradual process. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86:4536–42.
G. A. Parker , N. J. Royle & I. R. Hartley (2002) Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment: A synthesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 357:295–307.
A. D. Pellegrini (1995) A longitudinal study of boys' rough-and-tumble play and dominance during early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 16:77–93.
A. D. Pellegrini & M. Bartini (2001) Dominance in early adolescent boys: Affiliative and aggressive dimensions and possible functions. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 47:142–63.
R. Pennington & H. Harpending (1988) Fitness and fertility among Kalahari !Kung. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77:303–19.
D. Promislow & P. Harvey (1990) Living fast and dying young: A comparative analysis of life-history variation among mammals. Journal of the Zoological Society of London 220:417–37.
R. J. Quinlan (2007) Human parental effort and environmental risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:121–25.
R. J. Quinlan & M. B. Quinlan (2007a) Evolutionary ecology of human pair-bonds. Cross-cultural tests of alternative hypotheses. Cross-Cultural Research 41:149–69.
R. J. Quinlan & M. B. Quinlan (2007b) Parenting and cultures of risk: A comparative analysis of infidelity, aggression, and witchcraft. American Anthropologist 109:164–79.
B. Renken , B. Egeland , D. Marvinney , S. Manglesdorf & L. A. Sroufe (1989) Early childhood antecedents of aggression and passive-withdrawal in early elementary school. Journal of Personality 57:257–81.
P. C. Rodkin , T. W. Farmer , P. Ruth & R. V. Acker (2006) They're cool: Social status and peer group support for aggressive boys and girls. Social Development 15:175–204.
G. I. Roisman , A. Holland , K. Fortuna , C. Fraley , E. Clausell & A. Clarke (2007) The Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: An empirical reapprochement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:678–97.
D. C. Rowe (2000a) Environmental and genetic influences on pubertal development: evolutionary life history traits? In: Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality: recent empirical and theoretical findings, ed. J. L. Rodgers , D. C Rowe & W. B. Miller , pp. 147–68. Kluwer.
D. C. Rowe , A. T. Vazsonyi & A. J. Figueredo (1997) Mating-effort in adolescence: A conditional or alternative strategy. Personality and Individual Differences 23:105–15.
E. I. Sadalla , D. T. Kenrick & B. Vershure (1987) Dominance and heterosexual attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:730–38.
A. Sagi , M. E. Lamb , K. S. Lewkowicz , R. Shoham , R. Dvir & D. Estes (1985) Security of infant-mother, -father, and -metapelet attachment among kibbutz-reared Israeli children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 50:257–75.
A. Sagi , M. H. van IJzendoorn , O. Aviezer , F. Donnell & O. Mayseless (1994) Sleeping out of home in a kibbutz communal arrangement: It makes a difference for infant-mother attachment. Child Development 65:992–1004.
E. Scharfe & K. Bartholomew (1994) Reliability and stability of adult attachment patterns. Personal Relationships 1:23–43.
D. P. Schmitt (2005a) Is short-term mating the maladaptive result of insecure attachment? A test of competing evolutionary perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:747–68.
D. P. Schmitt , L. Alcalay , M. Allensworth , J. Allik , L. Ault , I. Austers , K. L. Bennett , G. Bianchi , F. Boholst , M. A. Borg Cunen , J. Braeckman , E. G. Brainerd Jr., L. G. A. Caral , G. Caron , M. M. Casullo , M. Cunningham , I. Daibo , C. De Backer , E. De Souza , R. Diaz-Loving , G. Diniz , K. Durkin , M. Echegaray , E. Eremsoy , H. A. Euler , R. Falzon , M. L. Fisher , R. Fowler , D. P. Fry , S. Fry , M. A. Ghayur , V. N. Giri , D. L. Golden , K. Grammer , L. Grimaldi , J. Halberstadt , S. Haque , E. Hefer , D. Herrera , J. Hertel , A. Hitchell , H. Hoffman , Z. Hradilekova , J. Hudek-Kene-evi , A. Huffcutt , J. Jaafar , M. Jankauskaite , H. Kabangu-Stahel , I. Kardum , B. Khoury , H. Kwon , K. Laidra , A. Laireiter , D. Lakerveld , A. Lampart , M. Lauri , M. Lavallée , S. Lee , L.C. Leung , K. D. Locke , V. Locke , I. Luksik , I. Magaisa , J. Marcinkeviciene , A. Mata , R. Mata , B. McCarthy , M. E. Mills , N. J. Mkhize , J. Moreira , S. Moreira , M. Moya , M. Munyea , P. Noller , H. Olimat , A. Opre , A. Panayiotou , N. Petrovic , K. Poels , M. Popper , M. Poulimenou , V. P'yatokha , M. Raymond , U. Reips , S. E. Reneau , S. Rivera-Aragon , W. C. Rowatt , W. Ruch , V. S. Rus , M. P. Safir , S. Salas , F. Sambataro , K. N. Sandnabba , R. Schleeter , M. K. Schulmeyer , A. Schütz , T. Scrimali , T. K. Shackelford , M. B. Sharan , P. R. Shaver , F. Sichona , F. Simonetti , T. Sineshaw , R. Sookdew , T. Speelman , H. C. Sümer , N. Sümer , M. Supekova , T. Szlendak , R. Taylor , B. Timmermans , W. Tooke , I. Tsaousis , F. S. K. Tungaraza , A. Turner , G. Vandermassen , T. Vanhoomissen , F. Van Overwalle , I. Van Wesenbeek , P. L. Vasey , J. Verissimo , M. Voracek , W. W. N. Wan , T. Wang , P. Weiss , A. Wijaya , L. Woertment , G. Youn & A. Zupanèiè (2003a) Are men universally more dismissing than women? Gender differences in romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. Personal Relationships 10:307–31.
D. P. Schmitt , L. Alcalay , J. Allik , L. Ault , I. Austers , K. L. Bennett , G. Bianchi , F. Boholst , M. A. Borg Cunen , J. Braeckman , E. G. Brainerd Jr., L. G. A. Caral , G. Caron , M. M. Casullo , M. Cunningham , I. Daibo , C. De Backer , E. De Souza , R. Diaz-Loving , G. Diniz , K. Durkin , M. Echegaray , E. Eremsoy , H. A. Euler , R. Falzon , M. L. Fisher , D. Foley , D. P. Fry , S. Fry , M. A. Ghayur , D. L. Golden , K. Grammer , L. Grimaldi , J. Halberstadt , D. Herrera , J. Hertel , H. Hoffman , Z. Hradilekova , J. Hudek-Kene-evi , J. Jaafar , M. Jankauskaite , H. Kabangu-Stahel , I. Kardum , B. Khoury , H. Kwon , K. Laidra , A. Laireiter , D. Lakerveld , A. Lampart , M. Lauri , M. Lavallée , S. Lee , L.C. Leung , K. D. Locke , V. Locke , I. Luksik , I. Magaisa , J. Marcinkeviciene , A. Mata , R. Mata , B. McCarthy , M. E. Mills , J. Moreira , S. Moreira , M. Moya , M. Munyea , P. Noller , A. Opre , A. Panayiotou , N. Petrovic , K. Poels , M. Popper , M. Poulimenou , V. P'yatokha , M. Raymond , U. Reips , S. E. Reneau , S. Rivera-Aragon , W. C. Rowatt , W. Ruch , V. S. Rus , M. P. Safir , S. Salas , F. Sambataro , K. N. Sandnabba , M. K. Schulmeyer , A. Schütz , T. Scrimali , T. K. Shackelford , P. R. Shaver , F. Sichona , F. Simonetti , T. Sineshaw , R. Sookdew , T. Speelman , S. Spyrou , H.C. Sümer , N. Sümer , M. Supekova , T. Szlendak , R. Taylor , B. Timmermans , W. Tooke , I. Tsaousis , F. S. K. Tungaraza , G. Vandermassen , T. Vanhoomissen , F. Van Overwalle , I. Vanwesenbeek , P. L. Vasey , J. Verissimo , M. Voracek , W. W. N. Wan , T. Wang , P. Weiss , A. Wijaya , L. Woertment , G. Youn , & A. Zupanèiè (2003b) Universal sex differences in the desire for sexual variety: Tests from 52 nations, 6 continents, and 13 islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:85–104.
D. P. Schmitt , L. Alcalay , M. Allensworth , J. Allik , L. Ault , I. Austers , K. L. Bennett , G. Bianchi , F. Boholst , M. A. Borg Cunen , J. Braeckman , E. G. Brainerd Jr., L. Caral , G. Caron , G. A. , M. M. Casullo , M. Cunningham , I. Daibo , C. De Backer , E. De Souza , R. Diaz-Loving , G. Diniz , K. Durkin , M. Echegaray , E. Eremsoy , H. A. Euler , R. Falzon , M. L. Fisher , D. Foley , R. Fowler , D. P. Fry , S. Fry , M. A. Ghayur , V. N. Giri , D. L. Golden , K. Grammer , L. Grimaldi , J. Halbertandt , S. Haque , D. Herrera , J. Hertel , A. Hitchell , H. Hoffmann , D. Hooper , Z. Hradilekova , J. Hudek-Kene-Evi , A. Huffcutt , J. Jaafar , M. Jankauskaite , H. Kabangu-Stahel , I. Kardum , B. Khoury , H. Kwon , K. Laidra , A. Laireiter , D. Lakerveld , A. Lampert , M. Lauri , M. Lavallée , S. Lee , L. C. Leung , K. D. Locke , V. Locke , I. Luksik , I. Magaisa , D. Marcinkeviciene , A. Mata , R. Mata , B. McCarthy , M. E. Mills , N. J Mkhize :, J. Moreira , S. Moreira , M. Moya , M. Munyae , P. Noller , H. Olimat , A. Opre , A. Panayiotou , N. Petrovic , K. Poels , M. Popper , . Poulimenou , V. P'Yatokha , M. Raymond , U. Reips , S. Reneau , S. Rivera-Aragon , W. C. Rowatt , W. Ruch , V. S. Rus , M. P. Safir , S. Salas , F. Sambataro , K. N. Sandnabba , R. Schleeter , M. K. Schulmeyer , A. Schütz , T. Scrimali , T. K. Shackelford , M. B. Sharan , P. R. Shaver , F. Sichona , F. Simonetti , T. Sineshaw , R. Sookdew , T. Speelman , S. Spyrou , H. C. Sümer , N. Sümer , M. Supekova , T. Szlendak , R. Taylor , B. Timmermans , W. Tooke , I. Tsaousis , F. S. K. Tungaraza , A. Turner , G. Vandermassen , T. Vanhoomissen , F. van Overwalle , I. Vanwesenbeeck , P. L. vasey , J. Verissimo , M. Voracek , W. W. N. Wan , T. Wang , P. Weiss , A. Wijaya , L. Woertman , G. Youn , A. Zupanèiè (2004) Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. Are models of self and others pancultural constructs? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35:367–402.
P. R. Shaver , J. Belsky & K. A. Brennan (2000) Comparing measures of adult attachment: An examination of interview and self-report methods. Personal Relationships 7:25–43.
P. R. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (2002) Attachment-related psychodynamics. Attachment and Human Development 4:133–61.
C. G. Sibley & N. C. Overall (2008) Modeling the hierarchical structure of attachment representations: A test of domain differentiation. Personality and Individual Differences 44:238–49.
J. A. Simpson (1994) Pair bonding as an organizational model for integrating research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry 5:58–61.
J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (2002) Fearful-avoidance, disorganization, and multiple working models: Some directions for future theory and research. Attachment and Human Development 4:223–29.
J. Solomon & C. George (1999) The measurement of attachment security in infancy and childhood. In: Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications, ed. J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver . Guilford.
L. P. Spear (2000) The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review 24:417–63.
L. A. Sroufe (2003) Attachment categories as reflections of multiple dimensions. Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology 39:413–16.
L. A. Sroufe , C. Bennett , M. Englund , J. Urban & S. Shulman (1993) The significance of gender boundaries in preadolescence: Contemporary correlates and antecedents of boundary violation and maintenance. Child Development 64:455–66.
G. J. Suess , K. E. Grossmann & L. A. Sroufe (1992) Effects of infant attachment to mother and father on quality of adaptation in preschool: From dyadic to individual organisation of self. International Journal of Behavioral Development 15:43–65.
E. Svensson & B. C. Sheldon (1998) The social context of life history evolution. Oikos 83:466–77.
S. E. Taylor (2006) Tend and befriend: Biobehavioral bases of affiliation under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15:273–77.
S. E. Taylor , L. C. Klein , B. P. Lewis , T. L. Gruenenwald , R. A. Gurung & J. A. Updegraff (2000) Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review 107:411–29.
M. L. Tomaszycki , J. E. Davis , H. Gouzoules & K. Wallen (2001) Sex differences in infant rhesus macaque separation–rejection vocalizations and effects of prenatal androgens. Hormones and Behavior 39:267–76.
A. M. Torgersen , B. K. Grova & R. Sommersted (2007) A pilot study of attachment patterns in adult twins. Attachment and Human Development 9:127–38.
D. Treboux , J. A. Crowell & E. Waters (2004) When “new” meets “old”: Configurations of adult attachment representations and their implications for marital functioning. Developmental Psychology 40:295–314.
R. L. Trivers (1974) Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist 14:249–64.
M. Troy & L. A. Sroufe (1987) Victimization among preschoolers: Role of attachment relationship history. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 26:166–72.
P. J. Turner (1991) Relations between attachment, gender, and behavior with peers in preschool. Child Development 62:1475–88.
S. H. M. van Goozen , W. Matthys , P. T. Cohen-Kettenis , J. H. H. Thijssen & H. van Engeland (1998) Adrenal androgens and aggression in conduct disorder prepubertal boys and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry 43:156–58.
S. H. M. van Goozen , E. van den Ban , W. Matthys , P. T. Cohen-Kettenis , J. H.H. Thijssen & H. van Engeland (2000) Increased adrenal androgen functioning in children with oppositional defiant disorder: A comparison with psychiatric and normal controls. Journal of the American Academy of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry 39:1446–51.
M. H. Van IJzendoorn (2000) The similarity of siblings' attachments to their mother. Child Development 71:1086–98.
M. H. Van IJzendoorn & M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (1996) Attachment representations in mothers, fathers, adolescents, and clinical groups: A meta-analytic search for normative data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64:8–21.
K. Verschueren & A. Marcoen (1999) Representation of self and socioemotional competence in kindergartners: Differential and combined effects of attachment to mother and to father. Child Development 70:183–201.
K. Verschueren & A. Marcoen (2002) Perceptions of self and relationship with parents in aggressive and nonaggressive rejected children. Journal of School Psychology 40:501–22.
V. Viau (2002) Functional cross-talk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 14:506–13.
E. Voland (1998) Evolutionary ecology of human reproduction. Annual Review of Anthropology 27:347–74.
J. I. Vondra , K. D. Hommerding & D. S. Shaw (1999) Stability and change in infant attachment in a low-income sample. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 64:119–44.
K. Wallen (2005) Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates. Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology 26:7–26.
S. K. Wasser & D. P. Barash (1983) Reproductive suppression among female mammals: Implications for biomedicine and sexual selection theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology 58:513–38.
E. Waters & T. P. Beauchaine (2003) Are there really patterns of attachment? Comment on Fraley and Spieker (2003). Developmental Psychology 39:417–22.
E. Waters , S. Merrick , D. Treboux , J. Crowell & L. Albersheim (2000) Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood: a twenty-year longitudinal study. Child Development 71:684–89.
E. Waters , N. S. Weinfield & C. E. Hamilton (2000) The stability of attachment security from infancy to adolescence to early adulthood: General discussion. Child Development 71:703–06.
N. S. Weinfield , L. A. Sroufe , B. Egeland & E. A. Carlson (2000) Attachment from infancy and adulthood in a high-risk sample: Continuity, discontinuity, and their correlates. Child Development 71:695–702.
M. Wilson & M. Daly (1985) Competitiveness, risk-taking, and violence: The young male syndrome. Ethology and Sociobiology 6:59–73.
J. Winking , H. Kaplan , M. Gurven & S. Rucas (2007) Why do men marry and why do they stray? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B. 274:1643–49.