This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
S. L. Brown & G. E. Schwartz (1980) Relationships between facial electromyography and subjective experience during affective imagery. Biological Psychology 11:49–62.
P. Ekman , R. J. Davidson & W. V. Friesen (1990) The Duchenne smile: Emotional expression and brain physiology: II. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58:342–53.
P. Ekman , W. V. Friesen & S. Ancoli (1980) Facial signs of emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:1125–34.
S. Friedman & T. Miller-Herringer (1991) Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:766–75.
J. A. Hall & T. G. Horgan (2003) Happy affect and smiling: Is their relation moderated by interpersonal power? Emotion 3:303–309.
M. A. Hecht & M. LaFrance (1998) License or obligation to smile: The effect of power and sex on amount and type of smiling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24:1332–42.
U. Hess , R. Banse & A. Kappas (1995) The intensity of facial expression is determined by underlying affective state and social situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69:280–88.
E. Jakobs , A. S. R. Manstead & A. H. Fischer (2001) Social context effects on facial activity in a negative emotional setting. Emotion 1:51–69.
R. E. Kraut & R. E. Johnston (1979) Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:1539–53.
J. T. Larsen , C. J. Norris & J. T. Cacioppo (2003) Effects of positive and negative affect on electromyographic activity over zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii. Psychophysiology 40:776–85.
D. E. Polk , S. Cohen , W. J. Doyle , D. P. Skoner & C. Kirschbaum (2005) State and trait affect as predictors of salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:261–72.
M. A. Ruiz-Belda , J. M. Fernández-Dols & P. Carrera (2003) Spontaneous facial expression of happy bowlers and soccer fans. Cognition and Emotion 17:315–26.