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    Moeller, Julia Eccles, Jacquelynne S. Salmela-Aro, Katariina Dietrich, Julia Schneider, Barbara and Grassinger, Robert 2015. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.

    Shoval, Gal Bar-Shira, Ossnat Zalsman, Gil John Mann, J. and Chechik, Gal 2014. Transitions in the transcriptome of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the human brain during adolescence. European Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 24, Issue. 7, p. 1123.

    Weir, John M. Zakama, Arthurine and Rao, Uma 2012. Developmental Risk I: Depression and the Developing Brain. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 237.

    Davey, Christopher G. Yücel, Murat and Allen, Nicholas B. 2008. The emergence of depression in adolescence: Development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Allen, Nicholas B. and Badcock, Paul B.T. 2006. Darwinian models of depression: A review of evolutionary accounts of mood and mood disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 815.

    van den Bos, Ruud and de Ridder, Denise 2006. Evolved to satisfy our immediate needs: Self-control and the rewarding properties of food. Appetite, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 24.

    Allen, Nicholas B. and Badcock, Paul B. T. 2003. The Social Risk Hypothesis of Depressed Mood: Evolutionary, Psychosocial, and Neurobiological Perspectives.. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 129, Issue. 6, p. 887.


Dopamine and serotonin: Integrating current affective engagement with longer-term goals

  • Leonard D. Katz (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 1999

Interpreting VTA dopamine activity as a facilitator of affective engagement fits Depue & Collins's agency dimension of extraverted personality and also Watson's and Tellegen's (1985) engagement dimension of state mood. Serotonin, by turning down the gain on dopaminergic affective engagement, would permit already prepotent responses or habits to prevail against the behavior-switching incentive-simulation-driven temptations of the moment facilitated by fickle VTA DA. Intelligent switching between openly responsive affective engagement and constraint by long-term plans, goals, or values presumably involves environment-sensitive balancing of these neuromodulators, such as socially dominant primates may show.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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