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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Clayton, Nicola S. 2015. Ways of thinking: From crows to children and back again. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 68, Issue. 2, p. 209.

    Clayton, N. S. Russell, J. and Dickinson, A. 2009. Are Animals Stuck in Time or Are They Chronesthetic Creatures?. Topics in Cognitive Science, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 59.


Empirical evaluation of mental time travel

  • Caroline Raby (a1), Dean Alexis (a1), Anthony Dickinson (a1) and Nicola Clayton (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 29 October 2007

Although the mental time travel (MTT) hypothesis provides a rich, conceptual framework, the absence of clear, empirically tractable, behavioural criteria for determining the capacity for MTT restricts its usefulness in comparative research. Examples of empirical criteria for evaluating MTT in animals are given. We also question the authors' evaluation of semantic foresight and their even-handedness in assessing human and nonhuman behaviour.

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N. S. Clayton , T. J. Bussey & A. Dickinson (2003) Can animals recall the past and plan for the future? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4:685–91.

C. R. Raby , D. M. Alexis , A. Dickinson & N. S. Clayton (2007) Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445(7130):919–21.

S. J. Shettleworth (2007) Animal behaviour – Planning for breakfast. Nature 445(7130):825–26.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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