Skip to main content Accessibility help

Explaining financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive people: Interdisciplinary perspectives from economics, social psychology, and evolutionary psychology

  • Dario Maestripieri (a1), Andrea Henry (a2) and Nora Nickels (a3)

Financial and prosocial biases in favor of attractive adults have been documented in the labor market, in social transactions in everyday life, and in studies involving experimental economic games. According to the taste-based discrimination model developed by economists, attractiveness-related financial and prosocial biases are the result of preferences or prejudices similar to those displayed toward members of a particular sex, racial, ethnic, or religious group. Other explanations proposed by economists and social psychologists maintain that attractiveness is a marker of personality, intelligence, trustworthiness, professional competence, or productivity. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that attractive adults are favored because they are preferred sexual partners. Evidence that stereotypes about attractive people are causally related to financial or prosocial biases toward them is weak or nonexistent. Consistent with evolutionary explanations, biases in favor of attractive women appear to be more consistent or stronger than those in favor of attractive men, and biases are more consistently reported in interactions between opposite-sex than same-sex individuals. Evolutionary explanations also account for increased prosocial behavior in situations in which attractive individuals are simply bystanders. Finally, evolutionary explanations are consistent with the psychological, physiological, and behavioral changes that occur when individuals are exposed to potential mates, which facilitate the expression of courtship behavior and increase the probability of occurrence of mating. Therefore, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mating motives play a more important role in driving financial and prosocial biases toward attractive adults than previously recognized.

Hide All
Adams, G. (1977) Physical attractiveness research: Toward a developmental social psychology of beauty. Human Development 20:217–39.
Agthe, M., Spörrle, M., Frey, D. & Maner, J. K. (2014) Looking up versus looking down: Attractiveness-based organizational biases are moderated by social comparison direction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 44:4045.
Agthe, M., Spörrle, M., Frey, D., Walper, S. & Maner, J. K. (2013) When romance and rivalry awaken: Attractiveness-based social judgment biases emerge at adolescence. Human Nature 24(2):182–95.
Agthe, M., Spöerrle, M. & Maner, J. K. (2010) Don't hate me because I'm beautiful: Anti-attractiveness bias in organizational evaluation and decision making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 46(6):1151–54.
Agthe, M., Spöerrle, M. & Maner, J. K. (2011) Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37(8):1042–54.
Aharon, I., Etcoff, N., Ariely, D., Chabris, C. F., O'Connor, E. & Breiter, H. C. (2001) Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron 32:537–51.
Andreoni, J. & Petrie, R. (2008) Beauty, gender and stereotypes: Evidence from laboratory experiments. Journal of Economic Psychology 29:7393.
Babad, E. Y., Inbar, J. & Rosenthal, R. (1982) Teachers' judgment of students' potential as a function of teachers' susceptibility to biasing information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42:541–47.
Baert, S. & Decuypere, L. (2014) Better sexy than flexy? A lab experiment assessing the impact of perceived attractiveness and personality traits on hiring decisions. Applied Economic Letters 21:597601.
Balliet, D., Li, N. P., Macfarlan, S. J. & Van Vugt, M. (2011) Sex differences in cooperation: A meta-analytic review of social dilemmas. Psychological Bulletin 137:881909.
Barber, N. (1995) The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology 16:395424.
Barclay, P. (2010) Altruism as a courtship display: Some effects of third-party generosity on audience perceptions. British Journal of Psychology 101:123–35.
Bardack, N. R. & McAndrew, F. T. (1985) The influence of physical attractiveness and manner of dress on success in a simulated personnel decision. Journal of Social Psychology 125:777–78.
Bargh, J. & Chartrand, T. (1999) The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist 54:462–79.
Barocas, R. & Black, H. K. (1974) Referral rate and physical attractiveness in third-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39:731–34.
Becker, G. (1957) The economics of discrimination. University of Chicago Press.
Benson, P. L., Karabenick, S. A. & Lerner, R. M. (1976) Pretty pleases: The effects of physical attractiveness, race, and sex on receiving help. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12:409–15.
Berggren, N., Jordahl, H. & Poutvaara, P. (2010) The looks of a winner: Beauty and electoral success. Journal of Public Economics 94(1–2):815.
Berkowitz, L. & Frodi, A. (1979) Reactions to a child's mistakes as affected by her/his looks and speech. Social Psychology Quarterly 42:420–25.
Berry, B. (2007) Beauty bias: Discrimination and social power. Praeger.
Berry, B. (2012) The power of looks: Social stratification of physical appearance. Ashgate.
Biddle, J. E. & Hamermesh, D. S. (1998) Beauty, productivity, and discrimination: Lawyers' looks and lucre. Journal of Labor Economics 16:172201.
Bos, P. A., Panksepp, J., Bluthe, R. M. & van Honk, J. (2012) Acute effects of steroid hormones and neuropeptides on human social-emotional behavior: A review of single administration studies. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 33:1735.
Brase, G. L (2006) Cues of parental investment as a factor in attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior 27:145–57.
Burnham, T. C. (2007) High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:2327–30.
Burnham, T. C. (2013) Toward a neo-Darwinian synthesis of neoclassical and behavioral economics. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 90S:S113–27.
Busetta, G., Fiorillo, F. & Visalli, E. (2013) Searching for a job is a beauty contest. MPRA (Munich Personal RePEc Archive) Paper No. 49382, Munich University Library. Available at:
Buss, D. M. (1989) Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:149.
Buss, D. M. (2003) The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating, 4th edition. Basic Books.
Buss, D. M. & Schmitt, D. P. (1993) Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review 100(2):204–32.
Byrne, D., London, O. & Reeves, K. (1968) The effects of physical attractiveness, sex and attitude similarity on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Personality 36:259–71.
Camerer, C. (2003) Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction. Princeton University Press.
Cann, A., Siegfried, W. D. & Pearce, L. (1981) Forced attention to specific applicant qualifications: Impact of physical attractiveness and sex of applicant biases. Personnel Psychology 34:6575.
Cash, T. F. & Kilcullen, R. N. (1985) The eye of the beholder: Susceptibility to sexism and beautyism in the evaluation of managerial applicants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15:591605.
Chung, P. & Leung, K. (1988) Effects of performance information and physical attractiveness on managerial decisions about promotion. Journal of Social Psychology 128:791801.
Cipriani, G. & Zago, A. (2011) Productivity or discrimination? Beauty and the exams. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 73:428–47.
Clarke, R. D. & Hatfield, E. (1989) Gender differences in receptivity to sexual offers. Journal of Personality and Human Sexuality 2:3955.
Clifford, M. & Walster, E. (1973) The effect of attractiveness on teacher expectations. Sociology of Education 46:248–58.
Croson, R. & Gneezy, U. (2009) Gender differences in preferences. Journal of Economic Literature 47:127.
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1995) Discriminative parental solicitude and the relevance of evolutionary models to the analysis of motivational systems. In: The cognitive neurosciences, ed. Gazzaniga, M. S., pp. 1269–86. M1T Press.
de Kloet, E. R., Oitzl, M. S. & Joels, M. (1999) Stress and cognition. Are corticosteroids good or bad guys? Trends in Neurosciences 22:422–26.
DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Little, A. C. & Perrett, D. I. (2008) Social perception of facial resemblance in humans. Archives of Sexual Behavior 37:6477.
Dermer, M. & Thiel, D. L. (1975) When beauty may fail. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31:1168–76.
Dion, K. K. (1973) Young children's stereotyping of facial attractiveness. Developmental Psychology 9:183–88.
Dion, K. K. (1974) Children's physical attractiveness and sex as determinants of adult punitiveness. Developmental Psychology 10:772–78.
Dion, K. K. (1977) The incentive value of physical attractiveness for young children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 3:6770.
Dion, K. K. & Berscheid, E. (1974) Physical attractiveness and peer perception among children. Sociometry 37:112.
Dion, K. K., Berscheid, E. & Walster, E. (1972) What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 24:285–90.
Dion, K. K. & Stein, S. (1978) Physical attractiveness and interpersonal influence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 14:97108.
Dipboye, R. L., Arvey, R. D. & Terpstra, D. E. (1977) Sex and physical attractiveness of raters and applicants as determinants of resume evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology 62:288–94.
Dipboye, R. L., Fromkin, H. L. & Wiback, K. (1975) Relative importance of applicant sex, attractiveness, and scholastic standing in evaluation of job applicant resumes. Journal of Applied Psychology 60:3943.
Eagly, H., Ashmore, R. D., Makhijani, M. G. & Longo, L. C. (1991) What is beautiful is good, but…: A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin 110:109–28.
Eckel, C. C. (2007) People playing games: The human face of experimental economics. Southern Economic Journal 73:841–57.
Farrelly, D. (2011) Cooperation as a signal of genetic or phenotypic quality in female mate choice? Evidence from preferences across the menstrual cycle. British Journal of Psychology 102:406–30.
Farrelly, D., Lazarus, J. & Roberts, G. (2007) Altruists attract. Evolutionary Psychology 5:313–29.
Feingold, A. (1992a) Good-looking people are not what we think. Psychological Bulletin 111:304–41.
Felson, R. B. (1980) Physical attractiveness, grades and teachers' attributions of ability. Representative Research in Social Psychology 11:6471.
Felson, R. B. & Bohmstedt, G. W. (1979) Are the good beautiful or the beautiful good? The relationship between children's perceptions of ability and perceptions of physical attractiveness. Social Psychology Quarterly 42:386–92.
Fink, B. & Penton-Voak, I. (2002) Evolutionary psychology of facial attractiveness. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:154–58.
Fletcher, J. (2009) Beauty vs brains: Early labor market outcomes of high school graduates. Economics Letters 105:321–25.
French, M. (2002) Physical appearance and earnings: Further evidence. Applied Economics 34:569–72.
Frieze, I. H., Olson, J. E. & Russell, J. (1991) Attractiveness and income for men and women in management. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 21:1039–57.
Gangestad, S. W. & Scheyd, G. J. (2005) The evolution of human physical attractiveness. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:523–48.
Gillen, B. (1981) Physical attractiveness: A determinant of two types of goodness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 7:277–81.
Gilmore, D. C., Beehr, T. A. & Love, K. G. (1986) Effects of applicant sex, applicant physical attractiveness, type of rater and type of job on interview decisions. Journal of Occupational Psychology 59:103109.
Glocker, M. L., Langleben, D. D., Ruparel, K., Loughead, J. W., Valdez, J. N., Griffin, M. D., Sachser, N. & Gur, R. C. (2009) Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:9115–19.
Gneezy, U. & List, J. A. (2013) The why axis. Hidden motives and the undiscovered economics of everyday life. Public Affairs.
Goldberg, T. L. (1995) Altruism towards panhandler: Who gives? Human Nature 6:7989.
Goldey, K. L. & van Anders, S. (2011) Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women. Hormones and Behavior 59:754–64.
Goldey, K. L. & van Anders, S. (2012) Sexual thoughts: Links to testosterone and cortisol in men. Archives of Sexual Behavior 41:1461–70.
Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Sundie, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Miller, G. F. & Kenrick, D. T. (2007) Blatant benevolence and conspicuous consumption: When romantic motives elicit strategic costly signals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93:85102.
Guéguen, N. (2012) Hair color and wages: Waitresses with blond hair have more fun. Journal of Socio-Economics 41:370–72.
Hamermesh, D. S. (2006) Changing looks and changing “discrimination”: The beauty of economists. Economics Letters 93:405–12.
Hamermesh, D. S. (2011) Beauty pays: Why attractive people are more successful. Princeton University Press.
Hamermesh, D. S. & Biddle, J. E. (1994) Beauty and the labor market. American Economic Review 84(5):1174–94.
Hamermesh, D. S., Meng, X. & Zhang, J. (2002) Dress for success: Does primping pay? Labour Economics 9:361–73.
Hamermesh, D. S. & Parker, A. (2005) Beauty in the classroom: Instructors' pulchritude and putative pedagogical productivity. Economics of Education Review 24:369–76.
Hancock, P. J. & DeBruine, L. M. (2003) What's a face worth: Noneconomic factors in game playing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26:162–63.
Harper, B. (2000) Beauty, stature, and the labor market: A British cohort study. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 62:771800.
Haselton, M. G. & Nettle, D. (2006) The paranoid optimist: An integrative evolutionary model of cognitive biases. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10:4766.
Hazlett, R. L. & Hoehn-Saric, R. (2000) Effects of perceived physical attractiveness on females' facial displays and affect. Evolution and Human Behavior 21:4957.
Heilman, M. E. & Saruwatari, L. R. (1979) When beauty is beastly: The effects of appearance and sex on evaluations of job applicants for managerial and nonmanagerial jobs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 23:360–72.
Heilman, M. E. & Stopeck, M. H. (1985) Attractiveness and corporate success: Different causal attributions for males and females. Journal of Applied Psychology 70:379–88.
Hildebrandt, K. A. & Fitzgerald, H. E. (1978) Adults' responses to infants varying in perceived cuteness. Behavioral Processes 3:159–72.
Hill, S. E. & Durante, K. M. (2011) Courtship, competition, and the pursuit of attractiveness: Mating goals facilitate health-related risk taking and strategic risk suppression in women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37:383–94.
Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F. & Coats, G. (2003) The effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology 56:431–62.
Hume, D. K. & Montgomerie, R. (2001) Facial attractiveness signals different aspects of “quality” in women and men. Evolution and Human Behavior 22:93112.
Iredale, W., Van Vugt, M. & Dunbar, R. (2008) Showing off in humans: Male generosity as a mating signal. Evolutionary Psychology 6:386–92.
Jackson, L. A. (1983) Gender, physical attractiveness, and sex role in occupational treatment discrimination: The influence of trait and role assumptions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 13:443–58.
Jackson, L. A., Hunter, J. & Hodge, C. (1995) Physical attractiveness and intellectual competence: A meta-analytic review. Social Psychology Quarterly 58:108–22.
Jensen, N. H. (2013) Male mating signaling in social dilemma games. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 11:131–50.
Johnston, D. (2010) Physical appearance and wages: Do blondes have more fun? Economics Letters 108:1012.
Kahn, A., Hottes, J. & Davis, W. L. (1971) Cooperation and optimal responding in the Prisoner's Dilemma game: Effects of sex and physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17:267–79.
Karraker, K. (1986) Adult attention to infants in a newborn nursery. Nursing Research 35:358–63.
Karremans, J. C., Verwijmeren, T., Pronk, T. M. & Reitsma, M. (2009) Interacting with women can impair men's cognitive functioning. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45:1041–44.
Kenealy, P., Frude, N. & Shaw, W. (1987) Influence of children's physical attractiveness on teacher expectations. Journal of Social Psychology 128:373–83.
Kenrick, D. T., Montello, D. R., Gutierres, S. E. & Trost, M. R. (1993) Effects of physical attractiveness on affect and perceptual judgments: When social comparison overrides social reinforcement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19:195–99.
Kleck, R. E., Richardson, S. A. & Ronald, C. (1974) Physical appearance cues and interpersonal attraction in children. Child Development 45:305–10.
Kurzban, R. & Weeden, J. (2005) HurryDate: Mate preferences in action. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:227–44.
Landry, C., Lange, A., List, J. A., Price, M. K. & Rupp, N. (2006) Toward an understanding of the economics of charity: Evidence from a field experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 121:747–82.
Landy, D. & Sigall, H. (1974) Beauty is talent: Task evaluation as a function of the performer's physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29:299304.
Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M. & Smoot, M. (2000) Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin 126(3):390423.
Langlois, J. H., Ritter, J. M., Casey, R. J. & Sawin, D. B. (1995) Infant attractiveness predicts maternal behaviors and attitudes. Developmental Psychology 31:464–72.
Langlois, J. H., Roggman, L. A., Casey, R. J., Ritter, J. M., Rieser-Danner, L. A. & Jenkins, V. Y. (1987) Infant preferences for attractive faces: Rudiments of a stereotype? Developmental Psychology 23:363–69.
Latané, B. (1970) Field studies of altruistic compliance. Representative Research in Social Psychology 1:4961.
Law Smith, M. J., Deady, D. K., Moore, F. R., Jones, B. C., Cornwell, R. E., Stirrat, M., Lawson, J. F., Feinberg, D. R. & Perrett, D. I. (2012) Maternal tendencies in women are associated with estrogen levels and facial femininity. Hormones and Behavior 61:1216.
Lee, L., Loewenstein, G., Ariely, D., Hong, J. & Young, J. (2008) If I'm not hot, are you hot or not? Physical attractiveness evaluations and dating preferences as a function of one's own attractiveness. Psychological Science 19:669–77.
Leigh, A. & Borland, J. (2007) Unpacking the beauty premium: Is it looks or ego? Unpublished manuscript, Australian National University.
Leinbach, M. D. & Fagot, B. I. (1991) Attractiveness in young children: Sex-differentiated reactions of adults. Sex Roles 25:269–84.
Lemay, E. P., Clark, M. S. & Greenberg, A. (2010) What is beautiful is good because what is beautiful is desired: Physical attractiveness stereotyping as projection of interpersonal goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36(3):339–53.
Lerner, R. M., Delaney, M., Hess, L. E., Jovanovic, J. & von Eye, A. (1990) Early adolescent physical attractiveness and academic competence. Journal of Early Adolescence 10:420.
Lewis, K. E. & Bierly, M. (1990) Toward a profile of the female voter: Sex differences in perceived physical attractiveness and competence of political candidates. Sex Roles 22:112.
Li, J. & Zhou, X. (2014) Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94004.
Lippitt, R. (1941) Popularity among preschool children. Child Development 4:305–33.
Little, A. C., Jones, B. C. & DeBruine, L. M. (2011) Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary based research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 366(1571):1638–59.
Lopez, H. H., Hay, A. C. & Conklin, P. H (2009) Attractive men induce testosterone and cortisol release in women. Hormones and Behavior 56:8492.
Lopez Boo, F., Rossi, M. A. & Urzua, S. S. (2013) The labor market return to an attractive face: Evidence from a field experiment. Economic Letters 118:170–72.
Lucas, M. & Koff, E. (2013) How conception risk affects competition and cooperation with attractive women and men. Evolution and Human Behavior 34(1):1622.
Luxen, M. F. & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006) Facial attractiveness, sexual selection, and personnel selection: When evolved preferences matter. Journal of Organizational Behavior 27(2):241–55.
Lynn, M. (2009) Determinants and consequences of female attractiveness and sexiness: Realistic tests with restaurant waitresses. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38:737–45.
Lynn, M. & Simons, T. (2000) Predictors of male and female servers' average tip earnings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30:241–52.
Maestripieri, D., Klimczuk, A., Traficonte, D. & Wilson, M. C. (2014) A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value. Frontiers in Psychology 5(179):16.
Maestripieri, D. & Pelka, S. (2002) Sex differences in interest in infants across the lifespan: A biological adaptation for parenting? Human Nature 13:327–44.
Maner, J. K., Gailliot, M. T., Rouby, D. A. & Miller, S. L. (2007b) Can't take my eyes off you: Attentional adhesion to mates and rivals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93(3):389401.
Maner, J. K., Kenrick, D. T., Becker, D. V., Delton, A. W., Hofer, B., Wilbur, C. J. & Neuberg, S. L. (2003) Sexually selective cognition: Beauty captures the mind of the beholder. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:1107–20.
Maner, J. K., Miller, S. L., Rouby, D. A. & Gailliot, M. T. (2009b) Intrasexual vigilance: The implicit cognition of romantic rivalry. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97:7487.
Marlowe, C. M., Schneider, S. L. & Nelson, C. E. (1996) Gender and attractiveness biases in hiring decisions: Are more experienced managers less biased? Journal of Applied Psychology 81:1121.
Mazzella, R. & Feingold, A. (1994) The effects of physical attractiveness, race, socioeconomic status, and gender of defendants and victims on judgments of mock jurors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24:1315–44.
McAndrew, F. T. & Perilloux, C. (2012) Is self-sacrificial competitive altruism primarily a male activity? Evolutionary Psychology 10:5065.
Miller, G. F. (2000) The mating mind: How sexual selection shaped the evolution of human nature. Doubleday.
Mobius, M. M. & Rosenblat, T. S. (2006) Why beauty matters. American Economic Review 96(1):222–35.
Mohr, A. & Lund, F. H. (1933) Beauty as related to intelligence and educational achievement. Journal of Social Psychology 4:235–39.
Moore, D., Wigby, S., English, S., Wong, S., Szekely, T. & Harrison, F. (2013) Selflessness is sexy: Reported helping behavior increases desirability of men and women as long-term sexual partners. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:182.
Morrow, P. C. (1990) Physical attractiveness and selection decision making. Journal of Management 16:4560.
Morrow, P. C., McElroy, J. C., Stamper, B. G. & Wilson, M. A. (1990) The effects of physical attractiveness and other demographic characteristics on promotion decisions. Journal of Management 16:723–36.
Mulford, M., Orbell, J., Shatto, C. & Stockard, J. (1998) Physical attractiveness, opportunity, and success in everyday exchange. American Journal of Sociology 103:1565–92.
Muñoz-Reyes, J. A., Pita, M., Arjona, M., Sanchez-Pages, S. & Turiegano, E. (2014) Who is the fairest of them all? The independent effect of attractiveness and self-perceived attractiveness on cooperation among women. Evolution and Human Behavior 35:118–25.
Murphy, M. J., Nelson, D. A. & Cheap, T. L. (1981) Rated and actual performance of high school students as a function of sex and attractiveness. Psychological Reports 48:103106.
Nauts, S., Metzmacher, M., Verwijmeren, T., Rommeswinkel, V. & Karremans, J. C. (2012) The mere anticipation of an interaction with a woman can impair men's cognitive performance. Archives of Sexual Behavior 41:1051–56.
O'Doherty, J., Winston, J., Critchley, H., Perrett, D., Burt, D. M. & Dolan, R. J. (2003) Beauty in a smile: The role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia 41:147–55.
Oda, R., Shibata, A., Kiyonari, T., Takeda, M. & Matsumoto-Oda, A. (2013) Sexually dimorphic preference for altruism in the opposite sex according to recipient. British Journal of Psychology 104:577–84.
Olson, I. R. & Marshuetz, C. (2005) Facial attractiveness is appraised in a glance. Emotion 5:498502.
Penninck, A. (2014) Attractiveness over conscientiousness: Discrimination based on perceived attractiveness and personality traits in the Flemish labor market – a correspondence test. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Ghent.
Pfann, G. A., Biddle, J. E., Hamermesh, D. S. & Bosman, C. M. (2000) Business success and businesses' beauty capital. Economics Letters 67:201207.
Price, M. (2008) Fund-raising success and a solicitor's beauty capital: Do blondes raise more funds? Economics Letters 100:351–54.
Quereshi, M. Y. & Kay, J. P. (1986) Physical attractiveness, age, and sex as determinants of reactions to resumes. Social Behavior and Personality 14:103–12.
Raihani, N. J. & Smith, S. (2015) Competitive helping in online giving. Current Biology 25(9):1183–86.
Ravina, E. (under review) Love & loans: The effect of beauty and personal characteristics in credit markets. Journal of Finance.
Raza, S. M. & Carpenter, B. N. (1987) A model of hiring decisions in real employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology 72:596603.
Rhodes, G. (2006) The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology 57:199266.
Rhodes, G., Yoshikawa, S., Clark, A., Lee, K., McKay, R. & Akamatsu, S. (2001a) Attractiveness of facial averageness and symmetry in non-Western cultures: In search of biologically based standards of beauty. Perception 30:611–25.
Rhodes, G. & Zebrowitz, L. A. (2002) Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive, and social perspectives. Ablex.
Rieser-Danner, L. A., Roggman, L. & Langlois, J. H. (1987) Infant attractiveness and perceived temperament in the prediction of attachment classifications. Infant Mental Health Journal 8:144–55.
Ritter, J. M., Casey, R. J. & Langlois, J. H. (1991) Adults' responses to infants varying in appearance of age and attractiveness. Child Development 62:6882.
Ritts, V., Patterson, M. L. & Tubbs, M. E. (1992) Expectations, impressions, and judgments of physically attractive students: A review. Review of Educational Research 62:413–26.
Roberts, G. (1998) Competitive altruism: From reciprocity to the handicap principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 265(1394):427–31.
Ronay, R. & von Hippel, W. (2010) The presence of an attractive woman elevates testosterone and physical risk taking in young men. Social Psychological and Personality Science 1:5764.
Roney, J. R. (2003) Effects of visual exposure to the opposite sex: Cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29:393404.
Roney, J. R., Lukaszewski, A. W. & Simmons, Z. L. (2007) Rapid endocrine responses of young men to social interactions with young women. Hormones and Behavior 52:326–33.
Roney, J. R., Mahler, S. V. & Maestripieri, D. (2003) Behavioral and hormonal responses of men to brief interactions with women. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:365–75.
Roney, J. R. & Simmons, Z. L. (2013) Hormonal predictors of sexual motivation in natural menstrual cycles. Hormones and Behavior 63:636–45.
Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L. & Gray, P. B. (2011) Changes in estradiol predict within-women shifts in attraction to facial cues of men's testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 36:742–49.
Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L. & Lukaszewski, A. W. (2010) Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men's hormonal responses to potential mates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 277:5763.
Rosenblat, T. S. (2008) The beauty premium: Physical attractiveness and gender in dictator games. Negotiation Journal 24(4):465–81.
Ross, J. & Ferris, K. R. (1981) Interpersonal attraction and organizational outcomes: A field examination. Administrative Science Quarterly 26:617–32.
Roszell, P., Kennedy, D. & Grabb, E. (1989) Physical attractiveness and income attainment among Canadians. Journal of Psychology 123:547–59.
Ruffle, B. J. & Shtudiner, Z. (2015) Are good-looking people more employable? Management Science 61(8):1760–76.
Rule, N. O. & Ambadi, N. (2008) The face of success: Inferences from chief executive officers' appearance predict company profits. Psychological Science 19(2):109111.
Rule, N. O. & Ambadi, N. (2009) She's got the look: Inferences from female chief executive officers' faces predict their success. Sex Roles 61(9):644–52.
Saad, G. & Gill, T. (2001) Sex differences in the ultimatum game: An evolutionary psychology perspective. Journal of Bioeconomics 3:171–93.
Sachsida, A., Dornelles, A. C. & Mesquita, C. W. (2003) Beauty and the labor market – study one specific occupation. Unpublished manuscript, Catholic University of Brasilia.
Saltzman, W. & Maestripieri, D. (2011) The neuroendocrinology of primate maternal behavior. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35:1192–204.
Sanchez-Pages, S. & Turiegano, E. (2010) Testosterone, facial symmetry, and cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma. Physiology and Behavior 99:355–61.
Sangrador, J. L. & Yela, C. (2000) “What is beautiful is loved”: Physical attractiveness in love relationships in a representative sample. Social Behavior and Personality 28:207–18.
Segal-Caspi, L., Roccas, S. & Sagiv, L. (2012) Don't judge a book by its cover, revisited: Perceived and reported traits and values of attractive women. Psychological Science 23:1112–16.
Senior, C. (2003) Beauty in the brain of the beholder. Neuron 38:525–28.
Shinada, M. & Yamagishi, T. (2014) Physical attractiveness and cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma game. Evolution and Human Behavior 35:451–55.
Smith, F. G., DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Krupp, D. B., Welling, L. M. & Conway, C. A. (2009) Attractiveness qualifies the effect of observation on trusting behavior in an economic game. Evolution and Human Behavior 30:393–97.
Smith, G. J. (1985) Facial and full-length ratings of attractiveness related to the social interactions of young children. Sex Roles 12:287–93.
Snyder, M., Tanke, E. D. & Berscheid, E. (1977) Social perception and interpersonal behavior: On the self-fulfilling nature of social stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35:656–66.
Solnick, S. J. & Schweitzer, M. E. (1999) The influence of physical attractiveness and gender on ultimatum game decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 79:199215.
Stirrat, M. & Perrett, D. I. (2010) Valid facial cues to cooperation and trust: Male facial width and trustworthiness. Psychological Science 21:349–54.
Stirrat, M. & Perrett, D. I. (2012) Face structure predicts cooperation: Men with wider faces are more generous to their in-group when out-group competition is salient. Psychological Science 23:718–22.
Takahashi, C., Yamagishi, T., Tanida, S., Kiyonari, T. & Kanazawa, S. (2006) Attractiveness and cooperation in social exchange. Evolutionary Psychology 4:315–29.
Tessman, I. (1995) Human altruism as a courtship display. Oikos 74:157–58.
Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. (1993) Human facial beauty: Averageness, symmetry and parasite resistance. Human Nature 4:237–69.
Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. (2008) The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. Oxford University Press.
Todorov, A., Mandisodza, A. N., Goren, A. & Hall, C. C. (2005) Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science 308:1623–26.
Tognetti, A., Berticat, C., Raymond, M. & Faurie, C. (2012) Sexual selection of human cooperative behavior: An experimental study in rural Senegal. PLoS ONE 7(9):e44403.
Tsukiura, T. & Cabeza, R. (2011a) Remembering beauty: Roles of orbitofrontal and hippocampal regions in successful memory encoding of attractive faces. NeuroImage 54:653–60.
Tsukiura, T. & Cabeza, R. (2011b) Shared brain activity for aesthetic and moral judgments: Implications for the Beauty-is-Good stereotype. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 6:138–48.
Udry, J. R. & Eckland, B. K. (1984) Benefits of being attractive: Differential payoffs for men and women. Psychological Reports 54:5776.
van't Wout, M. & Sanfey, A. G. (2008) Friend or foe: The effect of implicit trustworthiness judgments in social decision-making. Cognition 108(3):796803.
Van den Bergh, B. & Dewitte, S. (2006) Digit ratio (2D:4D) moderates the impact of sexual cues on men's decisions in ultimatum games. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 273:2091–95.
Van den Bergh, B., Dewitte, S. & Warlop, L. (2008) Bikinis instigate generalized impatience in intertemporal choice. Journal of Consumer Research 35:8597.
Van der Meij, L., Buunk, A., van de Sande, J. P. & Salvador, A. (2008) The presence of a woman increases testosterone in aggressive dominant men. Hormones and Behavior 54:640–44.
Van der Meij, L., Buunk, A. P. & Salvador, A. (2010) Contact with attractive women affects the release of cortisol in men. Hormones and Behavior 58:501505.
Van Vugt, M. & Iredale, W. (2013) Men behaving nicely: Public goods as peacock tails. British Journal of Psychology 104:313.
Vaughn, B. E. & Langlois, J. H. (1983) Physical attractiveness as a correlate of peer status and social competence in preschool children. Developmental Psychology 19:461–67.
Verhulst, B., Lodge, M. & Lavine, H. (2010) The attractiveness halo: Why some candidates are perceived more favorably than others. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 34:111–17.
Webster, M. Jr. & Driskell, J. E. (1983) Beauty as status. American Journal of Sociology 89:140–65.
Weisfeld, G. E., Bloch, S. A. & Ivers, J. W. (1983) A factor analytic study of peer-perceived dominance in adolescent boys. Adolescence 18:229–43.
Weisfeld, G. E., Weisfeld, C. C. & Callaghan, J. W. (1984) Peer and self perceptions in Hopi and Afro-American third- and sixth-graders. Ethos 12:6482.
West, S. G. & Brown, T. J. (1975) Physical attractiveness, the severity of the emergency and helping: A field experiment and interpersonal simulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11:531–38.
Wilson, D. W. (1978) Helping behavior and physical attractiveness. Journal of Social Psychology 104:313–14.
Wilson, M. & Daly, M. (2004) Do pretty women inspire men to discount the future? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 271(S4):S177–79.
Wilson, R. K. & Eckel, C. C. (2006) Judging a book by its cover: Beauty and expectations in the trust game. Political Research Quarterly 59:189202.
Winston, J. S., O'Doherty, J., Kilner, J. M., Perrett, D. I. & Dolan, R. J. (2007) Brain systems for assessing facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia 45:195206.
Wolf, N. (1992) The beauty myth: How images of beauty are used against women. Vintage.
Zaatari, D., Palestis, B. G. & Trivers, R. (2009) Fluctuating asymmetry of responders affects offers in the ultimatum game oppositely according to attractiveness or need as perceived by proposers. Ethology 115:627–32.
Zaatari, D. & Trivers, R. (2007) Fluctuating asymmetry and behavior in the ultimatum game in Jamaica. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:223–27.
Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R., Ahmadi, S., Swerdloff, R. S., Park, J., Efremidze, L., Redwine, K., Morgan, K. & Matzner, W. (2009) Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game. PLoS ONE 4(12):e8330.
Zebrowitz, L. A. & Montepare, J. M. (2008) Social psychological face perception: Why appearance matters. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 2:1497–517.
Zebrowitz, L. A. & Rhodes, G. (2004) Sensitivity to “bad genes” and the anomalous face overgeneralization effect: Cue validity, cue utilization, and accuracy in judging intelligence and health. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 28(3):167–85.
Zilioli, S., Caldbick, E. & Watson, N. V. (2014) Testosterone reactivity to facial display of emotions in men and women. Hormones and Behavior 65:461–68.
Zilioli, S., Ponzi, D., Henry, A., Kubicki, K., Nickels, N., Wilson, M. C. & Maestripieri, D. (2016) Interest in babies negatively predicts testosterone responses to sexual visual stimuli among heterosexual young men. Psychological Science 27(1):114–18.
Zilioli, S. & Watson, N. V. (2014). Transient impairment of spatial cognition in men following exposure to happy females faces: The mediating role of cortisol. Unpublished manuscrip, Simon Fraser University.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed