Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 26
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Richardson, Cele E. Gradisar, Michael and Barbero, Sebastian C. 2016. Are cognitive “insomnia” processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?. Sleep Medicine Reviews, Vol. 26, p. 1.

    Hiller, Rachel M. Johnston, Anna Dohnt, Hayley Lovato, Nicole and Gradisar, Michael 2015. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia. Sleep Medicine Reviews, Vol. 23, p. 46.

    Jeff Bryson, W. Read, Joan B. Bush, Joseph P. and Edwards, Christopher L. 2015. The Need for an Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Model for Co-occurring Chronic Pain and Insomnia. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 239.

    Lancee, Jaap Eisma, Maarten C. van Straten, Annemieke and Kamphuis, Jan H. 2015. Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors and Dysfunctional Beliefs Mediate the Efficacy of Online CBT for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 44, Issue. 5, p. 406.

    Morin, Charles M. Drake, Christopher L. Harvey, Allison G. Krystal, Andrew D. Manber, Rachel Riemann, Dieter and Spiegelhalder, Kai 2015. Insomnia disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, p. 15026.

    Fairholme, Christopher P. and Manber, Rachel 2014. Safety behaviors and sleep effort predict sleep disturbance and fatigue in an outpatient sample with anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 76, Issue. 3, p. 233.

    Norell-Clarke, Annika Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus Tillfors, Maria Harvey, Allison G. and Linton, Steven J. 2014. Cognitive processes and their association with persistence and remission of insomnia: Findings from a longitudinal study in the general population. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 54, p. 38.

    Steinan, Mette Krane-Gartiser, Karoline Langsrud, Knut Sand, Trond Kallestad, Håvard and Morken, Gunnar 2014. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in euthymic bipolar disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 24.

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus Bermås, Mikael and Kjellén, Andreas 2013. Attentional Bias in Insomnia: The Dot-Probe Task with Pictorial Stimuli Depicting Daytime Fatigue/Malaise. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 534.

    Tsai, Yun-Lin Chen, Chang-Wei Cheng, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Chieh-Hsing Chen, Chung-Ying and Yang, Chien-Ming 2013. Cognitive and behavioral factors in insomnia comorbid with depression and anxiety. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 237.

    Yang, Chien-Ming Lin, Shih-Chun and Cheng, Chung-Ping 2013. Transient Insomnia Versus Chronic Insomnia: A Comparison Study of Sleep-Related Psychological/Behavioral Characteristics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 69, Issue. 10, p. 1094.

    Fairholme, Christopher P. Carl, Jenna R. Farchione, Todd J. and Schonwetter, Sara W. 2012. Transdiagnostic processes in emotional disorders and insomnia: Results from a sample of adult outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 50, Issue. 7-8, p. 522.

    Gosling, John A. Batterham, Philip J. and Christensen, Helen 2012. Cognitive-behavioural factors that predict sleep disturbance 4years later. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 73, Issue. 6, p. 424.

    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus Harvey, Allison G. Norell-Clarke, Annika and Linton, Steven J. 2012. Associations Between Psychological Factors and Nighttime/Daytime Symptomatology in Insomnia. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 41, Issue. 4, p. 273.

    Jernelöv, Susanna Lekander, Mats Blom, Kerstin Rydh, Sara Ljótsson, Brjánn Axelsson, John and Kaldo, Viktor 2012. Efficacy of a behavioral self-help treatment with or without therapist guidance for co-morbid and primary insomnia -a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Harvey, Allison G. and Eidelman, Polina 2011. Behavioral Treatments for Sleep Disorders.

    Harvey, Allison G. and Spielman, Arthur J. 2011. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine.

    Harvey, Allison G. Murray, Greg Chandler, Rebecca A. and Soehner, Adriane 2011. Sleep disturbance as transdiagnostic: Consideration of neurobiological mechanisms. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 31, Issue. 2, p. 225.

    Hood, Heather K. Carney, Colleen E. and Harris, Andrea L. 2011. Rethinking Safety Behaviors in Insomnia: Examining the Perceived Utility of Sleep-Related Safety Behaviors. Behavior Therapy, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 644.

    Spielman, Arthur J. Yang, Chien-Ming and Glovinsky, Paul B. 2011. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine.


Investigating Safety Behaviours in Insomnia: The Development of the Sleep-related Behaviours Questionnaire (SRBQ)

  • Melissa J. Ree (a1) and Allison G. Harvey (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2012

A safety behaviour is an overt or covert strategy employed in order to prevent a feared outcome from occurring. These behaviours can, however, prevent the disconfirmation of unhelpful beliefs, and may make the feared outcome more likely to occur (Salkovskis, 1991). The current study extends Harvey's (2002a) investigation of safety behaviours in insomnia by developing a questionnaire measure designed to assess the use of safety behaviours that are employed to promote sleep and cope with tiredness. A development sample of 132 individuals with and without insomnia was employed to develop the 32-item Sleep-Related Behaviours Questionnaire (SRBQ). The SRBQ showed good internal consistency and was able to discriminate normal sleepers from those with insomnia. Interestingly, most safety behaviours were associated with impairment in both sleep and daytime functioning. This highlights that day- and night-time processes may be interlinked in insomnia, and stresses the importance of research and treatment focusing on both the day and night. Future research is needed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the SRBQ, and to explore the relationships between safety behaviours and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep.

Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Allison G. Harvey, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behaviour Change
  • ISSN: 0813-4839
  • EISSN: 2049-7768
  • URL: /core/journals/behaviour-change
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *