Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Do Non-Reflective Thinkers Apply Extreme Personal Meanings to their Activated Moods?

  • Alyson L. Dodd (a1) and Matthew Haigh (a1)
Abstract

Background: The integrative cognitive model of mood swings proposes that mood symptoms are driven by extreme, self-referent appraisals. For example, if activated mood is appraised positively, this prompts selection of mood regulation strategies that act to up-regulate mood. Appraisals are driven by fast and automatic Type 1 cognitive processes, which, left unchecked, can cause activated mood to escalate. Aims: It was hypothesized that greater propensity to override these automatic processes by engaging in reflective (Type 2) thinking would be negatively associated with extreme appraisals of activation and activation. Method: Study 1 (n = 150) was a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of activation, extreme appraisals, and an objective performance-based measure of the propensity to engage in reflective thought (cognitive reflection test; CRT). In Study 2 (n = 241) participants completed these measures plus three alternative measures of effortful cognitive engagement (CRT-2, Need for Cognition and Actively Open-Minded Thinking). Results: In Study 1, propensity to engage in reflective thought (higher CRT scores) was not significantly associated with activated mood or extreme appraisals, but activated mood and extreme appraisals were positively correlated. In study 2, the association between activation and extreme appraisals was replicated. Predicted associations between alternative measures of reflective thinking, activated mood, and extreme appraisals were not found. Conclusions: Extreme appraisals of internal states may be a psychological mechanism underlying activated mood. Propensity to reflect on and override default cognitions was unrelated to these extreme appraisals and activated mood. Further research in a clinical sample using mood-relevant measures of reflective thinking is warranted.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence to: Alyson L. Dodd, Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Northumberland Building 151, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK. E-mail: alyson.dodd@northumbria.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Alatiq Y., Crane C., Williams J. M. G. and Goodwin G. M. (2010). Dysfunctional beliefs in bipolar disorder: hypomanic vs. depressive attitudes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122, 294300. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.021
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Baron J., Scott S., Fincher K. and Emlen Metz S. (2015). Why does the Cognitive Reflection Test (sometimes) predict utilitarian moral judgment (and other things)? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 265284. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.09.003
Bauer M. S., Crits-Christoph P., Ball W. A. et al. (1991). Independent assessment of manic and depressive symptoms by self-rating: scale characteristics and implications for the study of mania. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 807812. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810330031005
Beck A. T. and Haigh E. A. P. (2014). Advances in cognitive theory and therapy: the generic cognitive model. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 124. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153734
Beevers C. G. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability to depression: a dual process model. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 9751002. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.03.003
Cacioppo J. T., Petty R. E. and Chuan Feng K. (1984). The efficient assessment of need for cognition. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 306.
Cacioppo J. T., Petty R. E., Feinstein J. A. and Jarvis W. B. G. (1996). Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: the life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 197253. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.197
Campitelli G. and Labollita M. (2010). Correlations of cognitive reflection with judgments and choices. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 182.
Cheniaux E., Filgueiras A., Silva R. de A., Silveira L. A. S., Nunes A. L. S.b and Landeira-Fernandez J. (2014). Increased energy/activity, not mood changes, is the core feature of mania. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152–154, 256261. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.021
Clark D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461470. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(86)90011-2
Dodd A. L., Mansell W., Bentall R. P. and Tai S. (2011a). Do extreme beliefs about internal states predict mood swings in an analogue sample? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 497504. doi: 10.1007/s10608-010-9342-y
Dodd A. L., Mansell W., Morrison A. P. and Tai S. (2011b). Extreme appraisals of internal states and bipolar symptoms: the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 23, 635645. doi: 10.1037/a0022972
Dodd A. L., Mansell W., Sadhnani V., Morrison A. P. and Tai S. (2010). Principal components analysis of the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory and associations with measures of personality, cognitive style and analogue symptoms in a student sample. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38, 1533. doi: 10.1017/S1352465809990476
Evans J. S. B. T. and Stanovich K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223241. doi: 10.1177/1745691612460685
Faul F., Erdfelder E., Buchner A. and Lang A.-G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 11491160. doi: 10.3758/brm.41.4.1149
Field A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. Sage Publications.
Frederick S. (2005). Cognitive reflection and decision making. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 2542. doi: 10.1257/089533005775196732
Gilbert K., Nolen-Hoeksema S. and Gruber J. (2013). Positive emotion dysregulation across mood disorders: how amplifying versus dampening predicts emotional reactivity and illness course. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51b, 736741. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.08.004
Giovanelli A., Hoerger M., Johnson S. L. and Gruber J. (2013). Impulsive responses to positive mood and reward are related to mania risk. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 10911104. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.772048
Gruber J., Harvey A. G. and Johnson S. L. (2009). Reflective and ruminative processing of positive emotional memories in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 697704. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.05.005
Haigh M. (2016). Has the standard Cognitive Reflection Test become a victim of its own success? Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 12, 145149. doi: 10.5709/acp-0193-5
Haigh M. and Dodd A. L. (2017). Extreme cognitions are associated with diminished ability to use disconfirming evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90, 7083. doi: 10.1111/papt.12096
Hoerger M. (2010). Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13, 697700. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0445
Johnson S. L., McKenzie G. and McMurrich S. (2008). Ruminative responses to negative and positive affect among students diagnosed with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy Research, 32, 702713. doi: 10.1007/s10608-007-9158-6
Jones S. H. (2001). Circadian rhythms, multilevel models of emotion and bipolar disorder – an initial step towards integration? Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 11931209. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00111-8
Mansell W. (2006). The hypomanic attitudes and positive predictions inventory (HAPPI): a pilot study to select cognitions that are elevated in individuals with bipolar disorder compared to non-clinical controls. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 467476.
Mansell W., Morrison A. P., Reid G., Lowens I. and Tai S. (2007). The interpretation of, and responses to, changes in internal states: an integrative cognitive model of mood swings and bipolar disorders. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 515539. doi: 10.1017/S1352465807003827
Mansell W., Paszek G., Seal K., Pedley R., Jones S., Thomas N. et al. (2011). Extreme appraisals of internal states in bipolar I disorder: a multiple control group study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 8797. doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9287-1
Mansell W. and Pedley R. (2008). The ascent into mania: a review of psychological processes associated with the development of manic symptoms. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 494520. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.07.010
Mansell W., Rigby Z., Tai S. and Lowe C. (2008). Do current beliefs predict hypomanic symptoms beyond personality style? Factor analysis of the hypomanic attitudes and positive predictions inventory (HAPPI) and its association with hypomanic symptoms in a student population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 450465. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20455
Morrison A. P. (2001). The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: an integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 257276. doi: 10.1017/S1352465801003010
Palmier-Claus J. E., Dodd A., Tai S., Emsley R. and Mansell W. (2016). Appraisals to affect: testing the integrative cognitive model of bipolar disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 225235. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12081
Pennycook G., Fugelsang J. A. and Koehler D. J. (2015). Everyday consequences of analytic thinking. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 425432. doi: 10.1177/0963721415604610
Stieger S. and Reips U.-D. (2016). A limitation of the Cognitive Reflection Test: familiarity. PeerJ, 4, e2395. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2395
Thomson K. S. and Oppenheimer D. M. (2016). Investigating an alternate form of the cognitive reflection test. Judgment and Decision Making, 11, 99113.
Toplak M. E., West R. F. and Stanovich K. E. (2011). The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics-and-biases tasks. Memory and Cognition, 39, 12751289. doi: 10.3758/s13421-011-0104-1
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 50 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 194 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 26th April 2017 - 17th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.