Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 14
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Schulz, Ava Stolz, Timo Vincent, Alessia Krieger, Tobias Andersson, Gerhard and Berger, Thomas 2016. A sorrow shared is a sorrow halved? A three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing internet-based clinician-guided individual versus group treatment for social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 84, p. 14.

    van Lankveld, Jacques 2016. Internet-Based Interventions for Women’s Sexual Dysfunction. Current Sexual Health Reports, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 136.

    Brettschneider, Mona Neumann, Pauline Berger, Thomas Renneberg, Babette and Boettcher, Johanna 2015. Internet-based interpretation bias modification for social anxiety: A pilot study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 49, p. 21.

    Carleton, R. Nicholas Teale Sapach, Michelle J.N. Oriet, Chris Duranceau, Sophie Lix, Lisa M. Thibodeau, Michel A. Horswill, Samantha C. Ubbens, Jordan R. and Asmundson, Gordon J.G. 2015. A randomized controlled trial of attention modification for social anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 33, p. 35.

    Nordmo, Magnus Sinding, Aksel Inge Carlbring, Per Andersson, Gerhard Havik, Odd E. and Nordgreen, Tine 2015. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy with and without an initial face-to-face psychoeducation session for social anxiety disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Internet Interventions, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 429.

    Andersson, Gerhard Carlbring, Per and Furmark, Tomas 2014. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Andersson, Gerhard 2014. The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders.

    Andersson, Gerhard and Titov, Nickolai 2014. Advantages and limitations of Internet-based interventions for common mental disorders. World Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Baumeister, H. Reichler, L. Munzinger, M. and Lin, J. 2014. The impact of guidance on Internet-based mental health interventions — A systematic review. Internet Interventions, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 205.

    Boettcher, Johanna Hasselrot, Jonas Sund, Erik Andersson, Gerhard and Carlbring, Per 2014. Combining Attention Training with Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Self-Help for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 34.

    Boettcher, Johanna Åström, Viktor Påhlsson, Daniel Schenström, Ola Andersson, Gerhard and Carlbring, Per 2014. Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Behavior Therapy, Vol. 45, Issue. 2, p. 241.

    Schulz, Ava Stolz, Timo and Berger, Thomas 2014. Internet-based individually versus group guided self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Wootton, Bethany M. Dear, Blake F. Johnston, Luke Terides, Matthew D. and Titov, Nickolai 2014. Self-guided internet administered treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from two open trials. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 102.

    Boettcher, Johanna Renneberg, Babette and Berger, Thomas 2013. Patient Expectations in Internet-Based Self-Help for Social Anxiety. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Vol. 42, Issue. 3, p. 203.

  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 40, Issue 5
  • October 2012, pp. 513-528

Does a Pre-Treatment Diagnostic Interview Affect the Outcome of Internet-Based Self-Help for Social Anxiety Disorder? A Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Johanna Boettcher (a1), Thomas Berger (a2) and Babette Renneberg (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 17 July 2012

Background: Numerous studies suggest that Internet-based self-help treatments are effective in treating anxiety disorders. Trials evaluating such interventions differ in their screening procedures and in the amount of clinician contact in the diagnostic assessment phase. The present study evaluates the impact of a pre-treatment diagnostic interview on the outcome of an Internet-based treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Method: One hundred and nine participants seeking treatment for SAD were randomized to either an interview-group (IG, N = 53) or to a non-interview group (NIG, N = 56). All participants took part in the same 10-week cognitive-behavioural unguided self-help programme. Before receiving access to the programme, participants of the IG underwent a structured diagnostic interview. Participants of the NIG started directly with the programme. Results: Participants in both groups showed significant and substantial improvement on social anxiety measures from pre- to post-assessment (dIG = 1.30–1.63; dNIG = 1.00–1.28) and from pre- to 4-month follow-up assessment (dIG = 1.38–1.87; dNIG = 1.10–1.21). Significant between-groups effects in favour of the IG were found on secondary outcome measures of depression and general distress (d = 0.18–0.42). Conclusions: These findings suggest that Internet-based self-help is effective in treating SAD, whether or not a diagnostic interview is involved. However, the pre-treatment interview seems to facilitate change on secondary outcomes such as depression and general distress.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Johanna Boettcher, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, 14195 Berlin, Germany. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L. Y. Abramson , G. I. Metalsky and L. B. Alloy (1989). Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358372. doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.96.2.358

G. Andersson , J. Bergström , F. Holländare , P. Carlbring , V. Kaldo and L. Ekselius (2005). Internet-based self-help for depression: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 456461. doi: 10.1192/bjp.187.5.456

G. Andersson , P. Carlbring , A. Holmström , E. Sparthan , T. Furmark , E. Nilsson-Ihrfelt , et al. (2006). Internet-based self-help with therapist feedback and in vivo group exposure for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 677686. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.677

G. Andersson and P. Cuijpers (2009). Internet-based and other computerized psychological treatments for adult depression: a meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 196205. doi: 10.1080/16506070903318960

C. C. Attkisson and R. Zwick (1982). The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire: psychometric properties and correlations with service utilisation and psychotherapy outcome. Evaluation and Program Planning, 5, 233237.

S. L. Baker , N. Heinrichs , H.-J. Kim and S. G. Hofmann (2002). The Liebowitz social anxiety scale as a self-report instrument: a preliminary psychometric analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 701715. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00060-2

A. Barak , L. Hen , M. Boniel-Nissim and N. A. Shapira (2008). A comprehensive review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 109160. doi: 10.1080/15228830802094429

T. Berger , F. Caspar , R. Richardson , B. Kneubuhler , D. Sutter and G. Andersson (2011). Internet-based treatment of social phobia: a randomized controlled trial comparing unguided with two types of guided self-help. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 158169. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.12.007

T. Berger , E. O. Hohl and F. Caspar (2009). Internet-based treatment for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 10211035. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20603

T. Berger , E. Hohl and F. Caspar (2010). Internetbasierte therapie der sozialen phobie: Ergebnisse einer 6-monate-katamnese. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie: Forschung und Praxis, 39, 217221. doi: 10.1026/1616-3443/a000050

C. Botella , M. J. Gallego , A. Garcia-Palacios , V. Guillen , R. M. Banos , S. Quero , et al. (2010). An Internet-based self-help treatment for fear of public speaking: a controlled trial. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 407421. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0224

P. Carlbring , T. Furmark , J. Steczkó , L. Ekselius and G. Andersson (2006). An open study of internet-based bibliotherapy with minimal therapist contact via email for social phobia. Clinical Psychologist, 10, 3038. doi: 10.1080/13284200500378662

P. Carlbring , M. Gunnarsdóttir , L. Hedensjö , G. Andersson , L. Ekselius and T. Furmark (2007). Treatment of social phobia: randomised trial of internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy with telephone support. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 123128. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.105.020107

P. Carlbring , E. Nilsson-Ihrfelt , J. Waara , C. Kollenstam , M. Buhrman , V. Kaldo , et al. (2005). Treatment of panic disorder: live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 13211333. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.10.002

P. Carlbring , L. B. Nordgren , T. Furmark and G. Andersson (2009). Long-term outcome of internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for social phobia: a 30-month follow-up. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 848850. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.06.012

P. Carlbring , B. E. Westling , P. Ljungstrand , L. Ekselius and G. Andersson (2001). Treatment of panic disorder via the Internet: a randomized trial of a self-help program. Behavior Therapy, 32, 751764. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80019-8

H. Christensen , K. M. Griffiths and A. F. Jorm (2004). Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328, 265269. doi: 10.1136/bmj.37945.566632.EE

D. M. Clark , A. Ehlers , A. Hackmann , F. McManus , M. Fennell , N. Grey , et al. (2006). Cognitive therapy versus exposure and applied relaxation in social phobia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 568578. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.568

G. Clarke , D. Eubanks , C. Kelleher , E. O'Connor , L. L. DeBar , F. Lynch , et al. (2005). Overcoming Depression on the Internet (ODIN) (2): a randomized trial of a self-help depression skills program with reminders. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7, e16. doi: 10.2196/jmir.7.2.e16

G. Clarke , E. Reid , D. Eubanks , E. O'Connor , L. L. DeBar , C. Kelleher , et al. (2002). Overcoming Depression on the Internet (ODIN): a randomised controlled trial of an internet depression skills intervention program. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 4, e14. doi: 10.2196/jmir.4.3.e14

J. Cohen (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

T. Furmark , P. Carlbring , E. Hedman , A. Sonnenstein , P. Clevberger , B. Bohman , et al. (2009). Guided and unguided self-help for social anxiety disorder: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 440447. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.060996

M. B. C. Gibbons , P. Crits-Christoph , J. P. Barber , S. Wiltsey Stirman , R. Gallop , L. A. Goldstein , et al. (2009). Unique and common mechanisms of change across cognitive and dynamic psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 801813. doi: 10.1037/a0016596

E. Hedman , B. Ljotsson , C. Rück , T. Furmark , P. Carlbring , N. Lindefors , et al. (2010). Internet administration of self-report measures commonly used in research on social anxiety disorder: a psychometric evaluation. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 736740. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.01.010

P. R. Houck , S. Mazumdar , T. Koru-Sengul , G. Tang , B. H. Mulsant , B. G. Pollock , et al. (2004). Estimating treatment effects from longitudinal clinical trial data with missing values: comparative analyses using different methods. Psychiatry Research, 129, 209215. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2004.08.001

N. S. Jacobson and P. Truax (1991). Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 1219. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.59.1.12

R. C. Kessler , P. Berglund , O. Demler , R. Jin , K. R. Merikangas and E. E. Walters (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593602. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593

B. Klein , J. C. Richards and D. W. Austin (2006). Efficacy of internet therapy for panic disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37, 213238. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2005.07.001

T. M. Lincoln , W. Rief , K. Hahlweg , M. Frank , I. von Witzleben , B. Schroeder , et al. (2003). Effectiveness of an empirically supported treatment for social phobia in the field. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 12511269. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00038-X

I. Marks and K. Cavanagh (2009). Computer-aided psychological treatments: evolving issues. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 121141. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153538

M. Olfson , M. Guardino , E. Struening , F. R. Schneier , F. Hellman and D. F. Klein (2000). Barriers to the treatment of social anxiety. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 521527. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.4.521

K. J. Preacher and A. F. Hayes (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879891. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

R. M. Rapee , M. J. Abbott , A. J. Baillie and J. E. Gaston (2007). Treatment of social phobia through pure self-help and therapist-augmented self-help. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 246252. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.028167

R. L. Rosnow and R. Rosenthal (1991). If you're looking at the cell means, you're not looking at only the interaction (unless all main effects are zero). Psychological Bulletin, 110, 574576. doi: 10.1037/0033–2909.110.3.574

U. Stangier , T. Heidenreich , A. Berardi , U. Golbs and J. Hoyer (1999). Die Erfassung sozialer Phobie durch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) und die Social Phobia Scale (SPS). Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, 28, 2836. doi: 10.1026//0084-5345.28.1.28

A. Suppiger , T. In-Albon , S. Hendriksen , E. Hermann , J. R. Margraf and S. Schneider (2009). Acceptance of structured diagnostic interviews for mental disorders in clinical practice and research settings. Behavior Therapy, 40, 272279. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2008.07.002

N. Titov , G. Andrews , I. Choi , G. Schwencke and L. Johnston (2009). Randomized controlled trial of web-based treatment of social phobia without clinician guidance. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 913919. doi: 10.1080/00048670903179160

N. Titov , G. Andrews , I. Choi , G. Schwencke and A. Mahoney (2008). Shyness 3: randomized controlled trial of guided versus unguided Internet-based CBT for social phobia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 10301040. doi: 10.1080/00048670802512107

N. Titov , G. Andrews , L. Johnston , G. Schwencke and I. Choi (2009). Shyness programme: longer term benefits, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 3644. doi: 10.1080/00048670802534424

N. Titov , G. Andrews and G. Schwencke (2008). Shyness 2: Treating social phobia online: replication and extension. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 595605. doi: 10.1080/00048670802119820

N. Titov , G. Andrews , G. Schwencke , J. Drobny and D. Einstein (2008). Shyness 1: distance treatment of social phobia over the internet. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 585594. doi: 10.1080/00048670802119762

N. Titov , G. Andrews , G. Schwencke , E. Robinson , L. Peters and J. Spence (2010). Randomized controlled trial of internet cognitive behavioural treatment for social phobia with and without motivational enhancement strategies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 938945. doi: 10.3109/00048674.2010.493859

P. S. Wang , P. Berglund , M. Olfson , H. A. Pincus , K. B. Wells and R. C. Kessler (2005). Failure and delay in initial treatment contact after first onset of mental disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 603613. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.603

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *