Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 248
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bendezú, Jason J. Sarah, E. D. Perzow and Martha, E. Wadsworth 2016. What constitutes effective coping and efficient physiologic regulation following psychosocial stress depends on involuntary stress responses. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 73, p. 42.


    Gannon, Theresa A. 2016. Forensic psychologists should use the behavioral experiment to facilitate cognitive change in clients who have offended. Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 27, p. 130.


    Gilleen, James David, Anthony and Greenwood, Kathryn 2016. Self-reflection and set-shifting mediate awareness in cognitively preserved schizophrenia patients. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 21, Issue. 3, p. 185.


    Kiso, Helen and Hershey, Douglas A. 2016. Working Adults’ Metacognitions Regarding Financial Planning for Retirement. Work, Aging and Retirement, p. waw021.


    Lee, Seohyun and Park, Wanju 2016. Effects of Relational Self and Negative Ideation of Teachers on Coping Type for School-aged Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 89.


    Mahoney, Alison E.J. Hobbs, Megan J. Newby, Jill M. Williams, Alishia D. Sunderland, Matthew and Andrews, Gavin 2016. The Worry Behaviors Inventory: Assessing the behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 203, p. 256.


    Mansueto, Giovanni Pennelli, Michele De Palo, Valeria Monacis, Lucia Sinatra, Maria and De Caro, Maria Fara 2016. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model. Journal of Gambling Studies, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 93.


    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi Bethge, Mareike Luksnat, Stefanie Nalato, Fabio Juckel, Georg and Brüne, Martin 2016. Social cognition and metacognition in obsessive–compulsive disorder: an explorative pilot study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 266, Issue. 3, p. 209.


    Miloyan, Beyon Bulley, Adam and Suddendorf, Thomas 2016. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 4.


    Startup, Helen Pugh, Katherine Dunn, Graham Cordwell, Jacinta Mander, Helen Černis, Emma Wingham, Gail Shirvell, Katherine Kingdon, David and Freeman, Daniel 2016. Worry processes in patients with persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, p. n/a.


    Visinet, A. Soumet-Leman, C. Baptista, A. Bungener, C. and Jouvent, R. 2016. Approche psychométrique de la métacognition : étude pilote en population clinique. L'Encéphale,


    White, Julia A. and Hudson, Jennifer L. 2016. The Metacognitive Model of Anxiety in Children: Towards a Reliable and Valid Measure. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 1, p. 92.


    Williams, Charlotte Patricia Taylor, Emily and Schwannauer, Matthias 2016. A WEB-BASED SURVEY OF MOTHER-INFANT BOND, ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES, AND METACOGNITION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS FOLLOWING CHILDBIRTH. Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 37, Issue. 3, p. 259.


    Wilson, G.A. Krause, K.L. and Antony, M.M. 2016. Encyclopedia of Mental Health.


    Xu, Ling Li, Yawen Min, Joohong and Chi, Iris 2016. Worry about not having a caregiver and depressive symptoms among widowed older adults in China: the role of family support. Aging & Mental Health, p. 1.


    Young, R. Dagnan, D. and Jahoda, A. 2016. Leaving school: a comparison of the worries held by adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, Vol. 60, Issue. 1, p. 9.


    Affrunti, Nicholas W. and Woodruff-Borden, Janet 2015. The effect of maternal psychopathology on parent–child agreement of child anxiety symptoms: A hierarchical linear modeling approach. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 32, p. 56.


    Dethier, Vincent Baeyens, Céline Bouvard, Martine and Philippot, Pierre 2015. Application à un cas clinique d’un protocole d’évaluation des processus pour les troubles anxio-dépressifs. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 93.


    Esbjørn, B. H. Lønfeldt, N. N. Nielsen, S. K. Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L. Sømhovd, M. J. and Cartwright-Hatton, S. 2015. Meta-Worry, Worry, and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Relationships and Interactions. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 145.


    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff Normann, Nicoline and Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise 2015. Adapting Metacognitive Therapy to Children with Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Suggestions for a Manual. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol. 45, Issue. 3, p. 159.


    ×

Meta-Cognition and Worry: A Cognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Adrian Wells (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465800015897
  • Published online: 01 June 2009
Abstract

A meta-cognitive classification and analysis of factors contributing to the development of problematic worry is presented. Dimensions of meta-beliefs, meta-worry, cognitive consciousness, and strategies can be distinguished. A cognitive model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder is advanced based on this framework in which GAD results from an interaction between the motivated use of worry as a coping strategy, negative appraisal of worry, and worry control attempts. These factors result from combinations of dysfunctional meta-beliefs and contribute to subjectively diminished cognitive control. The model presents new implications for a cognitive therapy of GAD, and these are illustrated with a single case treatment study.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T.D. Borkovec and J. Inz (1990). The nature of worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder: a predominance of thought activity. Behaviour Research and Therapy 28, 153158.

T.D. Borkovec , E. Robinson , T. Pruzinski and J.A. DePree (1983). Preliminary exploration of worry: some characteristics and processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy 21, 916.

D.A. Clark and C. Purdon (1993). New perspectives for a cognitive theory of obsessions. Australian Psychologist 28, 161167.

D.M. Clark , S. Ball and D. Pape (1991). An experimental investigation of thought suppression. Behaviour Research and Therapy 29, 253257.

M.G. Craske , R.M. Rapee , L. Jackel and D.H. Barlow (1989). Qualitative dimensions of worry in DSM-III-R Generalized Anxiety Disorder subjects and non-anxious controls. Behaviour Research and Therapy 27, 397402.

A. Fenigstein , M.F. Scheier and A.H. Buss (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43, 522527.

J.H. Flavell (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: a new area of cognitive- developmental enquiry. American Psychologist 34, 906911.

E.B. Foa and M.J. Kozac (1986). Emotional processing and fear: exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin 99, 2035.

R.E. Ingram (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin 107, 156176.

R.J. McNally and P.A. Kohlbeck (1993). Reality monitoring in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy 31, 249253.

S. Rachman (1980). Emotional processing. Behaviour Research and Therapy 18, 5160.

S. Rachman and P. de Silva (1978). Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy 16, 233248.

P.M. Salkovskis (1985). Obsessional-compulsive problems: a cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 23, 571583.

P.M. Salkovskis (1989). Cognitive-behavioural factors and the persistence of intrusive thoughts in obsessional problems. Behaviour Research and Therapy 27, 677682.

F. Tallis , M.W. Eysenck and A. Mathews (1992). A questionnaire for the measurement of nonpathological worry. Personality and Individual Differences 13, 161168.

S.M. Turner , D.C. Beidel and M.A. Stanley (1992). Are obsessional thoughts and worry different cognitive phenomena? Clinical Psychology Review 12, 257270.

A. Wells (1985). Relationship between private self-consciousness and anxiety scores in threatening situations. Psychological Reports 57, 10631066.

A. Wells (1994a). A multi-dimensional measure of worry: development and preliminary validation of the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. Anxiety, Stress and Coping 6, 289299.

A. Wells and M. Davies (1994). The Thought Control Questionnaire: a measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts. Behaviour Research and Therapy 32, 871878.

A. Wells and C. Papageorgiou (1995). Worry and the incubation of intrusive images following stress. Behaviour Research and Therapy 33, 579583.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×