Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Beck, Andrew Nadkarni, Abhijit Calam, Rachel Naeem, Farooq and Husain, Nusrat 2016. Increasing access to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Low and Middle Income Countries: A strategic framework. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 22, p. 190.

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama Ibaraki, Alicia Yee Huang, Ellen R. Marti, C. Nathan and Stice, Eric 2016. A Meta-Analysis of Cultural Adaptations of Psychological Interventions. Behavior Therapy,

    Naeem, Farooq Habib, Nazish Gul, Mirrat Khalid, Mehwish Saeed, Sofiya Farooq, Saeed Munshi, Tariq Gobbi, Mary Husain, Nusrat Ayub, Muhammad and Kingdon, David 2016. A Qualitative Study to Explore Patients’, Carers’ and Health Professionals’ Views to Culturally Adapt CBT for Psychosis (CBTp) in Pakistan. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 44, Issue. 01, p. 43.

    Mir, Ghazala Meer, Shaista Cottrell, David McMillan, Dean House, Allan and Kanter, Jonathan W. 2015. Adapted behavioural activation for the treatment of depression in Muslims. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 180, p. 190.

    Naeem, Farooq Saeed, Sofiya Irfan, Muhammad Kiran, Tayyeba Mehmood, Nasir Gul, Mirrat Munshi, Tariq Ahmad, Sohail Kazmi, Ajmal Husain, Nusrat Farooq, Saeed Ayub, Muhammad and Kingdon, David 2015. Brief culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp): A randomized controlled trial from a low income country. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 164, Issue. 1-3, p. 143.

    Naeem, Farooq Gul, Mirrat Irfan, Muhammad Munshi, Tariq Asif, Aftab Rashid, Sadaf Khan, Muhammad Nasar Sayeed Ghani, Sadaf Malik, Azmat Aslam, Muhammad Farooq, Saeed Husain, Nusrat and Ayub, Muhammad 2015. Brief Culturally adapted CBT (CaCBT) for depression: A randomized controlled trial from Pakistan. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 177, p. 101.

    Vally, Zahir and Maggott, Clint 2015. Evaluating the Outcome of Cultural Adaptations of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Adult Depression: a Meta-Analysis of Treatment Studies in Developing Countries. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, Vol. 37, Issue. 4, p. 293.

    2015. Cultural Adaptation of CBT for Serious Mental Illness.

    Chowdhary, N. Jotheeswaran, A. T. Nadkarni, A. Hollon, S. D. King, M. Jordans, M. J. D. Rahman, A. Verdeli, H. Araya, R. and Patel, V. 2014. The methods and outcomes of cultural adaptations of psychological treatments for depressive disorders: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine, Vol. 44, Issue. 06, p. 1131.

    Cuijpers, Pim Sijbrandij, Marit Koole, Sander L. Andersson, Gerhard Beekman, Aartjan T. and Reynolds, Charles F. 2014. Adding psychotherapy to antidepressant medication in depression and anxiety disorders: a meta-analysis. World Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 56.

    Horvat, Lidia Horey, Dell Romios, Panayiota Kis-Rigo, John and Horvat, Lidia 2014. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    Husain, Nusrat Chaudhry, Nasim Fatima, Batool Husain, Meher Amin, Rizwana Chaudhry, Imran Bashir Ur Rahman, Raza Tomenson, Barbara Jafri, Farhat Naeem, Farooq and Creed, Francis 2014. Antidepressant and Group Psychosocial Treatment for Depression: A Rater Blind Exploratory RCT from a Low Income Country. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 42, Issue. 06, p. 693.

    Husain, N. Afsar, S. Ara, J. Fayyaz, H. Rahman, R. u. Tomenson, B. Hamirani, M. Chaudhry, N. Fatima, B. Husain, M. Naeem, F. and Chaudhry, I. B. 2014. Brief psychological intervention after self-harm: randomised controlled trial from Pakistan. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 204, Issue. 6, p. 462.

    Naeem, Faooq Sarhandi, Ishaque Gul, Mirrat Khalid, Mehwish Aslam, Muhammad Anbrin, Aqila Saeed, Sofiya Noor, Madeeha Fatima, Ghulam Minhas, Fareed Husain, Nusrat and Ayub, Muhammad 2014. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of a carer supervised Culturally adapted CBT (CaCBT) based self-help for depression in Pakistan. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 156, p. 224.

    Rathod, Shanaya Phiri, Peter Harris, Scott Underwood, Charlotte Thagadur, Mahesh Padmanabi, Uma and Kingdon, David 2013. Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis can be adapted for minority ethnic groups: A randomised controlled trial. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 143, Issue. 2-3, p. 319.

    Rosenstein, David and Seedat, Soraya 2011. Child and adolescent cognitive behaviour therapy in South Africa: An editorial review. Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 69.

    Stone, Lydia and Warren, Fiona 2011. Cognitive behaviour therapy training in a developing country: a pilot study in Tanzania. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, Vol. 4, Issue. 04, p. 139.

  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 39, Issue 2
  • March 2011, pp. 165-173

Preliminary Evaluation of Culturally Sensitive CBT for Depression in Pakistan: Findings from Developing Culturally-Sensitive CBT Project (DCCP)

  • Farooq Naeem (a1), Waquas Waheed (a2), Mary Gobbi (a1), Muhammad Ayub (a3) and David Kingdon (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 November 2010

Background: There is sufficient research evidence in favour of cognitive therapy in western world. However, only limited research has been carried out on its effectiveness in other countries. It is suggested that adaptations in content, format and delivery are needed before CBT can be employed in non-western cultures. We describe a preliminary evaluation of culturally adapted CBT for depression in Pakistan. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this culturally adapted CBT using a therapist manual. Method: In a randomized controlled trial we compared combination of CBT and antidepressants with antidepressants alone (treatment as usual) in primary care. Referred patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of depression were invited to participate and randomized to the intervention and control groups. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) were used to measure changes in depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms. Results: Seventeen patients each were randomized to each arms of the trial. Except for financial status there were no differences between the two groups on various demographic variables. Patients receiving CBT showed statistically significant improvement on measures of depression (p < .001), anxiety (p < .001) and somatic symptoms (p < .000) as compared to antidepressant alone group. 82% patients attended six or more sessions of therapy. Conclusions: A culturally sensitive manualized CBT was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety in Pakistan.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Farooq Naeem, Department of Psychiatry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ED, UK. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. Araya , G. Rojas , R. Fritsch , J. Gaete , M. Rojas , G. Simon and T. Peters (2003). Treating depression in primary care in low-income women in Santiago, Chile: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 361 (9362), 9951000.

M. Barrera and F. Castro (2006). A heuristic framework for the cultural adaptation of interventions. Clinical Psychology Science Practice, 13, 311316.

G. Hall (2001). Psychotherapy research with ethnic minorities: empirical, ethical, and conceptual issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 502510.

D. Moher , K. F. Schulz and D. G. Altman (2001). The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Lancet, 357 (9263), 11911194.

D. B. Mumford , I. A. Tareen , M. A. Bajwa , M. R. Bhatti and R. Karim (1991). The translation and evaluation of an Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 83, 8185.

D. B. Mumford , J. T. Bavington , K. S. Bhatnagar , Y. Hussain , S. Mirza , M. M. Naraghi (1991). The Bradford Somatic Inventory. A multi-ethnic inventory of somatic symptoms reported by anxious and depressed patients in Britain and the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 379–86

F. Naeem , M. Gobbi , M. Ayub and D. Kingdon (2010). Psychologists' experience of cognitive behaviour therapy in a developing country: a qualitative study from Pakistan. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 4, 2.

F. Naeem , M. Gobbi , M. Ayub and D. Kingdon (2009). University students' views about compatibility of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with their personal, social and religious values (a study from Pakistan). Mental Health Religion and Culture. 12, 847855.

A. Rahman , A. Malik , S. Sikander , C. Roberts and F. Creed (2008). Cognitive behaviour therapy-based intervention by community health workers for mothers with depression and their infants in rural Pakistan: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 372 (9642), 902909.

J. Rossello , G. Bernal and C. Rivera-Medina (2008). Individual and group CBT and IPT for Puerto Rican adolescents with depressive symptoms, cultural diversity and ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 234245.

A. Sumathipala , S. Siribaddana , P. De Silva , M. Dewey , M. Prince and A. H. Mann (2008). Cognitive-behavioural therapy v. structured care for medically unexplained symptoms: randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 5159.

D. F. Wong (2008). Cognitive behavioral treatment groups for people with chronic depression in Hong Kong: a randomized wait-list control design. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 142148.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *