Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 6
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Yakpo, Kofi and Muysken, Pieter 2014. Pidgins and Creoles beyond Africa-Europe Encounters.


    POPLACK, SHANA and TORRES CACOULLOS, RENA 2016. Data before models. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, p. 1.


    Poplack, Shana and Cacoullos, Rena Torres 2015. The Handbook of Language Emergence.


    Kirsten, Johanita 2015. The use of was in Afrikaans passive constructions: a diachronic corpus study. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, Vol. 33, Issue. 2, p. 159.


    Carvalho, Ana Maria 2014. Portuguese-Spanish Interfaces.


    Levey, Stephen Groulx, Karine and Roy, Joseph 2013. A variationist perspective on discourse-pragmatic change in a contact setting. Language Variation and Change, Vol. 25, Issue. 02, p. 225.


    ×

Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: An empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence*

  • SHANA POPLACK (a1), LAUREN ZENTZ (a2) and NATHALIE DION (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000204
  • Published online: 11 August 2011
Abstract

In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative variationist framework, first to situate stranding with respect to the other options for preposition placement with which it coexists in the host language grammar, and then to confront the variable constraints on stranding across source and host languages, contact and pre-contact stages of the host language, mainstream and “bilingual” varieties of the source language, and copious and sparse code-switchers. Detailed comparison with a superficially similar pre-existing native language construction also enables us to assess the possibility of a language-internal model for preposition stranding. Systematic quantitative analyses turned up several lines of evidence militating against the interpretation of convergence. Most compelling are the findings that the conditions giving rise to stranding in French are the same as those operating to produce the native strategy, while none of them are operative in the presumed source. Explicit comparison of copious vs. sparse code-switchers revealed no difference between them, refuting claims that the former are agents of convergence. Results confirm that surface similarities may mask deeper differences, a crucial finding for the study of contact-induced change.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Shana Poplack, 70 Laurier East, Suite 422, Ottawa, ON, CanadaK1N 6N5spoplack@uottawa.ca
Footnotes
Hide All

The research reported here was generously funded by grants to Poplack from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Killam Foundation. Poplack holds the Canada Research Chair in Linguistics. Yves Roberge has been a source of boundless information about preposition stranding, and we are indebted to him for hours of invaluable discussion. Éric Mathieu not only cheerfully withstood, but kindly answered our barrage of questions, providing many useful references along the way. Comments from Rena Torres Cacoullos and audiences at LSA, CLA and University of New Mexico substantially improved this study. We thank members of the University of Ottawa Sociolinguistics Lab Molly Love for her research and editorial skills, and Alexandra Hänsch, Allison Lealess and Mystique Lacelle for participating in extracting, coding, checking and correcting the English preposition data from the Quebec English Corpus and the Ottawa-Hull French Corpus. This paper has benefited enormously from the very detailed and thoughtful comments of four reviewers, to whom we are most grateful. The usual disclaimers apply.

Footnotes
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


A. Backus (2005). Code-switching and language change: One thing leads to another? International Journal of Bilingualism, 9 (3/4), 307340.

P. Barbaud (1998). Dissidence du français et évolution dialectale. Revue québecoise de linguistique, 26 (2), 107128.

G. Bergh , & A. Seppänen (2000). Preposition stranding with wh-relatives: A historical survey. English Language and Linguistics, 4 (2), 295316.



T. Hoffmann (2005). Variable vs. categorical effects. Journal of English Linguistics, 33 (3), 257297.

R. King (2000). The lexical basis of grammatical borrowing: A Prince Edward Island French case study. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

R. King (2005). Crossing grammatical borders: Tracing the path of contact-induced linguistic change. In M. Filppula (eds.), Dialects across borders: Selected papers from the 11th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology (Methods XI), Joensuu, August 2002, pp. 233251. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

R. King , & Y. Roberge (1990). Preposition stranding in Prince Edward Island French. Probus, 2 (3), 351369.


S. Poplack (1989). The care and handling of a mega-corpus: The Ottawa-Hull French project. In R. Fasold & D. Shiffrin (eds.), Language change and variation, pp. 411451. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

S. Poplack (1993). Variation theory and language contact. In D. Preston (ed.), American dialect research: An anthology celebrating the 100th anniversary of the American Dialect Society, pp. 251286. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


S. Poplack , J. Walker , & R. Malcolmson (2006). An English “like no other”?: Language contact and change in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 51 (2/3), 185213.


R. Quirk (1957). Relative clauses in educated spoken English. English Studies, 38, 97109.

C. Silva-Corvalán (1998). On borrowing as a mechanism of syntactic change. In A. Schwegler , B. Tranel & M. Uribe-Extebarria (eds.), Romance linguistics: Theoretical perspectives. Selected papers from the 27th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages, pp. 225246. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.


K. Takami (1992). Preposition stranding: From syntactic to functional analyses. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.


D. Winford (2005). Contact-induced changes: Classifications and processes. Diachronica, 22 (2), 373427.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: