Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Processing grammatical evidentiality and time reference in Turkish heritage and monolingual speakers*

  • SEÇKİN ARSLAN (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4) (a5) (a6), DÖRTE DE KOK (a7) and ROELIEN BASTIAANSE (a8)
Abstract

In the current study, we examined how adult heritage and monolingual speakers of Turkish process evidentiality (the linguistic expression of information source) through finite verb inflections and time reference, expressed on non-finite participles. A sentence-verification task was used to measure participants’ sensitivity to evidentiality and time-reference violations in Turkish. Our findings showed that the heritage speakers were less accurate and slower than the monolinguals in responding to both evidentiality and time-reference violations. Also, the heritage speakers made more errors and had longer RTs when responding to evidentiality violations as compared to time-reference violations. The monolinguals had longer RTs (and more accurate responses) to time reference than to evidentiality violations. This study shows that evidentiality is susceptible to incomplete acquisition in Turkish heritage speakers. It is suggested that the requirement for simultaneous processing at different linguistic levels makes the evidentiality markers vulnerable.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Mr. S. Arslan, M.A., M.Sc., Center for Language and Cognition (CLCG), Research Group Neurolinguistics, University of Groningen, PO Box 716, 9700 AS, Groningen, The Netherlands. seckin1984@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All
*

We thank Pınar Arslan, Claudia Felser, Katrina Gaffney, Paul Slomp, and Margriet Zwiers for their help during different stages of this study. We are grateful to Ludovica Serratrice and the three anonymous BLC reviewers for their constructive feedback and comments on earlier versions of this paper. The first author is supported by an Erasmus Mundus grant for the International Doctorate for Experimental Approaches to Language and Brain’ (IDEALAB) by the European Commission under grant no <2012-1713/001-001-EMII EMJD>.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Aarssen, J. (2001). Development of temporal relations in narratives by Turkish-Dutch bilingual children. In Verhoeven, L. T. & Stromqvist, S. (Eds.), Narrative development in a multilingual context. (pp. 209231). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Aikhenvald, A. Y. (2004). Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Akıncı, M. (2003). Temporal anchoring of texts in Turkish of first and second generation Turkish immigrants in France. In Özsoy, A. S., Akar, D., Nakipoglu-Demiralp, M., Erguvanlı-Taylan, E. & Aksu-Koç, A. (Eds.), Studies in Turkish linguistics (pp. 289297): Boğaziçi University Press.
Aksu-Koç, A. (1988). The acquisition of aspect and modality: The case of past reference in Turkish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Aksu-Koç, A. (1994). Development of linguistic forms: Turkish. In Berman, R. A. & Slobin, D. I. (Eds.), Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. (pp. 329385). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Aksu-Koç, A. (2000). Some aspects of the acquisition of evidential in Turkish. In Johanson, L. & Utas, B. (Eds.), Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and neighbouring languages. (pp. 1528). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Aksu-Koç, A., & Slobin, D. I. (1986). A psychological account of the development and use of evidentials in Turkish. In Wallace, C. & Nichols, J. (Eds.), Evidentiality. The linguistic coding of epistemiology. (pp. 159167): Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Albirini, A., Benmamoun, E., & Chakrani, B. (2013). Gender and number agreement in the oral production of Arabic Heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16 (01), 118.
Albirini, A., Benmamoun, E., & Saadah, E. (2011). Grammatical features of Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic heritage speakers’ oral production. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33 (02), 273303.
Anderson, R. T. (1999). Loss of gender agreement in L1 attrition: Preliminary results. Bilingual Research Journal, 23 (4), 389408.
Anderson, R. T. (2001). Lexical morphology and verb use in child first language loss: A preliminary case study investigation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5 (4), 377401.
Arslan, S., & Bastiaanse, R. (2014). Tense/aspect and Evidentiality in narrative speech of Turkish-Dutch bilingual speakers. Paper presented at the 17th International conference on Turkish linguistics, University of Rouen, France.
Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M. (2008). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59 (4), 390412.
Benmamoun, E., Montrul, S., & Polinsky, M. (2013). Defining an “ideal” heritage speaker: Theoretical and methodological challenges Reply to peer commentaries. Theoretical Linguistics, 39 (3–4), 259294.
Blackwell, A., Bates, E., & Fisher, D. (1996). The time course of grammaticality judgement. Language and Cognitive Processes, 11 (4), 337406.
Bolonyai, A. (2002). Case systems in contact: Syntactic and lexical case in bilingual child language. Southwest journal of linguistics, 21 (2), 1.
Bolonyai, A. (2007). (In) vulnerable agreement in incomplete bilingual L1 learners. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11 (1), 323.
Csató, E. A. (2000). Turkish mis-and imis-items. Dimensions of a functional analysis. In Johanson, L. & Utas, B. (Eds.), Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and neighbouring languages (pp. 2946). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
de Bot, K., & Weltens, B. (1991). Recapitulation, regression, and language loss. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. M. (Eds.), First language attrition (pp. 3151). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ekmekçi, Ö. (1990). Acquisition of relativization in Turkish. Paper presented at the Fifth international conference on Turkish linguistics, London University, England.
Enç, M. (1987). Anchoring conditions for tense. Linguistic inquiry, 633–657.
Erguvanlı-Taylan, E. (1993). Türkçe'de-DIK ekinin yantümcelerdeki işlevi üzerine. Dilbilim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 161–171.
Gürel, A., & Yilmaz, G. (2011). Restructuring in the L1 Turkish grammar: Effects of L2 English and L2 Dutch. Language, Interaction and Acquisition/Langage, Interaction et Acquisition, 2 (2), 221250.
Jakobson, R. (1941). Kindersprache, Aphasie, und allgemeine Lautgezetze. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Johanson, L. (2003). Evidentiality in Turkic. In Aikhenvald, A. Y. & Dixon, R. M. W. (Eds.), Studies in evidentiality (pp. 273290). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Keijzer, M. (2010). The regression hypothesis as a framework for first language attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13 (01), 918.
Kim, J.-H., Montrul, S., & Yoon, J. (2009). Binding interpretations of anaphors by Korean heritage speakers. Language Acquisition, 16 (1), 335.
Li, P., Sepanski, S., & Zhao, X. (2006). Language history questionnaire: A Web-based interface for bilingual research. Behavior Research Methods, 38 (2), 202210.
Montrul, S. A. (2002). Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adults bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and cognition., 5 (1), 3968.
Montrul, S. A. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
Montrul, S. A. (2009). Knowledge of tense-aspect and mood in Spanish heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13 (2), 239269.
Montrul, S. A. (2010). Dominant language transfer in adult second language learners and heritage speakers. Second Language Research, 26 (3), 293327.
Montrul, S. A. (2011). Multiple interfaces and incomplete acquisition. Lingua, 121 (4), 591604.
Montrul, S. A., Bhatt, R. M., & Bhatia, A. (2012). Erosion of case and agreement in Hindi heritage speakers. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2 (2), 141176.
Özge, D., Marinis, T., & Zeyrek, D. (2010). Production of relative clauses in monolingual Turkish children. Paper presented at the 34th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston University.
Öztürk, Ö., & Papafragou, A. (2007). Children's acquisition of evidentiality. Paper presented at the Proceedings from the the 31st Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston University.
Öztürk, Ö., & Papafragou, A. (2008). Acquisition of evidentiality and source monitoring. Paper presented at the Proceedings from the the 32nd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston University.
Palmer, F. R. (1986). Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Polinsky, M. (2006). Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 14 (2), 191262.
Polinsky, M. (2008). Heritage Language Narratives . In Brinton, D., Kagan, O. & Bauckus, S. (Eds.), Heritage languages: A new field emerging. New York: Routledge.
Polinsky, M. (2011). Reanalysis in adult heritage language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33 (02), 305328.
R-Core-Team. (2012). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: http://www.r-project.org/.
Rothman, J. (2007). Heritage speaker competence differences, language change, and input type: Inflected infinitives in Heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11 (4), 359389.
Sezer, E. (2001). Finite inflection in Turkish. In Erguvanlı-Taylan, E. (Ed.), The verb in Turkish (pp. 146). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (1994). Language Contact and Change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Slobin, D. I. (1986). The acquisition and use of relative clauses in Turkic and Indo-European languages. In Slobin, D. I. & Zimmer, K. (Eds.), Studies in Turkish linguistics (pp. 273289). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Slobin, D. I., & Aksu, A. A. (1982). Tense, aspect and modality in the use of the Turkish evidential. In Hopper, P. J. (Ed.), Tense-aspect: Between semantics and pragmatics (pp. 185200). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Sorace, A. (2000). Syntactic Optionality in Non-Native Grammars. Second Language Research, 16 (2), 93102.
Sorace, A. (2011). Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1 (1), 133.
Sorace, A., & Filiaci, F. (2006). Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second Language Research, 22 (3), 339368.
Sorace, A., & Serratrice, L. (2009). Internal and external interfaces in bilingual language development: Beyond structural overlap. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13 (2), 195210.
Underhill, R. (1972). Turkish participles. Linguistic inquiry, 3 (1), 8799.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed