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Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis

  • DEVOJIT DAS (a1), RICHARD J. CUTHBERT (a2), RAM D. JAKATI (a3) and VIBHU PRAKASH (a1)
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*Author for correspondence; email: richard.cuthbert@rspb.org.uk
References
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Acharya, R., Cuthbert, R., Baral, H. S. and Shah, K. B. (2009) Rapid population declines of Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis in Upper Mustang, Nepal. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 19: 99107.
Cuthbert, R., Parry-Jones, J., Green, R. E. and Pain, D. J. (2006) NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia’s critically endangered vultures. Biol. Lett. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0554
Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sartagal, J. (1994) Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 2: New World vultures to guineafowl. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions.
Green, R. E., Newton, I., Shultz, S., Cunningham, A. A., Gilbert, M., Pain, D. J. and Prakash, V. (2004) Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. J. Appl. Ecol. 41: 793800.
IUCN (2004) 2004 IUCN Red list of threatened species. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed on 05 December 2005).
Johnson, J., Lerner, H., Rasmussen, P. and Mindell, D. (2006) Systematics within the Gyps vultures: a clade at risk. BMC Evolutionary Biology doi:10.1186/1471-2148-6-65
Naidoo, V., Wolter, K., Cuthbert, R. and Duncan, N. (2009) Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa’s endangered vulture species. Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 53: 205208.
Oaks, J. L., Gilbert, M., Virani, M., Watson, R. T., Meteyer, C. U., Rideout, B., Shivaprasad, H. L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M. J. I., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A. and Khan, A. A. (2004) Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population declines in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630633.
Prakash, V., Green, R. E., Pain, D. J., Ranade, S. P., Saravanan, S., Prakash, N., Venkitachalam, R., Cuthbert, R., Rahmani, A. R. and Cunningham, A. A. (2007) Recent changes in populations of resident Gyps vultures in India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 104: 129135.
Rattner, B. A., Whitehead, M. A., Gasper, G., Meteyer, C. U., Link, W. A., Taggart, M. A., Meharg, A. A., Pattee, O. H. and Pain, D. J. 2008. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathares aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27: 23412345. doi:10.1897/08-123.1
Shultz, S., Baral, H. S., Charman, S., Cunningham, A. A., Das, D., Ghalsasi, G. R., Goudar, M. S., Green, R. E., Jones, A., Nighot, P., Pain, D. J. and Prakash, V. (2004) Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (Suppl.) 271: S458S460.
Swan, G. E., Cuthbert, R., Quevedo, M., Green, R. E., Pain, D. J., Bartels, P., Cunningham, A. A., Duncan, M., Meharg, A. A., Oaks, J. L., Parry-Jones, J., Shultz, S., Taggart, M., Verdoorn, G. and Wolter, K. (2006a) Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 2. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0425.
Swan, G., Naidoo, V., Cuthbert, R., Green, R., Pain, D., Swarup, D., Prakash, V., Taggart, M. A., Bekker, L., Das, D., et al. . (2006b) Removing the threat of diclofenac to critically endangered Asian vultures. PLoS Biol. 4: 395402.
Swarup, D., Patra, R. C., Prakash, V., Cuthbert, R., Das, D., Avari, P., Pain, D. J., Green, R. E., Sharma, A. K., Saini, M., Das, D. and Taggart, M. (2007) The safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India. Anim. Conserv. 10: 192198.
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Bird Conservation International
  • ISSN: 0959-2709
  • EISSN: 1474-0001
  • URL: /core/journals/bird-conservation-international
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