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    Mitchell, Kieren J. Wood, Jamie R. Scofield, R. Paul Llamas, Bastien and Cooper, Alan 2014. Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals unsuspected taxonomic affinity of the extinct Chatham duck (Pachyanas chathamica) and resolves divergence times for New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 70, p. 420.


    Sainsbury, James P. Greene, Terry C. Moorhouse, Ron J. Daugherty, Charles H. and Chambers, Geoffrey K. 2006. Microsatellite analysis reveals substantial levels of genetic variation but low levels of genetic divergence among isolated populations of Kaka (Nestor meridionalis). Emu, Vol. 106, Issue. 4, p. 329.


    McNab, Brian K. 2003. The energetics of New Zealand's ducks. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, Vol. 135, Issue. 2, p. 229.


    Kennedy, Martyn and Spencer, Hamish G. 2000. PHYLOGENY, BIOGEOGRAPHY, AND TAXONOMY OF AUSTRALASIAN TEALS. The Auk, Vol. 117, Issue. 1, p. 154.


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Genetic differentiation, taxonomy and conservation of Australasian teals Anas spp.

  • Charles H. Daugherty (a1), Murray Williams (a1) and Jennifer M. Hay (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0959270900003324
  • Published online: 01 May 2010
Abstract
Summary

Australasian teal consist of five taxa (Anas gracilis, A. castanea, A. chlorotis, A. aucklandica and A. nesiotis) whose taxonomic identities and relationships have been uncertain. Analysis of variation at 14 allozyme loci indicates limited but clear divergence of New Zealand taxa (A. chlorotis, A. aucklandica, A. nesiotis), in agreement with previous studies of morphological variation. The New Zealand taxa are “terminal and evolutionarily independent units” that clearly meet the criteria for specific recognition in line with the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). Because each is also geographically restricted and has small world population size, specific recognition supports increased conservation status for each. The three New Zealand species do not form a sister group with A. castanea, as previously hypothesized; instead, A. castanea and A. gracilis are sister taxa.

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Bird Conservation International
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