Previously known from two specimens, Kaempfer's Tody-tyrant Hemitriccus kaempferi is a globally threatened species endemic to the southern Brazil Atlantic Forest. The first field observations of this little-known taxon were made in the 1990s and our data therefore provide the first published information on its natural history, including breeding biology, behaviour and vocalizations, as well as a new locality. As very little information has appeared in the literature concerning the identification of this species, we present notes on its plumage and habits. Remarks concerning the species's conservation prospects and the importance of the remaining forest in the vicinity of the type-locality for other threatened bird species are made.
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