Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Everything you wanted to know about neuroimaging and psychiatry, but were afraid to ask

  • Cristina Martinelli and Sukhwinder S. Shergill
Summary

Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the advances and applications of medical imaging techniques. Tools with familiar acronyms such as MRI, EEG/MEG and PET/SPECT have provided invaluable information not only about the brain structure and function associated with psychiatric disorders, but increasingly about the mechanisms underpinning these disorders. This evolving understanding of the specific pathophysiology of mental disorder paves the way for improvement in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disorders managed in everyday clinical practice. This article gives an overview of the main neuroimaging approaches, contemporary applications of this technology to psychiatric disorder and signposts to the exciting possibilities for the future.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Everything you wanted to know about neuroimaging and psychiatry, but were afraid to ask
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Everything you wanted to know about neuroimaging and psychiatry, but were afraid to ask
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Everything you wanted to know about neuroimaging and psychiatry, but were afraid to ask
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Cristina Martinelli, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, 7th floor Main Building, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. Email: cristina.martinelli@kcl.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

• For the main neuroimaging techniques used in mental health, know the origin of the signal used, what the technique measures and its principle applications

• Understand how the identified neuroimaging techniques have benefitted psychiatry

• Appreciate how the new research applications of neuroimaging add value to psychiatry

DECLARATION OF INTEREST

None

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alarcon, G (2012) Electroclinical classification of seizures and syndromes. In Introduction to Epilepsy (eds Alarcon, G, Valentin, A) 107–18. Cambridge University Press.
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Ashby, FG (2011) Statistical Analysis of fMRI Data. MIT Press.
Buckner, RL, Andrews-Hanna, JR, Schacter, DL (2008) The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124: 138.
Clark, L, Lawrence, AJ, Astley-Jones, F et al (2009) Gambling near-misses enhance motivation to gamble and recruit win-related brain circuitry. Neuron, 61: 481–90.
Clark, L, Limbrick-Oldfield, EH (2013) Disordered gambling: a behavioural addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23: 655–9.
Costafreda, SG, Chu, C, Ashburner, J et al (2009) Prognostic and diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression. PLoS ONE, 4(7): e6353.
Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL, Fischman, AJ (2004) Positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. In Essentials of Neuroimaging for Clinical Practice (eds Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL, Rosenbaum, JF) 7591. American Psychiatric Publishing.
Ecker, C, Marquand, A, Mourão-Miranda, J et al (2010) Describing the brain in autism in five dimensions: magnetic resonance imagingassisted diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder using a multiparameter classification approach. Journal of Neuroscience, 30: 10612–23.
Filippini, N, MacIntosh, BJ, Hough, MG et al (2009) Distinct patterns of brain activity in young carriers of the APOE-epsilon4 allele. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106: 7209–14.
Fletcher, PC, Frith, CD (2009) Perceiving is believing: a Bayesian approach to explaining the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10: 4858.
Glenn, AL, Raine, A, Schug, RA (2009) The neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14: 56.
Glenn, AL, Raine, A (2014) Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15: 5463.
Goldenholtz, DM, Ahlfors, SP, Hamalainen, MS et al (2009) Mapping the signal-to-noise-ratios of cortical sources in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. Human Brain Mapping, 30: 1077–86.
Goldstein, MA, Price, BH (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging. In Essentials of Neuroimaging for Clinical Practice (eds Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL, Rosenbaum, JF) 2173. American Psychiatric Publishing.
Gromann, PM, Heslenfeld, DJ, Fett, AK et al (2013) Trust versus paranoia: abnormal response to social reward in psychotic illness. Brain, 136: 1968–75.
Hamani, C, Mayberg, H, Stone, S et al (2011) The subcallosal cingulate gyrus in the context of major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 69: 301–8.
Hariri, AR, Mattay, VS, Tessitore, A et al (2002) Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science, 297: 400–3.
Kloppel, S, Stonnington, CM, Chu, C et al (2008a) Automatic classification of MR scans in Alzheimer's disease. Brain, 31: 681–9.
Kloppel, S, Stonnington, CM, Barnes, J et al (2008b) Accuracy of dementia diagnosis: a direct comparison between radiologists and a computerized method. Brain, 131: 2969–74.
Koenings, M (2012) The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 23: 253–62.
Koike, S, Nishimura, Y, Takizawa, R et al (2013) Near-infrared spectroscopy in schizophrenia: a possible biomarker for predicting clinical outcome and treatment response. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 4(145): 112.
Lopes da Silva, F (2010) EEG: origin and measurement. In EEG-fMRI: Physiological Basis, Technique, and Applications (eds Mulert, C, Lemieux, L) 238. Springer.
Lozano, AM, Mayberg, HS, Giacobbe, P et al (2008) Subcallosal cingulate gyrus deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biological Psychiatry, 64: 461–7.
Matthews, PM, Honey, GD, Bullmore, ET (2006) Applications of fMRI in translational medicine and clinical practice. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7: 732–44.
Matthews, PM, Rabiner, EA, Passchier, J et al (2012) Positron emission tomography molecular imaging for drug development. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 73: 175–86.
Meyer-Lindenberg, A, Tost, H (2012) Neural mechanisms of social risk for psychiatric disorders. Nature Neuroscience, 15: 663–8.
Moseley, P, Fernyhough, C, Ellison, A (2013) Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37: 2794–805.
Nieuwenhuis, M, van Haren, NE, Hulshoff Pol, HE et al (2012) Classification of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls from structural MRI scans in two large independent samples. Neuroimage, 61: 606–12.
Park, LT, Gonzales, RG (2004) Computed tomography. In Essentials of Neuroimaging for Clinical Practice (eds Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL, Rosenbaum, JF) 117–27. American Psychiatric Publishing.
Pillai, JJ (2010) The evolution of clinical functional imaging during the past 2 decades and its current impact on neurosurgical planning. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 31: 219–25.
Potenza, MN (2006) Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions? Addiction, 1013: 142–51.
Raine, A, Lee, L, Yang, Y et al (2010) Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197: 186–92.
Russell, TA, Zelaya, F, Bressan, RA et al (2003) Functional neuroimaging: an introduction to the technology, methodology, interpretation, and applications. In Neuroimaging in Psychiatry (eds Fu, CHY, Senior, C, Russell, TA et al): 150. Martin Dunitz.
Sehlmeyer, C, Schöning, S, Zwitserlood, P et al (2009) Human fear conditioning and extinction in neuroimaging: a systematic review. PLoS ONE, 4(6): e5865.
Shaw, P, Lerch, JP, Pruessner, JC et al (2007) Cortical morphology in children and adolescents with different apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms: an observational study. Lancet Neurology, 6: 494500.
Shergill, SS, Brammer, MJ, Williams, SCR et al (2000) Mapping auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57: 1033–8.
Shergill, SS, White, TP, Joyce, DW et al (2014) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of impaired sensory prediction in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry, 71: 2835.
Silverman, DH (2004) Brain 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias: comparison with perfusion SPECT and with clinical evaluations lacking nuclear imaging. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 45: 594607.
Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Fowler, JS et al (1997) Decreased striatal dopaminergic responsiveness in detoxified cocaine-dependent subjects. Nature, 386: 830–3.
Yang, Y, Raine, A (2009) Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 174: 81–8.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Advances
  • ISSN: 2056-4678
  • EISSN: 2056-4686
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-advances
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Everything you wanted to know about neuroimaging and psychiatry, but were afraid to ask

  • Cristina Martinelli and Sukhwinder S. Shergill
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *