Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine

  • Alexandre Rezende-Pinto (a1), Alexander Moreira-Almeida (a2), Marcelo Ribeiro (a3), Ronaldo Laranjeira (a4) and Homero Vallada (a5)...
Abstract
Background

Although many studies suggest that religiosity is a protective factor against drug use, there is little information on its effect on drug consumption patterns of those who do use drugs.

Aims

We aimed to examine if there is any relationship between religiosity during childhood and adolescence, and drug consumption in adult crack users.

Method

We performed a cross-sectional study of adults addicted to crack cocaine. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio for the association between religious history in the age groups 8–11, 12–14 and 15–17 years and outcome variables.

Results

From a total of 531 respondents, religious involvement during childhood and adolescence was correlated to less frequent onset of drug consumption before 18 years (odds ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.98) and less craving (odds ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99), mainly between the ages of 15 and 17 years.

Conclusions

Religiosity provides some protection against drug consumption patterns in crack cocaine addicts.

Declaration of interest

None.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Alexandre Rezende-Pinto, NUPES - Research Center in Spirituality and Health, School of Medicina, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Rua Oscar Vidal 71/1001, Centro, CEP 36.010.060, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Email: rezendepinto@yahoo.com.br
References
Hide All
1United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report. United Nations, 2015.
2European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. European Drug Report. Trends and Developments. Publications Office of the European Union, 2015.
3Abdalla, RR, Madruga, CS, Ribeiro, M, Pinsky, I, Caetano, R, Laranjeira, R. Prevalence of cocaine use in Brazil: data from the II Brazilian national alcohol and drug surveys (BNADS). Addict Behav 2014; 39: 297301.
4Duailibi, LB, Ribeiro, M, Laranjeira, R. Profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2008; 24: 547–57.
5Dias, AC, Araújo, MR, Dunn, J, Sesso, RC, De Castro, V, Laranjeira, R. Mortality rate among crack/cocaine-dependent patients: a 12-year prospective cohort study conducted in Brazil. J Subst Abuse Treat 2011; 41: 273–8.
6Ribeiro, M, Dunn, J, Laranjeira, R, Sesso, R. High mortality among young crack cocaine users in Brazil: a 5-year follow-up study. Addiction 2004; 99: 1133–5.
7Hoffman, JA, Klein, H, Eber, M, Crosby, H. Frequency and intensity of crack use as predictors of women's involvement in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000; 1: 227–36.
8Merikangas, KR, McClair, VL. Epidemiology of substance use disorders. Hum Genet 2012; 131: 779–89.
9Vakalahi, HF. Adolescent substance use and family-based risk and protective factors: a literature review. J Drug Educ 2001; 31: 2946.
10Haug, S, Nuñes, CL, Becker, J, Gmel, G, Schaub, MP. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drugs use in male young adults from a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 1202.
11Kendler, KS, Schmitt, E, Aggen, SH, Prescott, CA. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 674–82.
12Bonelli, RM, Koenig, HG. Mental disorders, religion and spirituality 1990 to 2010: a systematic evidence-based review. J Relig Health 2013; 52: 657–73.
13Koenig, HG, King, DE, Carson, VB. Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press, 2012.
14Miller, L, Wickramaratne, P, Gameroff, MJ, Sage, M, Tenke, CE, Weissman, MM. Religiosity and major depression in adults at high risk: a ten-year prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 2012; 169: 8994.
15Regnerus, MD, Burdette, A. Religious change and adolescent family dynamics. Soc Q 2006; 47: 175–94.
16Dalgalarrondo, P, Soldera, MA, Filho, HRC, Silva, CAM. Religião e uso de drogas por adolescentes. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2004; 26: 8290.
17Bunt, GC, Muehlbach, B, Moed, CO. The therapeutic community: an international perspective. Subst Abuse 2008; 29: 81–7.
18Broekaert, E, Vandevelde, S, Soyez, V, Yates, R, Slater, A. The third generation of therapeutic communities: the early development of the TC for addictions in Europe. Eur Addict Res 2006; 12: 111.
19Koenig, HG, Meador, K, Parkerson, G. Religion index for psychiatric research: a 5-item measure for use in health outcomes studies. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 885–6.
20Lucchetti, G, Granero Lucchetti, AL, Peres, MF, Leão, FC, Moreira-Almeida, A, Koenig, HG. Validation of the Duke Religion Index: DUREL (Portuguese Version). J Relig Health 2012; 51: 579–86.
21Bastos, FI, Bertoni, N. Pesquisa Nacional Sobre o Uso de Crack: Quem São os Usuários de Crack e/ou Similares do Brasil? Quantos São Nas Capitais Brasileiras? Editora ICICT/Fiocruz, 2014.
22Sussner, BD, Smelson, DA, Rodrigues, S, Kline, A, Losonczy, M, Ziedonis, D. The validity and reliability of a brief measure of cocaine craving. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006; 86: 233–7.
23Araújo, RB, Pedroso, RS, Castro, MGT. Adaptação transcultural para o idioma português do Cocaine Craving Questionnaire – Brief. Rev Psiquiatr Clin 2010; 37: 195–8.
24The WHOQOL Group. Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-Brief. Quality of life assessment. Psychol Med 1998; 28: 551–8.
25Fleck, MP, Louzada, S, Xavier, M, Chachamovich, E, Vieira, G, Santos, L, et al. Application of the Portuguese version of the instrument for the assessment of Quality of Life of the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-100). Rev Saude Publica 1999; 2: 198205.
26Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, KH, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 2233.
27Amorim, P. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): validation of a short structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2000; 22: 106–15.
28Lai, HM, Cleary, M, Sitharthan, T, Hunt, GE. Prevalence of comorbid substance use, anxiety and mood disorders in epidemiological surveys, 1990–2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend 2015; 1: 113.
29Poorolajal, J, Haghtalab, T, Farhadi, M, Darvishi, N. Substance use disorder and risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and suicide death: a meta-analysis. J Public Health (Oxf) 2016; 38: 282–91.
30Regnerus, MD, Elder, GH. Religion and vulnerability among low-risk adolescents. Soc Sci Res 2003; 32: 633–58.
31Falck, RS, Wang, J, Siegal, HA, Carlson, RG. Longitudinal application of the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey with not-in-treatment crack-cocaine users. Med Care 2000; 38: 902–10.
32Van der Meer Sanchez, Z, De Oliveira, LG, Nappo, SA. Religiosity as a protective factor against the use of drugs. Subst Use Misuse 2008; 43: 1476–86.
33Edlund, MJ, Harris, KM, Koenig, HG, Xan, X, Sullivan, G, Mattox, R, et al. Religiosity and decreased risk of substance use disorders: is the effect mediated by social support or mental health status? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2010; 45: 827–36.
34Wichers, M, Gillespie, NA, Kendler, KS. Genetic and environmental predictors of latent trajectories of alcohol use from adolescence to adulthood: a male twin study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013; 37: 498506.
35Yonker, JE, Schnabelrauch, CA, DeHaan, LG. The relationship between spirituality and religiosity on psychological outcomes in adolescents and emerging adults: a meta-analytic review. J Adolesc 2012; 35: 299314.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 280 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 336 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd August 2018 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

The effect of religiosity during childhood and adolescence on drug consumption patterns in adults addicted to crack cocaine

  • Alexandre Rezende-Pinto (a1), Alexander Moreira-Almeida (a2), Marcelo Ribeiro (a3), Ronaldo Laranjeira (a4) and Homero Vallada (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *