1Grant, BF. Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family. Am J Public Health 2000; 90(1): 112–5.
2Yoon, G, Westermeyer, J, Kuskowski, MA, Nesheim, L. Impact of the number of parents with alcohol use disorder on alcohol use disorder in offspring: a population-based study. J Clin Psychiatry 2013; 74(8): 795–801.
3Manning, V, Best, DW, Faulkner, N, Titherington, E. New estimates of the number of children living with substance misusing parents: results from UK national household surveys. BMC Public Health 2009; 9(1): 377.
4Grekin, ER, Brennan, PA, Hammen, C. Parental alcohol use disorders and child delinquency: the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress. J Stud Alcohol 2005; 66(1): 14–22.
5Hussong, AM, Bauer, DJ, Huang, W, Chassin, L, Sher, KJ, Zucker, RA. Characterizing the life stressors of children of alcoholic parents. J Fam Psychol 2008; 22(6): 819–32.
6El-Sheikh, M, Flanagan, E. Parental problem drinking and children's adjustment: family conflict and parental depression as mediators and moderators of risk. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2001; 29(5): 417–32.
7Rounsaville, D, O'Farrell, TJ, Andreas, JB, Murphy, CM, Murphy, MM. Children's exposure to parental conflict after father's treatment for alcoholism. Addict Behav 2014; 39(7): 1168–71.
8Christoffersen, MN, Soothill, K. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse: a cohort study of children in Denmark. J Subst Abuse Treat 2003; 25(2): 107–16.
9Woodin, EM, Caldeira, V, Sotskova, A, Galaugher, T, Lu, M. Harmful alcohol use as a predictor of intimate partner violence during the transition to parenthood: interdependent and interactive effects. Addict Behav 2014; 39(12): 1890–7.
10Dube, SR, Anda, RF, Felitti, VJ, Croft, JB, Edwards, VJ, Giles, WH. Growing up with parental alcohol abuse: exposure to childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse Negl 2001; 25(12): 1627–40.
11Freisthler, B, Gruenewald, PJ. Where the individual meets the ecological: a study of parent drinking patterns, alcohol outlets, and child physical abuse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013; 37(6): 993–1000.
12Walsh, C, MacMillan, HL, Jamieson, E. The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: findings from the Ontario Health Supplement. Child Abuse Negl 2003; 27(12): 1409–25.
13Hill, SY, Tessner, KD, McDermott, MD. Psychopathology in offspring from families of alcohol dependent female probands: a prospective study. J Psychiatr Res 2011; 45(3): 285–94.
14Lieb, R, Merikangas, KR, Höfler, M, Pfister, H, Isensee, B, Wittchen, H-U. Parental alcohol use disorders and alcohol use and disorders in offspring: a community study. Psychol Med 2002; 32(01): 63–78.
15Mellentin, AI, Brink, M, Andersen, L, Erlangsen, A, Stenager, E, Bjerregaard, LB, et al. The risk of offspring developing substance use disorders when exposed to one versus two parent (s) with alcohol use disorder: a nationwide, register-based cohort study. J Psychiatr Res 2016; 80: 52–8.
16Sørensen, HJ, Manzardo, AM, Knop, J, Penick, EC, Madarasz, W, Nickel, EJ, et al. The contribution of parental alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric illness to the risk of alcohol use disorders in the offspring. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2011; 35(7): 1315–20.
17Jones, R, Everson-Hock, E, Papaioannou, D, Guillaume, L, Goyder, E, Chilcott, J, et al. Factors associated with outcomes for looked-after children and young people: a correlates review of the literature. Child Care Health Dev 2011; 37(5): 613–22.
18Rutter, M. Children in substitute care: some conceptual considerations and research implications. Child Youth Serv Rev 2000; 22(9–10): 685–703.
19Tarren-Sweeney, M. Retrospective and concurrent predictors of the mental health of children in care. Child Youth Serv Rev 2008; 30(1): 1–25.
20Patterson, ML, Moniruzzaman, A, Somers, JM. History of foster care among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia: a precursor to trajectories of risk. BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15(1): 32.
21Dworsky, A, Courtney, ME. Homelessness and the transition from foster care to adulthood. Child Welfare 2009; 88(4): 23.
22Fowler, PJ, Toro, PA, Miles, BW. Pathways to and from homelessness and associated psychosocial outcomes among adolescents leaving the foster care system. Am J Public Health 2009; 99(8): 1453–8.
23Meier, PS, Donmall, MC, McElduff, P. Characteristics of drug users who do or do not have care of their children. Addiction 2004; 99(8): 955–61.
24Swift, W, Copeland, J, Hall, W. Characteristics of women with alcohol and other drug problems: findings of an Australian national survey. Addiction 1996; 91(8): 1141–50.
25Koski-Jannes, A. The role of children in the recovery of alcoholic clients. Contemp Drug Probs 1991; 18: 629.
26Stewart, D, Gossop, M, Trakada, K. Drug dependent parents: childcare responsibilities, involvement with treatment services, and treatment outcomes. Addict Behav 2007; 32(8): 1657–68.
27Comiskey, CM. A 3 year national longitudinal study comparing drug treatment outcomes for opioid users with and without children in their custodial care at intake. J Subst Abuse Treat 2013; 44(1): 90–6.
28Comiskey, CM, Hyland, J, Hyland, P. Parenthood, child care, and heroin use: outcomes after three years. Subst Use Misuse 2016; 51(12): 1600–9.
29World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. World Health Organization, 1992.
30World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. World Health Organization, 1993.
31McLellan, AT, Kushner, H, Metzger, D, Peters, R, Smith, I, Grissom, G, et al. The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. J Subst Abuse Treat 1992; 9(3): 199–213.
32Blacken, P, Hendriks, V, Pozzi, G, Tempesta, E, Hartgers, C, Koeter, M, et al. European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) Manual. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2010 (http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index3647EN.html).
33Kokkevi, A, Hartgers, C. EuropASI: European adaptation of a multidimensional assessment instrument for drug and alcohol dependence. Eur Addict Res 1995; 1(4): 208–10.
34McGahan, PL, Griffith, JA, Parente, R, McLellann, AT. Composite Scores Manual. Treatment Research Institute, 1986.
35Seaman, SR, White, IR. Review of inverse probability weighting for dealing with missing data. Stat Methods Med Res 2013; 22(3): 278–95.
36Cox, G, Comiskey, C. Characteristics of opiate users presenting for a new treatment episode: baseline data from the national drug treatment outcome study in Ireland (ROSIE). Drugs 2007; 14(3): 217–30.
37Conners, NA, Grant, A, Crone, CC, Whiteside-Mansell, L. Substance abuse treatment for mothers: treatment outcomes and the impact of length of stay. J Subst Abuse Treat 2006; 31(4): 447–56.
38Stevens, SJ, Patton, T. Residential treatment for drug addicted women and their children: effective treatment strategies. Drugs Soc 1998; 13(1–2): 235–49.
39Szuster, RR, Rich, LL, Chung, A, Bisconer, SW. Treatment retention in women's residential chemical dependency treatment: the effect of admission with children. Subst Use Misuse 1996; 31(8): 1001–13.
40Hughes, PH, Coletti, SD, Neri, RL, Urmann, CF, Stahl, S, Sicilian, DM, et al. Retaining cocaine-abusing women in a therapeutic community: the effect of a child live-in program. Am J Public Health 1995; 85(8 Pt 1): 1149–52.
41Sanvisens, A, Zuluaga, P, Fuster, D, Rivas, I, Tor, J, Marcos, M, et al. Long-term mortality of patients with an alcohol-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol 2017; 52(4): 466–71.
42Schuckit, MA. Alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 2009; 373(9662): 492–501.
43Cargiulo, T. Understanding the health impact of alcohol dependence. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64(5 Suppl 3): S5–11.
44Niccols, A, Milligan, K, Smith, A, Sword, W, Thabane, L, Henderson, J. Integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues and their children: a systematic review of studies reporting on child outcomes. Child Abuse Negl 2012; 36(4): 308–22.
45Neger, EN, Prinz, RJ. Interventions to address parenting and parental substance abuse: conceptual and methodological considerations. Clin Psychol Rev 2015; 39: 71–82.
46Milligan, K, Niccols, A, Sword, W, Thabane, L, Henderson, J, Smith, A, et al. Maternal substance use and integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a meta-analysis. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2010; 5(1): 21.
47Wilke, DJ, Kamata, A, Cash, SJ. Modeling treatment motivation in substance-abusing women with children. Child Abuse Negl 2005; 29(11): 1313–23.
48Finkelstein, N. Treatment issues for alcohol-and drug-dependent pregnant and parenting women. Health Soc Work 1994; 19(1): 7–15.
49Adamson, SJ, Sellman, JD, Frampton, CM. Patient predictors of alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic review. J Subst Abuse Treat 2009; 36(1): 75–86.