Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Sydney Osland (a1), Lauren Hirsch (a2) and Tamara Pringsheim (a3)
Abstract
Background

Previous research suggests a relationship between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use, however most studies have focused on adolescents or young adults, or clinically ascertained samples.

Aims

To analyse population-based data on the relationship between ADHD and at-risk health behaviours in adolescents and adults.

Method

Data were derived from a Statistics Canada population-based health survey. The association between the diagnosis of ADHD and smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use was examined.

Results

Individuals with ADHD started smoking at a younger age. They consumed more alcoholic drinks on drinking days, and women with ADHD were more likely to engage in binge drinking. Women over the age of 25 and men with ADHD were more likely to meet alcohol-dependence lifetime criteria. People with ADHD were at a greater risk of drug misuse and dependence.

Conclusions

People with ADHD are more likely to partake in at-risk behaviours.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Tamara Pringsheim, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, T2N 4Z6 Calgary, AB, Canada. Email: tmprings@ucalgary.ca
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Faraone, SV, Biederman, J, Mick, E. The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 159–65.
2 Kessler, RC, Adler, L, Barkley, R, Biederman, J, Conners, CK, Demler, O, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 716–23.
3 Spencer, TJ, Biederman, J, Mick, E. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Ambul Pediatr 2007; 7(1 suppl): 7381.
4 Pappas, D. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation. J Psychoeduc Assess 2006; 24: 172–8.
5 Blum, K, Chen, AL, Braverman, ER, Comings, DE, Chen, TJ, Arcuri, V, et al. Attentiondeficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2008; 4: 893918.
6 Pomerleau, OF, Downey, KK, Stelson, FW, Pomerleau, CS. Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Subst Abuse 1995; 7: 373–8.
7 Milberger, S, Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Chen, L, Jones, J. ADHD is associated with early initiation of cigarette smoking in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36: 3744.
8 Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF. Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 1142–7.
9 Charach, A, Yeung, E, Climans, T, Lillie, E. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and future substance use disorders: comparative meta-analyses. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011; 50: 921.
10 Brinkman, WB, Epstein, JN, Auinger, P, Tamm, L, Froehlich, TE. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder with early tobacco and alcohol use. Drug Alcohol Depend 2015; 147: 183–9.
11 Kolla, NJ, van der Maas, M, Toplak, ME, Erickson, PG, Mann, RE, Seeley, J, et al. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey. BMC Psychiatry 2016; 16: 50.
12 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). APA, 2000.
13 StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. StataCorp LP, 2015.
14 Arnett, JJ. Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. Am Psychol 2000; 55: 469–80.
15 Hiscock, R, Bauld, L, Amos, A, Fidler, JA, Munafo, M. Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review. Ann NY Acad Sci 2012; 1248: 107–23.
16 Hanson, MD, Chen, E. Socioeconomic status and health behaviours in adolescence: a review of the literature. J Behav Med 2007; 30: 263–85.
17 Patrick, ME, Wightman, P, Schoeni, RF, Schulenberg, JE. Socioeconomic status and substance use among young adults: a comparison across constructs and drugs. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2012; 73: 772–82.
18 Bonevski, B, Regan, T, Paul, C, Baker, AL, Bisguera, A. Associations between alcohol, smoking, socioeconomic status and comorbidities: evidence from the 45 and up study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014; 33: 169–76.
19 Charitonidi, E, Studer, J, Gaume, J, Gmel, G, Daeppen, JB, Bertholet, N. Socioeconomic status and substance use among Swiss young men: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2016; 16: 333.
20 Vingilis, E, Erickson, PG, Toplak, ME, Kolla, NJ, Mann, EM, Seeley, J, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, comorbidities, substance use, and social outcomes among men and women in a Canadian sample. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 18.
21 Murphy, KR, Barkley, RA, Bush, T. Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: subtype differences in comorbidity, educational, and clinical history. J Nerv Ment Dis 2002; 190: 147–57.
22 Biederman, J, Faraone, SV. The effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on employment and household income. MedGenMed 2006; 8: 12.
23 Russell, AE, Ford, T, Russell, G. Socioeconomic associations with ADHD: findings from a mediation analysis. PLoS One 2016; 10: 116.
24 Langley, K, Rice, F, van den Bree, MB, Thapar, A. Maternal smoking during pregnancy as an environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behavior. A review. Minerva Pediatr 2005; 57: 359–71.
25 Naimi, TS, Brewer, RD, Mokdad, A, Denny, C, Serdula, MK, Marks, JS. Binge drinking among US adults. JAMA 2003; 289: 70–5.
26 Wilens, TE, Adamson, J, Sgambati, S, Whitley, J, Santry, A, Monuteaux, MC, et al. Do individuals with ADHD self-medicate with cigarettes and substances of abuse? Results from a controlled family study of ADHD. Am J Addict 2007; 16 (suppl 1): 1421; quiz 22–3.
27 Gray, KM, Upadhyaya, HP. Tobacco smoking in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: epidemiology and pharmacological approaches to cessation. CNS Drugs 2009; 23: 661–8.
28 Silva, N, Szobot, CM, Shih, MC, Hoexter, MQ, Anselmi, CE, Pechansky, F, et al. Searching for a neurobiological basis for self-medication theory in ADHD comorbid with substance use disorders: an in vivo study of dopamine transporters using (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT. Clin Nucl Med 2014; 39: e12934.
29 Mall, M, King-Hill, S, Holland, P. Managing risk-taking behaviour in children and young people with ADHD. Br J School Nurs 2013; 8: 483–7.
30 Schwebel, DC, Roth, DL, Elliott, MN, Visser, SN, Toomey, SL, Shipp, EM, et al. Association of externalizing behavior disorder symptoms and injury among fifth graders. Acad Pediatr 2011; 11: 427–31.
31 Haapanen, N, Miilunpalo, S, Pasanen, M, Oja, P, Vuori, I. Agreement between questionnaire data and medical records of chronic diseases in middle-aged and elderly Finnish men and women. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 145: 762–9.
32 Martin, LM, Leff, M, Calonge, N, Garrett, C, Nelson, DE. Validation of self-reported chronic conditions and health services in a managed care population. Am J Prev Med 2000; 18: 215–8.
33 Okura, Y, Urban, LH, Mahoney, DW, Jacobsen, SJ, Rodeheffer, RJ. Agreement between self-report questionnaires and medical record data was substantial for diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke but not for heart failure. J Clin Epidemiol 2004; 57: 1096–103.
34 Brooks, DR, Avetisyan, R, Jarrett, KM, Hanchate, A, Shapiro, GD, Pugh, MJ, et al. Validation of self-reported epilepsy for purposes of community surveillance. Epilepsy Behav 2012; 23: 5763.
35 Sanchez-Villegas, A, Schlatter, J, Ortuno, F, Lahortiga, F, Pla, J, Benito, S, et al. Validity of a self-reported diagnosis of depression among participants in a cohort study using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I). BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8: 43.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 39 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 111 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 27th April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Smoking, alcohol and drug use in youth and adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Sydney Osland (a1), Lauren Hirsch (a2) and Tamara Pringsheim (a3)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *