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Catholic refuge and the printing press: Catholic exiles from England, France and the Low Countries in the ecclesiastical province of Cambrai

  • Alexander Soetaert (a1)

Extract

The Ecclesiastical Province of Cambrai may sound unfamiliar to modern readers. The bishopric of Cambrai dates to the sixth century but only became an archdiocese and, consequently, the centre of a church province in the sixteenth century. The elevation of the see resulted from the heavily contested reorganization of the diocesan map of the Low Countries by King Philip II in 1559. The new province included the medieval sees of Arras, Cambrai and Tournai, as well as the newly created bishoprics of Saint-Omer and Namur. Its borders were established to encompass the French-speaking Walloon provinces in the south of the Low Countries, territories that are now divided between France and Belgium.1 In the early modern period, this area was already a border and transit zone between France, the Low Countries, the Holy Roman Empire and the British Isles. The province’s history in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was deeply marked by recurrent and devastating warfare between the kings of Spain and France, eventually resulting in the transfer of significant territory to France.2 However, the Province of Cambrai was also the scene of frequent cross-border mobility, and a safe haven for Catholic exiles originating from the British Isles, France and other parts of the Low Countries.

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The research for this article was conducted at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) as part of a project funded by the KU Leuven Research Council entitled ‘The Making of Transregional Catholicism. Print Culture in the Archdiocese of Cambrai (1559—1659)’ (OT/2013/33). I would like to thank my supervisors Violet Soen and Johan Verberckmoes for their comments on earlier versions of this article.

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References

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1 The standard study on this reform remains Michel Dierickx, De oprichting der nieuwe bisdommen in de Nederlanden onder Filips II, 1559–1570 (Antwerpen/Utrecht: Standaard, 1950).

2 Delmaire, Roland et al., eds. Les grandes batailles du Nord de la France (Paris: Mazarine 1984); Alain Lottin and Philippe Guignet, Histoire des Provinces françaises du Nord. De Charles Quint à la Révolution française (1500–1789) (Arras: Artois Presses Université, 2006).

3 For the refugee churches in England, see: Spicer, Andrew, The French-speaking Reformed Community and their Church in Southampton, 1567–c.1620 (London: Huguenot Society, 1997); Backhouse, Marcel, The Flemish and Walloon communities at Sandwich during the Reign of Elizabeth I (1561–1603) (Brussels: Koninklijke academie, 1995).

4 For instance, the Archbishop was comparatively swift in introducting the decrees of the Council of Trent and in covening a diocesan synod and a provincial council: Violet Soen and Laura Hollevoet, ‘Le Borromée des anciens Pays-Bas? Maximilien de Berghes, (arch)évêque de Cambrai et l’application du Concile de Trente (1564–1567)’, Revue du Nord no. 419 (2017): 41–65. See also: Spicer, Andrew, ‘Consecration and Violation: Preserving the Sacred Landscape in the (Arch)diocese of Cambrai, c. 1550–1570’, in Delbeke, Maarten and Schraven, Minou, eds. Foundation, Dedication and Consecration in Early Modern Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2012), 253–74 and Soen, Violet and Van de Meulebroucke, Aurelie, ‘Vanguard Tridentine Reform in the Habsburg Netherlands. The Episcopacy of Robert de Croÿ, Bishop of Cambrai 1519–1556’, in Soen, Violet, Vanysacker, Dries and François, Wim, eds. Church, Censorship and Reform in the Early Modern Habsburg Netherlands (Turnhout: Brepols, 2017), 125–44.

5 Duquenne, Frédéric, ‘Des “républiques calvinistes” avortées? La contestation des échevinages à Douai et Arras en 1577 et 1578’, in Weis, Monique, ed. Des villes en révolte: les républiques urbaines aux Pays-Bas et en France pendant la deuxième moitié du XVIe siècle (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), 5363.

6 Junot, Yves and Soen, Violet, ‘La Révolte des Pays-Bas habsbourgeois. Reconsidérations à partir du cas des provinces francophones (Hainaut, Artois, Flandre wallonne, 1566–1579)’, in Salinero, Gregorio, Garrido, Águeda García and Paun Paun, Radu G., eds. Paradigmes rebelles: pratiques et cultures de la désobéissance à l’époque moderne (Bern: Peter Lang, 2018), 203–34.

7 For helpful overviews of Catholic exile movements based on secondary literature: Bettina Braun, ‘Katholische Glaubensflüchtlinge: eine Spurensuche im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit’, Historisches Jahrbuch 130 (2010): 505–76 and Id., ‘Katholische Konfessionsmigration im Europa der Frühen Neuzeit – Stand und Perspektiven der Forschung’, in Henning Jürgens and Thomas Weller, eds. Religion und Mobilität: zum Verhältnis von raumbezogener Mobilität und religiöser Identitätsbildung im frühneuzeitlichen Europa (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010), 75–112.

8 Janssen, Geert, The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile in Reformation Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), esp. 109–15; Descimon, Robert and Javier, José Ibáñez, Ruiz, Les ligueurs de l’exil: le refuge catholique français après 1594 (Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 2005), 41–2, 194–7, 208–9.

9 A notable exception here is Kaplan, Benjamin et al., eds. Catholic Communities in Protestant States: Britain and the Netherlands c. 1570–1720 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009). Clare Walker discusses English exile institutions and the presses in the Low Countries: ‘Priests, Nuns, Presses and Prayers: The Southern Netherlands and the Contours of English Catholicism’, in Kaplan et. al. eds. Catholic Communities, 139–55. Most notably, Paul Arblaster reveals the Dutch, English, Irish, and Scottish Catholic diaspora in the Southern Low Countries: ‘The Southern Netherlands Connection: Networks of Support and Patronage’, in Kaplan et al. eds. Catholic Communities, 123–38.

10 Pettegree, Andrew, Emden and the Dutch Revolt: Exile and the Development of Reformed Protestantism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992); Gilmont, Jean-François, Jean Crespin: un éditeur réformé du XVIe siècle (Genève: Droz, 1981); Kingdon, Robert M., Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France 1555–1563 (Genève: Droz, 1956).

11 A similar approach is advocated by Corens, Liesbeth, Confessional Mobility and English Catholics in Counter-Reformation Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), esp. 7, 18.

12 Impressa Catholica Cameracensia (hereafter ICC-ODIS) [https://www.arts.kuleuven.be/nieuwetijd/english/odis/%20ICC_search. Accessed 14 May 2019]. Only the records covering 1559–1600 are currently accessible. The records for 1600-1659 will be published in 2020.

13 Guilday, Peter, The English Catholic Refugees on the Continent 1558–1795. The English Colleges and Convents in the Catholic Low Countries 1558–1795 (Louvain: Bureaux du Recueil, 1914), xvxvi ; Coppens, Chris, ‘“Challenge” and “Counterblast”: The Book as a Weapon in the English Controversy During the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century’, in De Nave, Francine, Tournoy, Gilbert and Imhof, Dirk, eds. Antwerp, Dissident Typographical Centre. The Role of Antwerp Printers in the Religious Conflicts in England (16th century) (Gent: Snoeck-Decaju, 1994), 3154, at 38–40.

14 Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 1–4; Lechat, Robert, Les réfugiés anglais dans les Pays-Bas espagnols durant le règne d’Élisabeth 1558–1603 (Louvain: Bureaux du Recueil, 1913), 30–3.

15 Löwe, J. Andreas, ‘Richard Smyth and the Foundation of the University of Douai’, Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis 79 (1999): 142–69; Id., Richard Smyth and the Language of Orthodoxy: Re-imagining Tudor Catholic Polemicism (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 60–75.

16 Williams, Michael E., ‘Lewis, Owen (1533–1594)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 33:639–40; LaRocca, J.J., ‘Hall, Richard (c.1537–1604)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 24: 650–1; Bouquillon, Th., ‘Les théologiens de Douai. VI. Thomas Stapleton’, Revue des Sciences ecclésiastiques 73 (1896): 331–49, at 337; Rhodes, Dennis E., ‘Richard White of Basingstoke: the Erudite Exile’, in Roach, Susan, ed. Across the Narrow Seas. Studies in History and Bibliography of Britain and the Low Countries (London: The British Library, 1991), 2330, at 27.

17 Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 63–8; Fabre, Frédéric, ‘Le collège anglais de Douai, son histoire héroïque’, Revue de Littérature comparée 10 (1930): 201–29; Bossy, John, The English Catholic Community 1570–1850 (London: Darton, 1976), 12–5. On this college movement, see also Chambers, Liam and O’Connor, Thomas, eds. College Communities Abroad. Education, Migration and Catholicism in Early Modern Europe (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017); Chambers, Liam and O’Connor, Thomas, eds. Forming Catholic Communities: Irish, Scots, and English College Networks in Europe, 1568–1918 (Leiden: Brill, 2017).

18 Lechat, Les réfugiés anglais, 33–6; De Ridder-Symoens, Hilde, ‘The Place of the University of Douai in the Peregrinatio Academica Britannica’, in Fletcher, John M. and De Ridder-Symoens, Hilde, eds. Lines of Contact. Proceedings of the Second Conference of Belgian, British, Irish and Dutch Historians of Universities held at St. Anne’s College, Oxford 15–17 September 1989 (Gent: Universiteit Gent, 1994), 2134, at 34.

19 Coppens, ‘“Challenge” and “Counterblast”’, 32–4; Gilbert Tournoy, ‘Humanists, Rulers and Reformers: Relationships Between England and the Southern Low Countries in the First Half of the Sixteenth Century’, in De Nave, Tournoy and Imhof, eds. Antwerp, Dissident Typographical Centre, 21–9; Guido Latré, ‘William Tyndale in Antwerp: Reformer, Bible Translator, and Maker of the English Language’, in De Nave, Tournoy and Imhof, eds. Antwerp, Dissident Typographical Centre, 55–66.

20 Coppens, ‘“Challenge” and “Counterblast”, 38–40.

21 Ibid ., 45–8.

22 According to Allison, Antony F. and Rogers, David M., The Contemporary Printed Literature of the English Counter-Reformation Between 1558 and 1640, 2 vols. (London: Scolar Press, 1989–94) (hereafter ARCR) 72 editions came from the press in Antwerp and 36 in Louvain.

23 Cited in Southern, Alfred C., Elizabethan Recusant Prose, 1559–1582: A Historical and Critical Account of the Books of the Catholic Refugees Printed and Published Abroad and at Secret Presses in England (London: Sands, 1950), 112–3.

24 Smyth, Richard, Refvtatio locorum communium theologicorvm, Philippi Melanchthonis (Douai: Jacques Boscard, 1563). ARCR, I, 1115; ICC-ODIS 35914; Universal Short Title Catalogue, http://www.ustc.ac.uk, accessed 10 June 2019 (hereafter USTC), 402804. For the earlier editions in Louvain, see: Milward, Peter, Religious Controversies of the Elizabethan Age: A Survey of Printed Sources (London: Scolar Press, 1978), 22, 164; Löwe, ‘Richard Smyth and the Foundation of the University of Douai’, 157; Id., Richard Smyth and the Language of Orthodoxy, 64–5.

25 Stapleton, Thomas, Speculum prauitatis haereticae per orationes quodlibeticas sex ad oculum demonstratae (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1580). ARCR, I, 1156; ICC ODIS 35987. Milward, Religious Controversies of the Elizabethan Age, 145–6; François, Wim, ‘ Thomas Stapleton (1535–1598), controversetheoloog tussen Engeland en de Nederlanden’, in Soen, Violet and Knevel, Paul, eds. Religie, hervorming en controverse in de zestiende-eeuwse Nederlanden (Maastricht: Shaker Publishing, 2013), 3763, at 48.

26 Stapleton, Thomas, Tres Thomae. Seu De S. Thomae Apostoli rebus gestis (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1588). ARCR, I, 1159; ICC-ODIS 36047; USTC 110998.

27 Sheils, William J., ‘Polemic as Piety: Thomas Stapleton’s Tres Thomae and Catholic Controversy in the 1580s’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60 (2009): 7494, at 77.

28 Sheils, ‘Polemic as Piety’, 75–6, 82–3, 86, 89; Id., ‘The Gospel, Liturgy and Controversy in the 1590s: Thomas Stapleton’s Promptuaria’, in James E. Kelly and Susan Royal, eds. Early Modern English Catholicism. Identity, Memory and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 189–205, at 190–1; François, ‘Thomas Stapleton’, 51.

29 La Rocca, ‘Hall’, 650–1. He later obtained canonries in Cambrai and Saint-Omer, and, in the 1590s, became vicar-general of the Diocese of Saint-Omer.

30 Fisher, John, Tractatus de orando Deum, et de fructibus precum, transl. Hall, Richard (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1567 [=1576]; ARCR, I, 435).

31 Hall, Richard, Opuscula quaedam his temporibus pernecessaria. De tribus primariis causis tumultuum Belgicorum (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1581). ARCR, I, 627; ICC-ODIS 35999; USTC 110960. Vermaseren, Bernard A., De katholieke Nederlandsche geschiedschrijving in de XVIe en XVIIe eeuw over den Opstand (Maastricht: Van Aelst, 1941), 126–8.

32 Bristow, Richard, Demavndes to be proponed of Catholiqves to the heretikes (Antwerp: John Fowler, 1576). ARCR, II, 69; USTC 442749. Schrickx, Willem, ‘John Fowler, English Printer in the Low Countries’, De Gulden Passer 54 (1976): 148, at 25.

33 François, ‘Thomas Stapleton’, 46–8. See also Jan Machielsen, ‘How (not) to Get Published: The Plantin Press in the Early 1590s’, Dutch Crossing 34 (2010): 99–114 on the relation between Stapleton and his printers in general.

34 Also the financial insecurity of the college might have contributed here. See: Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 68–70.

35 Allen, William, Libri tres. Id est, De sacramentis in genere […] De sacramento eucharistiae […] De sacrificio eucharistiae (Antwerp: John Fowler, 1576). The colophon reads: ‘Duaci, excudebat Ludovicus de Winde, cura et impensis Iohannnis Fouleri’. See also Schrickx, ‘John Fowler’, 25.

36 Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 79–80.

37 Southern, Elizabethan Recusant Prose, 30; Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Dumb Preachers: Catholicism and the Culture of Print’, in Catholic Reformation in Protestant Britain (Ashgate: Farnham, 2014), 235–70, at 245. This impression is probably formed because from the mid-1570s clandestine printers in England frequently included a fictitious Douai imprint on their title-pages, sometimes even naming a printer active in Douai. For these editions, see:ARCR, II, 877, 888, 524, 462, 613, 664.3, 612, 624, 560, 614.

38 Schrickx, ‘John Fowler’, 22.

39 Frédéric Duquenne, ‘Un tout petit monde. Les notables de la ville de Douai du règne de Philippe II à la conquête française (milieu du XVIe siècle–1667). Pouvoir, réseaux et reproduction sociale’, PhD Dissertation, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille 3, 2011, 335–43; Duquenne, ‘Des “républiques calvinistes” avortées?’; Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 76–7.

40 Schrickx, ‘John Fowler’, 37–9.

41 Balsamo, Jean, ‘Les catholiques anglais et le refuge rémois (1578–1593)’, in Lastraioli, Chiara and Balsamo, Jean, eds. Chemins de l’exil, havres de paix: migrations d’hommes et d’idées au XVIe siècle (Paris: Champion, 2010), 93107; Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 83–4.

42 See ARCR, II, 6, 7, 12, 514 and 623.5.

43 On the genesis of this translation, see: Alexandra Walsham, ‘Unclasping the Book? The Douai-Rheims Bible’, in Catholic Reformation in Protestant Britain, 286–314.

44 McCoog, Thomas, ‘“Guiding Souls to Goodness and Devotion”: Clandestine Publications and the English Jesuit Mission’, in Bela, Teresa, Calma, Clarinda and Rzegocka, Jolanta, eds. Publishing Subversive Texts in Elizabethan England and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 93109, at 97–103; Havens, Earle and Patton, Elizabeth, ‘Underground Networks, Prisons and the Circulation of Counter-Reformation Books in Elizabethan England’, in Kelly, James E. and Royal, Susan, eds. Early Modern English Catholicism. Identity, Memory and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 164–88, at 169–70, 172–3; Rostenberg, Leona, The Minority Press and the English Crown: a Study in Repression 1558–1625 (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1971), 25–6.

45 On English Catholic publications in Paris, see: Gibbons, Katy, English Catholic Exiles in Late Sixteenth-Century Paris (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2011), 74, 86–8.

46 Walsham, ‘Unclasping the book?’, 299–300.

47 François, ‘Thomas Stapleton’, 44; Sheils, ‘Polemic as Piety’, 75; Gibbons, English Catholic Exiles, 87; Wooding, Lucy E. C., Rethinking Catholicism in Reformation England (Oxford: Clarendon, 2000), 12–3.

48 Duffy, Eamon, ‘Praying the Counter-Reformation’, in Kelly, James E. and Royal, Susan S., eds. Early Modern English Catholicism. Identity, Memory and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 206–25; Alexandra Walsham, ‘Luis de Granada’s Mission to Protestant England: Translating the Devotional Literature of the Spanish Counter Reformation’, in Bela, Calma and Rzegocka, eds. Publishing Subversive Texts, 129–54. For the history of the English-language manual, a prayer book for lay Catholics, published first in Rouen in 1583, see: Blom, Joannes M., The Post-Tridentine English Primer, PhD Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 1979 (Meppel: Krips Repro, 1979), 112–36, also published as Blom, Joannes M., The Post-Tridentine English Primer, Publications of the Catholic Record Society, Monograph Series, 3 (London, Catholic Record Society, 1982).

49 Janssen, The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile, 45–6, 62, 64–5; Viaene, Antoon, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen te Douai: hun verweer tegen Marnix’ Biënkorf, 1578–1584’, Handelingen van het Genootschap voor Geschiedenis te Brugge 93 (1956): 537.

50 Soen, Violet, Vredehandel. Adellijke en Habsburgse verzoeningspogingen tijdens de Nederlandse Opstand (1564–1581) (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012), 132–5.

51 Bacherius, P., Tabvla sacrorvm carminvm, piarvmqve precvm enchiridion (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1579). ICC-ODIS 35981; USTC 11051. On Bacherius, see: Meersch, Auguste Vander, ‘De Backere (Pierre) ou Bacherius’, in Biographie nationale, 44 vols. (Brussels: Académie royale de Belgique, 1866–1986), 4:741–4 and Charlier, L., ‘Backer (Pierre de)’, in Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, 31 vols. (Paris: Letouzay, 1912–), 6:75–6.

52 Costerius, Johannes, Institvtio necessaria de exitv Ægypti et fvga Babylonis (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1580). ICC-ODIS 35989; USTC 110956.

53 Costerius, Institvtio necessaria, 18v–19r.

54 Janssen, The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile, 48–50.

55 de Launoy, Matthieu and Pennetier, Henri, Die verclaringhe ende verworpinghe van het valsch verstant en[de] tquaet mis bruycke[n] van sommige sententie[n] der heyliger schrifture[n] (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1578). ICC-ODIS 35973; USTC 442750.

56 The ecclesiastical approbation on the reverse of the title-page mentions the initials of the translator: F.I.V.S.T.D. On Dutch-language editions in the region, see: Labarre, Albert, ‘Impressions en flamand à Arras, Douai, Lille et Saint-Omer XVIe–XVIIIe siècle’, Les Pays-Bas français 4 (1979): 3042.

57 [ Daneau, Lambert], Christelycke antvvoorde op den eersten Boeck der lasteringhen van twee Apostaten Mattheeus de Launoy […] ende Hendrick Pennetier (Antwerpen: Niclaes Soolmans, 1583). USTC 401984, *2r.

58 Briefve response de Gentian Hervet […] à vn livre d’vn Huguenot, asseuré menteur & hipocrite, contrefaisant le catholique (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1581). USTC 16258.

59 Viaene, ‘Vlaamse vluchtelingen’, 30–2; Violet Soen ‘Exile Encounters and Cross-Border Mobility in Early Modern Borderlands. The Ecclesiastical Province of Cambrai as a Transregional Node (1559–1600)’, Belgeo 2 (2015):http://belgeo.revues.org/16437. Accessed 23 May 2019.

60 Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandsche geschiedschrijving, 123–8.

61 Vrancx, Cornelius, Den sleutel der missen (Gent: Ghileyn Manilius, 1571). USTC 411683. Id., Den sleutel des hemels schriftbewijs vande biechte (Gent: Adriana Teypins, 1574). USTC 408186. Id., Die gheestelijcke Maria (Gent: Pieter de Clerck, 1576). USTC 412573.

62 Buitendijk, Willem J. C., Het calvinisme in de spiegel van de Zuidnederlandse literatuur der Contra-Reformatie (Groningen/Batavia: J.B. Wolters, 1942), 121–31.

63 Desmet, Jozef-M., ‘Onuitgegeven brieven van Mathias Lambrecht, Bisschop van Brugge (1596–1602) aan de Kardinalen Cam. Borghese, Hier. Mathei en Caes. Baronius’, Bulletin de l’Institut historique belge à Rome, 21 (1941): 5169 at 58–9, 65.

64 Janssen, The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile, 112, 116.

65 Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandsche geschiedschrijving, 40–6. On the peace negotiations in Cologne, see: Soen, Vredehandel, 139–43.

66 Lindanus, Wilhelmus, De fvgiendis nostri secvli idolis (Köln: Maternus Cholinus, 1580). Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereichs erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhundert, http://www.vd16.de, accessed 10 June 2019 (hereafter VD16), L 1933.

67 Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandsche geschiedschrijving, 27–36. According to this author ‘he is the only exile […] that aimed to deepen Catholicism by publishing an extensive oeuvre’ (at 36; my translation).

68 Audomaro, Petrus a S., Declaratio cavssarvm, ob qvas Belgivm gravissimis praemitur calamitatibus, cum demonstratione remedij aduersus easdem efficacissimi (Köln: Maternus Cholinus, 1582). VD16 P 1926.

69 Janssen, The Dutch Revolt and Catholic Exile, 114–5.

70 Costerius, Institvtio necessaria, 40v.

71 Vermaseren, De katholieke Nederlandsche geschiedschrijving, 46, 129.

72 Buitendijk, Het calvinisme, 142–144.

73 Rouzet, Anne, Dictionnaire des imprimeurs, libraires et éditeurs des XVe et XVIe siècles dans les limites géographiques de la Belgique actuelle (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1975), 250.

74 de Launoy, Matthieu and Pennetier, Henri, Die verclaringhe ende verworpinghe (Antwerpen: Hendrik Wouters, 1578). USTC 414962/414963.

75 Duncanus, Martinus, Een cort onderscheyt tusschen godlijcke ende afgoddische beelden (Antwerpen: Hendrik Wouters, 1579). USTC 407820. Id., Het tvveede boeck van het nievwe sacrificivm des Christendoms, dwelck is onse Paeschlam (Antwerpen: Hendrik Wouters, 1580). USTC 401826. Id., Vant rechte evangelische avontmael Christi Jesu (Antwerpen: Hendrik Wouters, 1583). USTC 407880. van de Velde, Jacob, Een cort betooch der warachticheyt des lichaems Jesu Christi int sacrament des outaers (Antwerpen: Hendrik Wouters, 1580). USTC 414322.

76 Descimon and Ruiz Ibáñez, Les ligueurs de l’exil, 91–4, 105.

77 Ibid ., 98.

78 Goosens, Aline, ‘Les Pays-Bas méridionaux, refuge politique et religieux à l’époque du traité de Vervins’, in Labourdette, Jean François, Poussou, Jean-Pierre and Vignal, Marie-Catherine, eds. Le traité de Vervins (Paris: Presses de l’Université de Paris-Sorbonne, 2000), 203–33, at 209–12; Descimon and Ruiz Ibáñez, Les ligueurs de l’exil, 98–100.

79 Beylard, Hugues, ‘Douai. Le Collège d’Anchin (1568–1764)’, in Delattre, Pierre, ed. Les établissements des Jésuites en France depuis quatre siècles: répertoire topo-bibliographique, 5 vols. (Enghien: Institut supérieur de théologie, 1940), 2:173–262, at 188; Pierre Delattre, ‘Lille. Le Collège (1592–1764)’, in Delattre, ed. Les établissements des Jésuites en France, 2:1175–1300, at 1184, 1210, 1212.

80 Pallier, Denis, Recherches sur l’imprimerie à Paris pendant la Ligue (1585–1594) (Genève: Droz, 1975), esp. 75, 131, 155.

81 Ibid ., 75, 155, 186–7.

82 Ibid ., 142, 144. Only Guillaume Bichon went into exile. He worked in Nantes for some years, before returning to Paris in 1599.

83 Alexander Soetaert, ‘Katholieke literatuur en transregionale uitwisseling in de kerkprovincie Kamerijk (1559–1659)’, PhD Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2017, 93–7.

84 Pallier, Recherches sur l’imprimerie à Paris, 77.

85 La resolvtion d’onze doctevrs de la Sorbonne de Paris, assemblez en la ville d’Amiens le 29. iour d’Auril 1594 (Arras: Guillaume de La Rivière, 1594). USTC 20464. La resolvtion d’onze doctevrs de la Sorbonne […] Seconde edition (Arras: Gilles Bauduyn, 1594). USTC 20465.

86 Dorléans, Louis, Le banqvet et apresdinee dv conte d’Arete, ov il se traicte de la dissimvlation du Roy de Nauarre, & des moeurs de ses partisans (Arras: Jean Bourgeois, 1594). USTC 8703; Pallier, Recherches sur l’imprimerie à Paris, no. 864.

87 Dorléans, Le banqvet, 263. On Gazet, see: Aubert, Roger, ‘Gazet (Guillaume)’, in Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, 31 vols. (Paris: Letouzay, 1912–), 20:186–7.

88 Persels, Jeff, ‘Boucher et le premier Sermon de la simulée conversion (1594)’, in Hayes, Bruce and Scott, Paul, eds. Jean Boucher (1548–1646?): prêtre, prédicateur, polémiste, theme issue of Œuvres et critiques, 18 (2013): 7181.

89 Lamentation et complaint qve faict la France a la noblesse nouuellement exposee par vn gentilhomme Françhois prisonnier en la Ville d’Arras se repentant dauoir [sic] suiuy la partie du prince de Bierne (Arras: Jean Bourgeois, 1595). USTC 20536.

90 Discovrs de la bataille, siege et prise des ville et chasteav de Dovrlens, emportez par assault le dernier iour de Iuillet 1595 (Douai: Jan Bogart, 1595) A1v: ‘Tu fus mal auisé, empesté Nauarrois / Lors que prestant l’oreille à l’hérétique engea[n]ce / Tu ramends la guerre au giron de la France, / N’y esta[n]t Roy qu’e[n] songe, & sans force & sans loix’. USTC 20508.

91 Poeme svr la bataille donnee av siege de Dovrlens (Arras: Robert Maudhuy, [1595]), vi: ‘Esueillez vous François, & qu’vn Roy hypocryte / Ne vous aveugle plus, Que la foy vous incite / A laisser le limon de ce lac Geneuois / Et reprendre la Ligue & le Chrestien pauois.’ USTC 20545.

92 Racaut, Luc, Hatred in Print: Catholic Propaganda and Protestant Identity During the French Wars of Religion (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), esp. ch. 3.

93 Notable exceptions here are Charles de Lorraine, Duke of Aumale (1555–1631) and former military commander of the League, and Jean Boucher. Boucher finally obtained a canonry in Tournai, where he published several books during the early decades of the seventeenth century. Bruce Hayes and Paul Scott, eds. Jean Boucher (1548–1646?): prêtre, prédicateur, polémiste, theme issue of Œuvres et critiques, 18 (2013).

94 Corens, Confessional Mobility, 30, 47.

95 Ibid ., 85: ‘the English mission was one common project which consisted of a broad spectrum of actions to sustain and strengthen the English Catholic community, including producing priests, publications and lay education’. Corens focuses on the period 1660–1720, and does not fully explore the organisation of English Catholic printing on the continent.

96 For an excellent overview of these controversies, see Milward, Peter, Religious Controversies of the Jacobean Age: A Survey of Printed Sources (London: The Scolar Press, 1978), esp. chs. 3–4.

97 Ibid ., esp. 89–109.

98 Ibid ., 137, 147–8, 178, 222.

99 Ibid ., 76–82, 145, 162–3, 174, 178, 206.

100 Walsham, ‘Dumb Preachers’, 264, 282.

101 Blom, The Post-Tridentine English Primer, 125–7, 130–1; Walsham, ‘Luis de Granada’s Mission’; Id., ‘Wholesome Milk and Strong Meat: Peter Canisius’s Catechisms and the Conversion of Protestant Britain’, British Catholic History 32 (2015): 293–314.

102 For a brief account of the circulation of devotional texts of continental origin among English Catholic readers, see: Walker, ‘Priests, Nuns, Presses and Prayers’, in Kaplan et al., eds. Catholic Communities in Protestant States, 148–52.

103 For a systematic overview of the primer editions and their contents until 1800, see: Blom, The Post-Tridentine English Primer, esp. chs. 1 and 2.

104 Blom, The Post-Tridentine English Primer, 131. These editions are the so-called manuals, another type of prayer books aimed at the laity.

105 Archives communales de Douai, BB 13, Régistre aux mémoires 1575–1605, fol. 205r–v: transcription of a letter from the English College dated 14 January 1593; Guilday, The English Catholic Refugees, 83–4.

106 Hicks, Leo, ‘The Foundation of the College of St Omers’, Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu 19 (1950): 146–80; Chadwick, St Omers to Stonyhurst: a History of Two Centuries (London: Burns and Oates, 1961), esp. ch. 1.

107 For a recent account, see: Bowden, Caroline and Kelly, James E., eds. The English Convents in Exile, 1600–1800: Communities, Culture, and Identity (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013).

108 Corens, Confessional Mobility, 5 also points to the particularly dense networks in this region.

109 Kingdon, Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion, esp. ch. 4.

110 Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 31–9, 118–20.

111 Cited in Ibid ., 34.

112 Deschamps de Pas, Justin, ‘La ville de Saint-Omer et le port de Gravelines’, Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de la Morinie 35 (1931): 139–52. Its proximity to the coast also influenced the choice of Saint-Omer for the English Jesuit College in 1593: Hicks, ‘The Foundation of the College of St Omers’, 159. On the role of Calais and Dunkirk in shipping Catholic books into England, see: Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 36, 112, 120, 128–9.

113 Bossy, John, ‘Rome and the Elizabethan Catholics: A Question of Geography’, The Historical Journal 7 (1964): 135–42, esp. 139–40; Blom, The Post-Tridentine English Primer, 37; Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 32.

114 Arblaster, Paul, Antwerp and the World: Richard Verstegan and the International Culture of Catholic Reformation (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2004), 4954; Blom, The Post Tridentine English Primer, 37–8; Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 36.

115 Allison, Antony F., ‘John Heigham of S. Omer (c.1568–c.1632)’, Biographical Studies 4 (1958): 226–42, at 232. On Heigham, see also: Arblaster, Paul, ‘Heigham, John (b. c. 1568, d. in or after 1634)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) 26:242-3.

116 Cited in Allison, ‘John Heigham’, 231.

117 Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 128. On his relations there, see also: Allison, ‘John Heigham’, 236.

118 Allison, ‘John Heigham’, 231.

119 Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 129.

120 On Kellam, see: Rostenberg, The Minority Press, 123–31; Simoni, Anna E.C., ‘The Hidden Trade-Mark of Laurence Kellam, Printer at Douai’, Ons geestelijk erf 64 (1990): 130–43 and Alexander Soetaert and Heleen Wyffels, ‘Beyond the Douai-Reims Bible: The Changing Publishing Strategies of the Kellam family in Seventeenth-Century Douai’, The Library (forthcoming).

121 Milward, Religious Controversies of the Jacobean Age, 137.

122 Walsh, Michael J., ‘The Publishing Policy of the English College Press at Saint-Omer, 1608–1759’, in Robbins, Keith, ed. Religion and Humanism: Papers Read at the Eighteenth Summer Meeting and the Nineteenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society (Oxford: Blackwell, 1981), 239–50; Newdigate, Charles A., ‘Notes on the Seventeenth-Century Printing Press of the English College at Saint Omer’, The Library 10 (1919): 179–90, 223–42. The press is also discussed in Allison, Antony F., ‘An Early-Seventeenth Century Translator: Thomas Everard, S.J. A Study of the Bibliographical Evidence’, Biographical Studies 2 (1953): 188215, and Id., ‘New Light on the Early History of the Breve Compendio. The Background to the English Translation of 1612’, Recusant History 4 (1957): 4–17, esp. 7 and 15.

123 Allison, Antony F., ‘Leonardus Lessius of Louvain and his English Translator’, in Roach, Susan, ed. Across the Narrow Seas. Studies in History and Bibliography of Britain and the Low Countries (London: The British Library, 1991), 8998 , at 92. The letter has been fully transcribed in Belvederi, Raffaele, Guido Bentivoglio: diplomatico, 2 vols. (Rovigo: Centro di cultura Aldo Masieri, 1947), 2:344–5.

124 Among these exceptions are five pro-Spanish political tracts written by Richard Verstegan as a reaction to the end of the Twelve Years’ Truce in the Low Countries, the Battle of the White Mountain and the negotiations on the Spanish Match. See: Allison, Antony F., ‘A Group of Political Tracts, 1621–1623, by Richard Verstegan’, Recusant History 18 (1986): 128–42.

125 Walsh, ‘The Publishing Policy’, 242–3; Allison, Antony F., ‘The Later Life and Writings of Joseph Creswell’, Recusant History 15 (1978): 79144, esp. 124–125. For one of the first books printed on the press in 1608, written by James Anderton under the pseudonym John Brereley, it has been argued that the author himself may have financed the edition: Antony F. Allison, ‘Who Was John Brereley? The Identity of a Seventeenth-Century Controversialist’, Recusant History 16 (1982): 17–41, at 30.

126 Chadwick, St Omers to Stonyhurst, 140.

127 Imhof, Dirk, ‘François Bellet en Jan I Moretus: een verhaal van vertrouwen en mistrouwen’, De Gulden Passer 88 (2010): 7191, at 80, 84–8.

128 For a list of these complaints, see: Soetaert, ‘Katholieke literatuur’, 145–8.

129 Allison, ‘John Heigham’, 230–1.

130 On the edition of prayer books in Rouen in the 1630s, see: Blom, The Post-Tridentine English Primer, 63–4, 133.

131 Walsh, ‘The Publishing Policy’, 245.

132 Chadwick, St Omer to Stonyhurst, 145.

133 Clancy, Thomas H., ‘A Content Analysis of English Catholic Books, 1615–1714’, The Catholic Historical Review 86 (2000): 258–72, at 259; Id., English Catholic Books 1641–1700, A Bibliography (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996).

134 Editions published after 1640 are listed in Clancy, English Catholic Books 1641–1700 and Frans Blom et al., English Catholic Books 1701–1800. A Bibliography (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996).

135 See n. 94 and 95.

136 Pettegree, Emden and the Dutch Revolt, esp. ch. 4.

* The research for this article was conducted at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) as part of a project funded by the KU Leuven Research Council entitled ‘The Making of Transregional Catholicism. Print Culture in the Archdiocese of Cambrai (1559—1659)’ (OT/2013/33). I would like to thank my supervisors Violet Soen and Johan Verberckmoes for their comments on earlier versions of this article.

Catholic refuge and the printing press: Catholic exiles from England, France and the Low Countries in the ecclesiastical province of Cambrai

  • Alexander Soetaert (a1)

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