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Einstein in Portugal: Eddington's expedition to Principe and the reactions of Portuguese astronomers (1917–25)

  • ELSA MOTA (a1), PAULO CRAWFORD (a2) and ANA SIMÕES (a3)
Abstract

Among various case studies addressing the reception of relativity, very few deal with Portugal at either the international or the national level. The national literature on the topic has mainly concentrated on the reactions to relativity of the Portuguese mathematical community. The absence of Portuguese astronomers alongside Eddington during the 1919 expedition to Principe, then a Portuguese island, has been implicitly equated with the astronomical community's lack of interest in the event. In reception studies dealing with general relativity, analysis has tended to focus on the physics and mathematics communities, less on the astronomers. Given that relativity was born at the interface of physics, mathematics and astronomy, reactions of members of these scientific communities depended on differences in shared traditions, values, problems and expectations, as well as on individual practitioners' idiosyncrasies. This paper addresses the contributions of the overlooked Portuguese astronomical community, evaluates the actions and reactions of its members to the expedition and assesses their role in the process of appropriation of relativity.

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*email: aisimoes@fc.ul.pt.
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1 Dyson, F. W., Eddington, A. S. and Davidson, C., ‘A determination of the deflection of light by the sun's gravitational field, from observations made at the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919’, Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions (1920), A220, 291333.

2 A translation into Portuguese of Einstein's travel to South America is included in A. T. Tolmasquin, Einstein – O Viajante da Relatividade na América do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, 2003.

3 Einstein had a few correspondents in Portugal, mostly scientists and members of the Jewish community. In the period under consideration in this paper, his only correspondent was Mário Basto Wagner (1887–1922), a young physicist who died at the age of thirty-five. Albert Einstein Archives, The Jewish and National University Library, Jerusalem.

4 Tolmasquin, op. cit. (2); I. Castro Moreira and A. A. P. Videira (eds.), Einstein e o Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 1995; Silva da Silva, C. M., ‘Recepção da teoria da relatividade no Brasil, entre 1919 e 1934’, Revista Brasileira de História da Matemática (2005), 5, 5779.

5 See T. Glick, The Comparative Reception of Relativity, Dordrecht, 1988 and references therein. Reception case studies include countries such as the USA, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the USSR, Poland and Japan.

6 D. Lopes Gagean and M. Costa Leite, ‘General relativity and Portugal: a few pointers towards peripheral reception studies’, in Studies in the History of General Relativity (ed. J. Eisenstaedt and A. J. Kox), Boston, 1988, 3–14; Fitas, A. J., ‘A Teoria da Relatividade em Portugal no Período entre Guerras’, Gazeta de Física, (2004), 27, 410; idem, ‘A Teoria da Relatividade em Portugal (1910–1940)’, in Einstein entre nós. A recepção de Einstein em Portugal de 1905 a 1955 (ed. C. Fiolhais), Coimbra, 2005, 15–42.

7 A recent exception is J. Crelinsten, Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton, 2006, a book in which the author addresses the reactions of the American astronomical community towards general relativity. The book builds on the author's Ph.D. dissertation written more than twenty years ago.

8 E. Mota, A. Simões and P. Crawford, ‘Einstein em Portugal: o primeiro teste da teoria da relatividade geral e o seu impacto na comunidade científica nacional’, in Einstein entre nós. A recepção de Einstein em Portugal de 1905 a 1955 (ed. C. Fiolhais), Coimbra, 2005, 43–56; E. Mota, ‘The 1919 Expedition to Principe: Appropriation of Relativity by the Community of Portuguese Astronomers’ (in Portuguese), M.Sc. thesis, University of Lisbon, 2006, unpublished.

9 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–1929): Correspondence M. Peres/Oom (OAL).

10 Melo e Simas, M. S., ‘Ocultação de uma estrela por Júpiter’, Jornal de Sciências Matemáticas, Físicas e Naturais da Academia de Sciências de Lisboa (1926), 5, 115–22.

11 R. W. Smith, ‘Remaking astronomy: instruments and practice in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries’, in The Cambridge History of Science, Vol. 5: The Modern Physical and Mathematical Sciences (ed. M. J. Nye), Cambridge, 2003, 154–73.

12 N. Wise (ed.), The Values of Precision, Princeton, 1995.

13 J. North, The Fontana History of Astronomy and Cosmology, London, 1994, 465–9.

14 Simões, A., Carneiro, A. and Diogo, M. P., ‘Constructing knowledge: eighteenth-century Portugal and the new sciences’, Archimedes (1999), 2, 140; Carneiro, A., Simões, A. and Diogo, M. P., ‘The scientific revolution in eighteenth-century Portugal: the role of the Estrangeirados (Europeanized intellectuals)’, Social Studies of Science (2000), 30, 591619.

15 P. J. da Cunha, A Astronomia, a Náutica e as Sciências Afins, Lisboa, 1929, 33.

16 F. M. Costa Lobo, A Astronomia na Actualidade, Coimbra, 1933.

17 Costa Lobo used the photoheliograph to make observations during the 1900 solar eclipse in the city of Viseu. He also reported on observations made during the eclipses of April 1912 and August 1914 and made a cinematographic recording of the first solar eclipse. Costa Lobo, op. cit. (16).

18 J. Silvestre Ribeiro, História dos Estabelecimentos Scientíficos, Literários e Artísticos de Portugal nos sucessivos reinados da Monarchia, Lisboa, 1871–93; F. Oom, ‘O Observatório de Lisboa: sua influência na astronomia portuguesa’, Discurso inaugural da 2a secção, Astronomia e Física do Globo, Proceedings do 1 oCongresso Luso- Espanhol da Associação Portuguesa para o Progresso das Ciências e 8 oCongreso de la Asociación Española para el Progreso de las Ciencias, Porto, 1921, Madrid, 1921–3, 45–65; Cunha, op. cit. (15); P. Raposo, ‘The life and work of the Admiral Campos Rodrigues’ (in Portuguese), M.Sc. thesis, University of Lisbon, 2006, unpublished.

19 OAL Archives. ‘Ofícios’ (1905–21) – DA 256. Relação dos funcionários da Tapada (em 19 e 23 de Fevereiro de 1918 e Março de 1919) – idade – Pessoal Técnico. Relação dos astrónomos e do Pessoal auxiliar.

20 P. Raposo, ‘The astronomer/instrument maker Campos Rodrigues and the contribution of the Observatory of Lisbon for the 1900–1901 solar parallax programme’, in 2005 Past Meets the Present in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Portuguese National Meeting (ed. J. Afonso, N. Santos, A. Moitinho and R. Agostinho), Singapore, 2006, 97–100; Raposo, op. cit. (18).

21 Cunha, op. cit. (15), 30; Oom, op. cit. (18), 60. Henri Poincaré belonged to the awarding committee composed of members of the Academy of Sciences of Paris.

22 F. M. Green, C. H. Davies and J. A. Norris, Telegraphic Determination of Longitudes on the East Coast of South America (1878–1879), Washington, 1880.

23 M. Silva and R. Agostinho, ‘Time service and legal time in Portugal’, in 2005 Past Meets the Present in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Portuguese National Meeting (ed. J. Afonso, N. Santos, A. Moitinho and R. Agostinho), Singapore, 2006, 105–8.

24 Later Oom would supervise the plans for the construction of a similar observatory in Luanda, Angola.

25 M. Peres, Relatório do Observatório Campos Rodrigues em Lourenço Marques de 1919, Lourenço Marques, 1921, vol. 11.

26 F. Oom, Projecto que serviu à construção do Observatório ‘Campos Rodrigues’ em Lourenço Marques na Parte Astronómica, Lisboa, 1916, 10.

27 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–29), Correspondence M. Peres/F. Oom.

28 OAL Archives. Ref. C-231 e C-232: Various Correspondence and Ref. C-235: Scientific Correspondence; C. Machado, Latitudes e Longitudes por Passagens meridianas de estrelas e cronómetros siderais, Lisboa, 1917; Cunha, op. cit. (15), 33.

29 OAL Archives. Ref. DD-601 – Observatório de Luanda (1922–33), Relatório de Frederico Oom, 30 September 1922. This and subsequent translations, unless otherwise noted, are the authors' own.

30 da Costa, R., ‘Necessidade de se iniciarem em Portugal as observações de Astrophysica’, Relatório dos Trabalhos da Academia de Sciências de Portugal (1914–1915) (1915), 2, 6974.

31 A list of the publications of F. Oom is included in M. S. Melo e Simas, Elogio Histórico de Frederico Oom lido na assembleia extraordinária de 11 de Junho de 1931, Coimbra, 1931; F. Oom, Circunstâncias do eclipse total do sol de 1900, Lisboa, 1900; A. J. da Cunha Júnior, ‘Sessão ordinária de 4 de Junho de 1904’, Revista de Obras Públicas e Minas (1904), 287–92, 289.

32 F. Oom, Circunstâncias do Eclipse Anular-Total de 1912 Abril 17, Lisboa, 1912; idem, Previsões para o Eclipse Solar de 1916 Fev. 3 em Portugal e Ilhas, Lisboa, 1915.

33 Oom, F., ‘O Futuro Eclipse’, O Instituto (1905), 52, 487–90.

34 Oom, F., ‘O Eclipse Total do Sol em 29 de Maio de 1919 visível na Ilha do Principe’, O Instituto (1917), 64, 97–8.

35 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–29): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL).

36 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–29): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL), letter, Peres to Oom, 18–20 November 1918, received by Oom on 17 January 1919.

37 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–29): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL), letter, Peres to Oom, 6 March 1919.

38 See list of publications in Melo e Simas, op. cit. (31).

39 As far as we know, Oom mentioned the expedition just once, in an appendix written for the third edition of the Portuguese translation of C. Flammarion's book Les Merveilles célestes (1865), written possibly between 1927 and 1930. OAL Archives. Ref. DD-554. Manuscript of the appendix together with notes on Les Merveilles célestes.

40 Costa Lobo, op. cit. (16), 20, 30.

41 See, T. J. J., ‘Einstein's theory of gravitation’, Observatory (1916), 39, 511–12.

42 Costa Lobo, F. M., ‘Explicação Física da Atracção Universal’, O Instituto (1917), 64, 611–13.

43 Associação Portuguesa para o Progresso das Sciencias /1st Congress (26 de Junho–1 Julho 1921) plenary sessions, Coimbra, 1922.

44 Costa Lobo, F. M., ‘La Structure de L'Univers’, O Instituto (1923), 70, 479–92.

45 Earman, J. and Glymour, C., ‘Relativity and eclipses: the British expeditions of 1919 and their predecessors’, Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences (1980), 11, 4985; H. Collins and T. Pinch, The Golem: What Everyone Should Know about Science, Cambridge, 1993; P. Coles, ‘Einstein, Eddington and 1919 Eclipse’, e-print astro-ph/0102462 (2001); Brush, S. G., ‘Prediction and theory evaluation: the case of light bending’, Science (1989), 246, 1124–9; idem, ‘Why was relativity accepted?’, Physics in Perspective (1999), 1, 184–214; A. Warwick, ‘Through the convex looking glass: A. S. Eddington and the Cambridge reception of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity’, in idem, Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics, Chicago, 2003, 443–500.

46 Stanley, M., ‘“An expedition to heal the wounds of war”: the 1919 eclipse and Eddington as Quaker adventurer’, Isis (2003), 94, 5789; idem, Practical Mystic: Religion, Science, and A. S. Eddington, Chicago, 2007.

47 Of special help were Crelinsten, op. cit. (7), Part II; Earman and Glymour, op. cit. (45); Warwick, ‘Through the convex looking glass’, op. cit. (45); J. Stachel, ‘Eddington and Einstein’, in idem, Einstein from B to Z, New York, 2002, 453–75; and K. Hentschel, Einstein Tower: An Intertexture of Dynamic Construction, Relativity Theory, and Astronomy, Stanford, 1997.

48 de Sitter, W., ‘On the bearing of the principle of relativity on gravitational astronomy’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1911), 77, 388415.

49 Eddington, A. S., ‘The Greenwich eclipse expedition to Brazil’, Observatory (1913), 36, 62–5; Eddington, A. S. and Davidson, C., ‘Total eclipse of the Sun, 10 October 1912. Report on an expedition to Passa Quatro, Minas Geraes, Brazil’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1912–13), 73, 386–90.

50 Perrine, C., ‘Contribution to the history of attempts to test the theory of relativity by means of astronomical observations’, Astronomische Nachrichten (1923), 219, 281–4.

51 J. Eisenstaedt and A. A. Passos Videira, ‘A relatividade geral verificada: o eclipse de Sobral de 29/05/1919’, in Moreira and Videira, op. cit. (4), 90; Warwick, ‘Through the convex looking glass’, op. cit. (45), 452; Stachel, ‘Eddington and Einstein’, op. cit. (47), 454.

52 Einstein, A., ‘Zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie’, Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (1915), 2, 778–86, 799801; idem, ‘Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie’, Annalen der Physik (1916), 49, 769–822.

53 Eddington, A. S., ‘Some problems of astronomy. XIX. Gravitation’, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1915), 38, 93; idem, ‘Gravitation’, Observatory (1915), 38, 93–8.

54 Most probably this talk developed into Eddington, A. S., ‘Gravitation and the principle of relativity’, Nature (1916), 98, 328–30.

55 A. S. Eddington, Report on the Relativity Theory of Gravitation for the Physical Society of London, London, 1918.

56 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/1919): Correspondence Eddington/OAL.

57 Hinks, A. R., ‘Geographical conditions for the observation of the total solar eclipse, 1919 May 28–29’, Observatory (1917), 78, 7982.

58 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Campos Rodrigues to the director of the Colonial Centre, 28 November 1918, 5; letter, M. C. Rego (president of the Colonial Centre) to Campos Rodrigues, 16 December 1918.

59 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Eddington to Oom, 8 February 1919.

60 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Oom to Eddington, 13 February 1919.

61 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Campos Rodrigues to Commander A. J. Pinto Basto (CNN), 13 February 1919.

62 OAL Archives (DD-455), Guest Book.

63 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Colonial Centre to Campos Rodrigues, 18 March 1919.

64 Crommelin, A. C., ‘The eclipse expedition to Sobral’, Observatory (1919), 42, 368–71.

65 R. Mourão, Einstein de Sobral para o Mundo, Sobral, 2003, which includes Morize's diary.

66 Mourão, op. cit. (65), 119–45.

67 Tolmasquin, op. cit. (2); Mourão op. cit. (65).

68 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19): Correspondence Brown /OAL, letter, Oom to Brown, 13 March 1919; letter, Brown to Oom, 24 April 1919. See Nature (1919), 103, 131–2.

69 Dyson, Eddington and Davidson, op. cit. (1). The paper includes a form of diary of the trip that precedes the description of the preparatory work and the analysis of the data.

70 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/1919), letter, Eddington to Oom, 4 May 1919.

71 Letters to S. A. Eddington and W. Eddington, 29 April, 21 June, 5 May, in Stanley, ‘An expedition to heal the wounds of war’, op. cit. (46), 75.

72 A. Eddington, Space, Time and Gravitation: An Outline of the General Relativity Theory, New York, 1959 (first edn 1920), 115.

73 Dyson, Eddington and Davidson, op. cit. (1).

74 Thomson, J. J., ‘Joint eclipse meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society’, Observatory (1919), 42, 389–98, 394.

75 Stanley, opera cit. (46) has recently argued in favour of Eddington's criteria and their consistency, opposing the current view that Eddington fudged his results and therefore practised ‘bad science’. A similar argument is put forward in Coles, op. cit. (45). Contrary opinions were previously voiced in Earman and Glymour, op. cit. (45); and Collins and Pinch, op. cit. (45).

76 Crelinsten, op. cit. (7), 76–84, 131–40.

77 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), letter, Eddington to Campos Rodrigues, 3 August 1919, 43.

78 OAL Archives. Ref. C-240 (1918/19), draft letter, n.d., 44. In the draft letter by Campos Rodrigues to Eddington, the Portuguese director acknowledges the reception of the enlargements of the paper.

79 ‘A luz pesa’ (Light has weight), O Século, 15 November 1919, section ‘Descobertas científicas’ (Scientific discoveries).

80 C. Torrend, ‘O eclipse total de 29 de Maio de 1919, no Brasil’, Brotéria (January 1920), 40–1.

81 Brush, opera cit. (45).

82 Although some of the former characteristics are easily understood as a reaction to monarchical values, nationalism and colonialism were a response to the outcome of the Berlin Conference (1895) and the Portuguese response in securing its African colonies.

83 Rómulo de Carvalho, História do Ensino desde a Fundação da Nacionalidade até ao fim do regime de Salazar-Caetano, Lisboa, 1985.

84 Rogério Fernandes, Uma experiência de formação para adultos na Primeira República. A Universidade Livre para a Educação Popular 1911–1917, Lisboa, 1933. The Free University was founded in Lisbon in 1912 by Alexandre Ferreira. The Popular University started in 1911 in Porto and in 1919 in Lisbon. Among its teachers was the philosopher and mathematician Leonardo Coimbra, who was the first Portuguese to refer to special relativity in a journal article and in a book which was the dissertation prepared for his application for a teaching position in philosophy at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Lisbon (Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa). Leonardo Coimbra, Criacionismo, Porto, 1912. He was critical of positivism and endorsed idealist views, claiming that our knowledge of the natural world is guided by thought, not by our daily experience. He belonged to the Portuguese Republican Party after 1914 and was minister of public instruction twice, in 1919 and 1923.

85 Portuguese astronomers belonged to the following international associations: International Geodesic and Geophysics Commission, Portuguese–Spanish Association for the Progress of Science, International Astronomical Union, South African Association for the Progress of Science. Most probably, the OAL subscribed to fifty scientific periodicals in the period under consideration. Among them, the Observatory, the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and Astronomische Nachrichten were those most used as publication outlets for the astronomers of the OAL.

86 On Melo e Simas see also A. Simões, ‘Considerações históricas sobre ciência e sociedade: divórcio litigioso ou casamento de sucesso?’, in Encontro de Saberes. Três gerações de bolseiros da Gulbenkian (ed. A. Tostões, E. R. Arantes de Oliveira, J. M. Pinto Paixão and P. Magalhães), Lisboa, 2006, 247–57.

87 Leaflet of the lessons of the Free University, Lessons 1 and 8, Boletim Mensal (Monthly Bulletin of the Free University), Lisboa, 1912.

88 M. S. Melo e Simas, Usefulness of Astronomy. Greatness and Magnificence of the Universe. General Idea on the Distribution of Worlds, Lisboa, 1913, 4. From this period in July 1912 there also dates an éloge of Poincaré by Melo e Simas read at the Academy of Sciences of Portugal. Idem, ‘Poincaré e a sua obra’, Relatório dos trabalhos da Academia de Sciências de Portugal (1914–1915) (1915), 2, 17–19.

89 OAL Archives. Ref. DD-454. Undated and unsigned manuscript obituary. Its author was probably Manuel Peres, Melo e Simas's successor in the class of mathematics at the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. Peres's opinion was also shared by the astronomer Pedro José da Cunha, former teacher of Melo e Simas at the Polytechnic School of Lisbon. Cunha, op. cit. (15), 20.

90 OAL Archives. Folder on Melo e Simas. List of titles of lectures on relativity delivered by Melo e Simas at the Free University, from 19 November 1922 to 27 May 1923.

91 Cunha, op. cit. (15).

92 It has so far proved impossible to find the manuscripts of the lectures. According to their titles, the ‘introductory survey’ was succeeded by the ‘spirit of mathematical reasoning’, ‘the spirit of geometrical reasoning’, ‘the spirit of classical mechanics’, ‘physical agents’, ‘the constitution of matter’, ‘the relativism (scales) of space’, ‘preliminaries to relativity’, ‘special relativity’, ‘the mechanics of relativity’, ‘the four dimensions of the Universe’ and, finally, ‘the spirit of general relativity’.

93 M. S. Melo e Simas, ‘Astrologia e Astronomia’, A Folha. Jornal Literário, noticioso e comercial (1o Ano, no 17, 25 Janeiro 1903), 1; idem, ‘A mulher na astronomia’, A Folha. Jornal Literário, noticioso e comercial, localista e independente (2o Ano, no 60, 22 Novembro 1903), 1.

94 Melo e Simas, ‘A mulher na astronomia’, op. cit. (93).

95 M. S. Melo e Simas, ‘A teoria de relatividade’, Almanaques de 1924 (OAL, 1922), 43–57, 43, 44, 56, italics ours. On the occasion of the 1922 solar eclipse Melo e Simas also gives an interview for the newspaper O Século (21 November, 5) in which he refers to Leonardo Coimbra.

96 M. S. Melo e Simas, ‘Ocultação de uma estrela por Júpiter’, op. cit. (10), 115.

97 While we were unable to explain fully Melo e Simas's involvement in Jupiter's observational project to test general relativity, we point to one possible correlation. At the time of Jupiter's observations, Perrine had just written a paper for Astronomische Nachrichten, a journal in which Lisbon astronomers published on a regular basis, reviewing the different methods to test relativity by astronomical means. See Perrine, op. cit. (50).

98 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–1929): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL); Peres Júnior, M., ‘The role of astronomy in the development of science’, South African Journal of Science (1922), 19, 3241. Portuguese translation: O papel da astronomia no desenvolvimento da ciência, Lisboa, 1923.

99 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–1929): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL); Peres Júnior, ‘The role of astronomy’, op. cit. (98), 41.

100 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–1929): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL), letter, M. Peres to F. Oom, 18 February 1922.

101 OAL Archives. Ref. C-463 (1915–1929): Correspondence M. Peres (OCR)/Oom (OAL), letter, M. Peres to F. Oom, 30 June 1923.

102 OAL Archives. Ref. DD-602. Peres's manuscript pages ‘Geometry and experience’.

103 M. Peres, ‘Determinação pela telegrafia sem fios, da diferença de longitudes de dois pontos que não estão no campo de acção da mesma estação emissora’, Arquivos da Universidade de Lisboa (1916), 1–3.

104 Peres, op. cit. (103), 2.

105 A. Ramos da Costa, Tratado Prático de Cronometria, Lisboa, 1921.

106 A. Ramos da Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, Lisboa, 1921; idem, Espaço, Matéria, Tempo ou a Trilogia Einsteiniana, Lisboa, 1923.

107 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), pp. iii–iv.

108 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), 21.

109 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), 57.

110 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), 42.

111 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), 34.

112 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), 34–5.

113 Costa, A Teoria da Relatividade, op. cit. (106), p. vi.

114 Costa, Trilogia Einsteiniana, op. cit. (106), 62.

115 Costa, Trilogia Einsteiniana, op. cit. (106), 62.

116 Ramos da Costa, A., ‘O ensino das matemáticas deve ser orientado para o estudo da relatividade’, Revista de Obras Públicas e Minas e das Sciências Aplicadas à Indústria (July 1925), 633, 74–6, 76; original emphasis. An explanatory note revealed that the original paper submitted to the congress was not delivered, having been received after the deadline by the anti-relativist Costa Lobo, the Portuguese delegate to the congress.

117 OAL Archives. Ref. C-237: Correspondence G. Coutinho/F.Oom, letter, Coutinho to Oom, 27 February 1923.

118 OAL Archives. Ref. C-237 (1911/1956): Correspondence G. Coutinho /M. Peres. The correspondence about relativity starts in 1939.

119 OAL Archives. Ref.C-237: Correspondence G. Coutinho/F.Oom, letters, Coutinho to Oom, 27 February 1923, 10 July 1924.

120 OAL Archives. Ref.C-237: Correspondence G. Coutinho/F.Oom, letter, Coutinho to Oom, 27 February 1923.

121 OAL Archives. Ref.C-237: Correspondence G. Coutinho/F.Oom, letter, Coutinho to Oom, 10 June 1924.

122 Gago Coutinho, ‘Palestras sobre a Teoria da Relatividade’, in the Brazilian newspaper O Jornal, 6 May 1925. Cited in A. T. Tolmasquin, ‘Constituição e diferenciação do meio científico brasileiro no contexto da visita de Einstein em 1925’, MAST. Notas Técnico-Científicas (July 1996), 1–20, 17.

123 M. dos Reis, O Problema da Gravitação Universal, Coimbra, 1930.

124 P. Galison, Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time, New York, 2003.

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