1 IARC (2002) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins naphthalene and styrene. IARC Monographs 82, 171–274.
2 Eaton DL, Ramsdell HS & Neal GE (1994) Biotransformation of aflatoxins. In The Toxicology of Aflatoxins: Human Health, Veterinary and Agricultural Significance, pp. 45–71 [Eaton DL and Groopman J, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
3 Vamio H, Heseltine E & Wilbourn J (1993) Report of an IARC working group meeting on some naturally occurring substances. Int J Cancer 53, 535–537.
4 Salminen S & von Wright A (1998) Current probiotics: safety assured? Microbial Ecol Health Dis 10, 68–77.
5 Kumar M, Kumar A, Nagpal R, et al. (2010) Cancer-preventing attributes of probiotics: an update. Int J Food Sci Nutr 61, 473–496.
6 Haskard C, Binnion C & Ahokas J (2000) Factors affecting the sequestration of aflatoxin by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Chem Biol Interact 128, 39–49.
7 Singh J, Rivenson A, Tomita M, et al. (1997) Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing intestinal bacterium inhibits colon cancer and modulates the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 18, 833–841.
8 Reddy BS (1998) Prevention of colon cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. Br J Nutr 80, S219–S223.
9 Rafter JJ (1995) The role of lactic acid bacteria in colon cancer prevention. Scand J Gastroenterol 30, 497–502.
10 Annuk H, Shchepetova J, Kullisaar T, et al. (2003) Characterization of intestinal lactobacilli as putative probiotic candidates. J Appl Microbiol 94, 403–412.
11 Park E, Kim KT, Kim CJ, et al. (2004) Anticarcinogenic and antigenotoxic effects of Bacillus polyfermenticus. J Microbiol Biotechnol 14, 852–858.
12 Shahani KM & Ayebo AD (1980) Role of dietary lactobacilli in gastrointestinal microecology. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 2448–2457.
13 Tavan E, Cayuela C, Antoine JM, et al. (2002) Effects of dairy products on heterocyclic aromatic amine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 23, 477–483.
14 Rowland IR, Rumney CJ, Coutts JT, et al. (1998) Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 19, 281–285.
15 Iyer C, Kosters A, Sethi G, et al. (2008) Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri promotes TNF-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia-derived cells by modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling. Cellular Microbiol 10, 1442–1452.
16 Dashwood R, Negishi T, Hayatsu H, et al. (1998) Chemopreventive properties of chlorophylls towards aflatoxin B1: a review of antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity data in rainbow trout. Mutat Res 399, 245–253.
17 Sharma D, Kumar SS & Sainis KB (2007) Antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of chlorophyllin. Mol Immunol. 44, 347–359.
18 Breinholt V, Schimerlik M, Dashwood R, et al. (1995) Mechanisms of chlorophyllin anticarcinogenesis against aflatoxin B1: complex formation with the carcinogen. Chem Res Toxicol 8, 506–514.
19 Breinholt V, Arbogast D, Leveland P, et al. (1999) Chlorophyllin chemoprevention in trout initiated by aflatoxin B1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 158, 141–151.
20 Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ & Moore RP (1996) The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr Cancer 25, 197–204.
21 Uchiyama M & Mahira M (1978) Determination of malonaldehyde precursor in tissue by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal Biochem 86, 271–278.
22 Ellman GL (1959) Tissue sulphydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 82, 70–77.
23 Tapple AL (1978) Glutathione peroxidase and hydroperoxidase. Methods Enzymol 52, 506–513.
24 Habig WH, Pabst MJ & Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione-S-transferases: the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249, 7130–7139.
25 Marklund S & Marklund S (1974) Involvement of superoxide dismutase anion radical in auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 42, 469–472.
26 Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105, 121–126.
27 Jaeschke H, Fisher MA, Lawson JA, et al. (1998) Activation of caspase-3 (CPP32)-like protease is essential for TNF-α induced hepatic parenchymal cell apoptosis and neutrophil-mediated necrosis in a murine endotoxin shock model. J Immunol 160, 3480–3486.
28 Kim HS, Hausman DB, Comton MM, et al. (2000) Induction of apoptosis by all-trans-retinoic acid and C2-ceramide treatment in rat stromal-vascular cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 270, 76–80.
29 Kunstle G, Hentze H, Germann PG, et al. (1999) Concanavalin A hepatotoxicity in mice/tumor necrosis factor – mediated organ failure independent of caspase-3-like protease activation. Hepatology 10, 1241–1251.
30 Trush MA & Kensler TW (1991) An overview of the relationship between oxidative stress and chemical carcinogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med 10, 201–209.
31 Chaudhary AK, Nokubo M, Marnett LJ, et al. (1994) Analysis of the malondialdehyde-2′-deoxyguanosine adduct in rat liver DNA by gas chromatography/electron capture negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Biol Mass Spectrom 23, 457–464.
32 Yadav H, Jain S & Sinha P (2009) Antidiabetic effect of probiotic dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in high fructose fed rats. Nutrition 23, 62–68.
33 Moorthy G, Murali MR & Devaraj SN (2007) Protective role of lactobacilli in Shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats. Nutrition 23, 424–433.
34 Kamat JP, Boloor KK & Devasagayam TP (2000) Chlorophyllin as an effective antioxidant against membrane damage in vitro and ex vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 1487, 113–127.
35 Hayes JD & McLellan LI (1999) Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes represent a co-ordinately regulated defence against oxidative stress. Free Radic Res 31, 273–300.
36 Murphy ME, Scholich H & Sies H (1992) Protection by glutathione and other thiol compounds against the loss of protein thiols and tocopherol homologs during microsomal lipid peroxidation. Eur J Biochem 210, 139–146.
37 Meki AR, Abdel-Ghaffar SK & El-Gibaly I (2001) Aflatoxin B1 induces apoptosis in rat liver: protective effect of melatonin. Neuroendocrinol Lett 22, 417–426.
38 Shen HM, Shi CY, Lea HP, et al. (1994) Aflatoxin B1-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 127, 145–150.
39 Abdelali H, Cassand P, Soussotte V, et al. (1995) Effect of dairy products on initiation of precursor lesions of colon cancer in rats. Nutr Cancer 24, 121–123.
40 El-Gibaly I, Meki AM & Abdel-Ghaffar SK (2003) Novel B-melatonin loaded chitosan macrocapsules: in vitro characterization and antiapoptosis efficacy for aflatoxin B1 induced apoptosis in rat liver. Int J Pharmacol 260, 22–54.
41 Jubert C, Mata J, Bench G, et al. (2009) Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B(1) pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2, 1015–1022.
42 Zhang Y, Guan L, Wang X, et al. (2008) Protection of chlorophyllin against oxidative damage by inducing HO-1 and NQO1 expression mediated by PI3K/Akt and Nrf2. Free Radic Res 42, 362–371.
43 Kot E & Bezkorovainy A (2000) The binding of H2O2-generated Fe (III) to Bifidobacterium thermophilum depends on the method of its production. J Food Sci 65, 1028–1032.
44 Oberley TD & Oberley LW (1997) Antioxidant enzyme levels in cancer. Histol Histopathol 12, 525–535.
45 Gate L, Paul J, Nguyen BA, et al. (1999) Oxidative stress induced in pathologies: the role of antioxidants. Biomed Pharmacother 53, 169–180.
46 Abou Ghalia AH & Fouad IM (2000) Glutathione and its metabolizing enzymes in patients with different benign and malignant diseases. Clin Biochem 33, 657–662.
47 Scott MD, Lubin BH, Zuo L, et al. (1991) Erythrocyte defense against hydrogen peroxide: preeminent importance of catalase. J Lab Clin Med 118, 7–16.
48 Gratz S, Taubel M, Juvonen RO, et al. (2007) Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG modulates intestinal absorption, fecal excretion, and toxicity of aflatoxin b1 in rats. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 7398–7400.