Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh

  • Mariko Doi (a1), Rokeya Sultana Rekha (a2), Sultan Ahmed (a2), Masafumi Okada (a1), Anjan Kumar Roy (a2), Shams El Arifeen (a3), Eva-Charlotte Ekström (a4), Rubhana Raqib (a2) and Yukiko Wagatsuma (a1)...

Ca status in the uterus during pregnancy has been suggested to affect fetal growth and size at birth. In Bangladesh, low Ca levels in pregnant women and low birth weight in infants are common. The present study explored the association between Ca levels in cord blood and newborn size at birth (birth weight and birth length) in Bangladesh. Samples and data included 223 women with live-born singleton deliveries in rural Bangladesh. Newborn weight and length were measured at birth. From cord blood obtained at delivery, Ca, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and intact parathyroid hormone levels were determined. An association between size at birth and Ca levels in cord blood was found (birth weight, P = 0·022; birth length, P = 0·001). Associations between Ca and newborn size were further analysed using multivariate regression analyses. After adjusting for several covariates of characteristics in mothers and newborns (gestational weeks at birth, sex of newborn, socio-economic status, maternal height, BMI, age and season at birth), birth length still exhibited a significant relationship with Ca levels in cord blood (birth length, P = 0·030). The present study indicates that Ca status in cord blood might be associated with the birth length of newborns. Ca levels during gestation may affect fetal growth.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Association between calcium in cord blood and newborn size in Bangladesh
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: M. Doi, fax +81 29 853 3489, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 DD McIntire , SL Bloom , BM Casey , (1999) Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. N Engl J Med 340, 12341238.

4 JG Eriksson , T Forsén , J Tuomilehto , (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 318, 427431.

5 LP Torres-Arreola , P Constantino-Casas , S Flores-Hernández , (2005) Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico. BMC Public Health 5, 20.

7 FW Lone , RN Qureshi & F Emanuel (2004) Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome. Trop Med Int Health 9, 486490.

8 SS Morris , CG Victora , FC Barros , (1998) Length and ponderal index at birth: associations with mortality, hospitalizations, development and post-natal growth in brazilian infants. Int J Epidemiol 27, 242247.

10 A Prentice (2000) Calcium in pregnancy and lactation. Annu Rev Nutr 20, 249272.

12 SA Abrams & KM Hawthorne (2006) Infancy and childhood. In Calcium in Human Health, pp. 269279 [ CM Weaver and RP Heaney , editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

13 JC Callenbach , MB Sheehan , SJ Abramson , (1981) Etiologic factors in rickets of very low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr 98, 800805.

14 M Lindroth , U Westgren & S Laurin (1986) Rickets in very low birthweight infants. Influence of supplementation with vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium. Acta Paediatr Scand 75, 927931.

15 R Namgung , RC Tsang , BL Specker , (1993) Reduced serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations and low bone mineral content in small for gestational age infants: evidence of decreased bone formation rates. J Pediatr 122, 269275.

16 M Purwar , H Kulkarni , V Motghare , (1996) Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 22, 425430.

18 P López-Jaramillo , F Delgado , P Jácome , (1997) Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstet Gynecol 90, 162167.

19 E Abalos , M Merialdi , D Wojdyla , (2010) Effects of calcium supplementation on fetal growth in mothers with deficient calcium intake: a randomised controlled trial. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24, 5362.

20 CS Kovacs & HM Kronenberg (1997) Maternal–fetal calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. Endocr Rev 18, 832872.

21 L Guéguen & A Pointillart (2000) The bioavailability of dietary calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 119S136S.

22 CM Verity , D Burman , PC Beadle , (1981) Seasonal changes in perinatal vitamin D metabolism: maternal and cord blood biochemistry in normal pregnancies. Arch Dis Child 56, 943948.

23 A Zittermann , J Dembinski & P Stehle (2004) Low vitamin D status is associated with low cord blood levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 15, 242246.

25 A Rahman , M Vahter , AH Smith , (2009) Arsenic exposure during pregnancy and size at birth: a prospective cohort study in Bangladesh. Am J Epidemiol 169, 304312.

32 S Moore , A Prentice , Y Wagatsuma , (2009) Early-life nutritional and environmental determinants of thymic size in infants born in rural Bangladesh. Acta Paediatr 98, 11681175.

36 M Avila-Díaz , S Flores-Huerta , I Martínez-Muñiz , (2001) Increments in whole body bone mineral content associated with weight and length in pre-term and full-term infants during the first 6 months of life. Arch Med Res 32, 288292.

37 EM Dennison , HE Syddall , AA Sayer , (2005) Birth weight and weight at 1 year are independent determinants of bone mass in the seventh decade: the Hertfordshire cohort study. Pediatr Res 57, 582586.

39 N Nelson , O Finnström & L Larsson (1989) Plasma ionized calcium, phosphate and magnesium in preterm and small for gestational age infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 78, 351357.

40 J Villar & JT Repke (1990) Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163, 11241131.

43 JM Belizán , J Villar , L Gonzalez , (1991) Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. N Engl J Med 325, 13991405.

44 CS Kovacs (2001) Calcium and bone metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 23442348.

45 MZ Islam , C Lamberg-Allardt , M Kärkkäinen , (2003) Dietary calcium intake in premenopausal Bangladeshi women: do socio-economic or physiological factors play a role? Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 674680.

48 E Kuroda , T Okano , N Mizuno , (1981) Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in maternal, cord and neonatal blood. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 27, 5565.

50 R Namgung , RC Tsang , BL Specker , (1994) Low bone mineral content and high serum osteocalcin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in summer- versus winter-born newborn infants: an early fetal effect? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 19, 220227.

51 B Dibba , A Prentice , MA Laskey , (1999) An investigation of ethnic differences in bone mineral, hip axis length, calcium metabolism and bone turnover between west African and Caucasian adults living in the United Kingdom. Ann Hum Biol 26, 229242.

52 EK Silbergeld (1991) Lead in bone: implications for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environ Health Perspect 91, 6370.

53 PR Fischer , A Rahman , JP Cimma , (1999) Nutritional rickets without vitamin D deficiency in Bangladesh. J Trop Pediatr 45, 291293.

56 R Morley , JB Carlin , JA Pasco , (2006) Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 906912.

57 HT Viljakainen , E Saarnio , T Hytinantti , (2010) Maternal vitamin D status determines bone variables in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 1749–1175.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 48 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 123 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.