Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study

  • Mercedes Sotos-Prieto (a1) (a2) (a3), Robert Luben (a4), Kay-Tee Khaw (a4), Nicholas J. Wareham (a3) and Nita G. Forouhi (a3)...
Abstract

Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0–18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1 %, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene–diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr N. G. Forouhi, fax +44 1223 330316, email nita.forouhi@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1 Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 25992608.
2 Romaguera, D, Guevara, M, Norat, T, et al. (2011) Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project. Diabetes Care 34, 19131918.
3 Truthmann, J, Richter, A, Thiele, S, et al. (2012) Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany. Nutr Metab 9, 92.
4 Panagiotakos, DB, Tzima, N, Pitsavos, C, et al. (2007) The association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and fasting indices of glucose homoeostasis: the ATTICA Study. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 3238.
5 Ambring, A, Friberg, P, Axelsen, M, et al. (2004) Effects of a Mediterranean-inspired diet on blood lipids, vascular function and oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 106, 519525.
6 Andreoli, A, Lauro, S, Di Daniele, N, et al. (2008) Effect of a moderately hypoenergetic Mediterranean diet and exercise program on body cell mass and cardiovascular risk factors in obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 892897.
7 Goulet, J, Lamarche, B, Nadeau, G, et al. (2003) Effect of a nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and body weight in healthy French-Canadian women. Atherosclerosis 170, 115124.
8 Estruch, R, Martínez-González, MA, Corella, D, et al. (2006) Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 145, 111.
9 Elhayany, A, Lustman, A, Abel, R, et al. (2010) A low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet improves cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes control among overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year prospective randomized intervention study. Diabetes Obes Metab 12, 204209.
10 Kastorini, CM, Milionis, HJ, Esposito, K, et al. (2011) The effect of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components: a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol 57, 12991313.
11 Tzima, N, Pitsavos, C, Panagiotakos, DB, et al. (2007) Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; the Attica study. Lipids Health Dis 6, 22.
12 Di Angelantonio, E, Sarwar, N, Perry, P, et al. (2009) Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease. JAMA 302, 19932000.
13 Emerging Risk Factor Collaboration Di Angelantonio, E, Gao, P, Pennells, L, et al. (2012) Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction. JAMA 307, 24992506.
14 Solá, R, Fitó, M, Estruch, R, et al. (2011) Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: a randomized, controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 218, 174180.
15 Corella, D & Ordovas, JM (2005) Single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence lipid metabolism: interaction with dietary factors. Annu Rev Nutr 25, 341390.
16 Willer, CJ, Sanna, S, Jackson, AU, et al. (2008) Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 40, 161169.
17 Saxena, R, Voight, BF, Lyssenko, V, et al. (2007) Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. Science 316, 13311336.
18 Orho-Melander, M, Melander, O, Guiducci, C, et al. (2008) Common missense variant in the glucokinase regulatory protein gene is associated with increased plasma triglyceride and C-reactive protein but lower fasting glucose concentrations. Diabetes 57, 31123121.
19 Qi, Q, Wu, Y, Li, H, et al. (2009) Association of GCKR rs780094, alone or in combination with GCK rs1799884, with type 2 diabetes and related traits in a Han Chinese population. Diabetologia 52, 834843.
20 Sparsø, T, Andersen, G, Nielsen, T, et al. (2008) The GCKR rs780094 polymorphism is associated with elevated fasting serum triacylglycerol, reduced fasting and OGTT-related insulinaemia, and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 51, 7075.
21 Dupuis, J, Langenberg, C, Prokopenko, I, et al. (2010) New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet 42, 105116.
22 Vaxillaire, M, Cavalcanti-Proença, C, Dechaume, A, et al. (2008) The common P446L polymorphism in GCKR inversely modulates fasting glucose and triglyceride levels and reduces type 2 diabetes risk in the DESIR prospective general French population. Diabetes 57, 22532257.
23 Sotos-Prieto, M, Guillén, M, Vicente Sorli, J, et al. (2013) Relevant associations of the glucokinase regulatory protein/glucokinase gene variation with TAG concentrations in a high-cardiovascular risk population. Modulation by Mediterranean diet. Br J Nutr 109, 193201.
24 Day, N, Oakes, S, Luben, R, et al. (1999) EPIC-Norfolk: study design and characteristics of the cohort. Br J Cancer 80, 95103.
25 Riboli, E (1992) Nutrition and cancer: background and rationale of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Ann Oncol 3, 783791.
26 Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI & Fredrickson, DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18, 499502.
27 Bingham, SA, Gill, C, Welch, A, et al. (1997) Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. Int J Epidemiol 26, Suppl. 1, S137S151.
28 Welch, AA, Luben, R, Khaw, KT, et al. (2005) The CAFE computer program for nutritional analysis of the EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire and identification of extreme nutrient values. J Hum Nutr Diet 18, 99116.
29 Kaaks, R & Riboli, E (1997) Validation and calibration of dietary intake measurements in the EPIC project: methodological considerations. Int J Epidemiol 26, Suppl. 1, S15S25.
30 Buckland, G, González, CA, Agudo, A, et al. (2009) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 170, 15181529.
31 Buckland, G, Agudo, A, Lujan, L, et al. (2010) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 381390.
32 Wareham, NJ, Jakes, RW, Rennie, KL, et al. (2003) Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 6, 407413.
33 Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, et al. (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 569581.
34 Bi, M, Kao, WH, Boerwinkle, E, et al. (2010) Association of rs780094 in GCKR with metabolic traits and incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease: the ARIC Study. PLOS ONE 5, e11690.
35 Bender, R & Lange, S (2001) Adjusting for multiple testing – when and how? J Clin Epidemiol 54, 343349.
36 Chasman, DI, Paré, G, Zee, RY, et al. (2008) Genetic loci associated with plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B among 6382 white women in genome-wide analysis with replication. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 1, 2130.
37 Chrysohoou, C, Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, C, et al. (2004) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: the ATTICA Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 44, 152158.
38 Shai, I, Schwarzfuchs, D, Henkin, Y, et al. (2008) Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 359, 229241.
39 Esposito, K, Marfella, R, Ciotola, M, et al. (2004) Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA 292, 14401446.
40 Esposito, K, Maiorino, MI, Di Palo, C, et al. (2009) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 26, 900907.
41 Papadaki, A & Scott, JA (2008) Follow-up of a web-based tailored intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet in Scotland. Patient Educ Couns 73, 256263.
42 Athyros, VG, Kakafika, AI, Papageorgiou, AA, et al. (2011) Effect of a plant stanol ester-containing spread, placebo spread, or Mediterranean diet on estimated cardiovascular risk and lipid, inflammatory and haemostatic factors. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 213221.
43 Beer, NL, Tribble, ND, McCulloch, LJ, et al. (2009) The P446L variant in GCKR associated with fasting plasma glucose and triglyceride levels exerts its effect through increased glucokinase activity in liver. Hum Mol Genet 18, 40814088.
44 Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 39.
45 Sidhu, D & Naugler, C (2012) Fasting time and lipid levels in a community-based population: a cross-sectional study. Arch Intern Med 172, 17071710.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Sotos-Prieto Supplementary Material
Table S1

 PDF (32 KB)
32 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed