1Dammeyer T & Frankenberg-Dinkel N (2006) Insights into phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis point toward metabolic channeling. J Biol Chem 281, 27081–27089.
2Jensen GS, Ginsberg DI & Drapeau C (2001) Blue-green algae as an immuno-enhancer and biomodulator. JANA 3, 24–30.
3Belay A (2002) The potential application of Spirulina (arthrospira) as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in health management. JANA 5, 26–48.
4Chiu H-F, Yang S-P, Kuo Y-L, et al. (2006) Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet effect of C-phycocyanin. Br J Nutr 95, 435–440.
5Soni B, Visavadiya NP & Madamwar D (2008) Ameliorative action of cyanobacterial phycoerythrin on CCl4-induced toxicity in rats. Toxicology 248, 59–65.
6Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, et al. (2002) Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Rev 23, 599–622.
7Haffner SM (2000) Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: the San Antonio Heart Study. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S67–S70.
8Brownlee M (2001) Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 414, 813–820.
9Ravanan R, Spiro JR, Mathieson PW, et al. (2007) Impact of diabetes on hemoglobin levels in renal disease. Diabetologia 50, 26–31.
10Leeder SR, Mitchell P, Liew G, et al. (2006) Low hemoglobin, chronic kidney disease and risk for coronary heart disease-related death: the Blue Mountains eye study. J Am Soc Nephrol 17, 279–284.
11Kawamura M, Heinecke JW & Chait A (1994) Pathophysiological concentrations of glucose promote oxidative modification of LDL by a superoxide-dependent pathway. J Clin Invest 94, 771–778.
12Cameron NE & Cotter MA (1997) Metabolic and vascular factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 46, S31–S37.
13Friedewald WT, Levy RT & Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18, 499–502.
14Benzie IFF & Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239, 70–76.
15Buege JA & Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52, 302–310.
16Kim YJ, Yokozawa T & Chung HY (2005) Effects of energy restriction and fish oil supplementation on renal guanidine levels and antioxidant defences in aged lupus-prone B/W mice. Br J Nutr 93, 835–844.
17Jiang ZY, Hunt JV & Wolft SD (1992) Ferrous ion oxidation in the presence of xylenol orange for detection of lipid hydroperoxide in low density lipoprotein. Anal Biochem 202, 384–389.
18Kakkar P, Das B & Viswanathan PN (1984) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 21, 130–132.
19Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol 105, 121–126.
20Wendel A (1981) Glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol 77, 325–333.
21Ellman GL (1959) Tissue sulfhydryl groups. Arch Biochem Biophys 82, 70–77.
22Martinek RG (1964) Method for the determination of vitamin E (total tocopherols) in serum. Clin Chem 10, 1078–1086.
23Omaye ST, Turnbull JD & Sauberlich HE (1979) Selected methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in animal cells, tissues and fluids. Methods Enzymol 62, 3–11.
24Wieland H & Seidel D (1983) A simple specific method for precipitation of low density lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 24, 904–909.
25Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265–275.
26Palomäki A, Malminiemi K, Solakivi T, et al. (1998) Ubiquinone supplementation during lovastatin treatment: effect on LDL oxidation ex vivo. J Lipid Res 39, 1430–1437.
27Esterbauer H, Striegl G, Puhl H, et al. (1989) Continuous monitoring of in vitro oxidation of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res Commun 6, 67–75.
28Regnström J, Ström K, Moldeus P, et al. (1993) Analysis of lipoprotein diene formation in human serum exposed to copper. Free Radic Res Commun 19, 267–278.
29Masiello P, Broca C, Gross R, et al. (1998) Experimental NIDDM: development of a new model in adult rats administered streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Diabetes 47, 224–229.
30Szkudelski T (2001) The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in β cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res 50, 536–546.
31Nagaoka S, Shimizu K, Kaneko S, et al. (2005) A novel protein C-phycocyanin plays a crucial role in the hypocholesterolemic action of Spirulina platensis concentrate in rats. J Nutr 135, 2425–2430.
32Fang J & Alderman MH (2000) Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality: The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 1971–1992. J Am Med Assoc 283, 2404–2410.
33Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Vidgen E, et al. (2001) High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia: effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 57–63.
34Khan M, Shobha JC, Mohan IK, et al. (2006) Spirulina attenuates cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Appl Toxicol 26, 444–451.
35Bhat VB & Madyastha KM (2001) Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285, 262–266.
36Stocker R, Yamamoto Y, McDonagh AF, et al. (1987) Bilirubin is an antioxidant of possible physiological importance. Science 235, 1043–1046.
37Stocker R (2004) Antioxidant activities of bile pigments. Antioxid Redox Signal 6, 841–849.
38Llesuy SF & Tomaro ML (1994) Heme oxygenase and oxidative stress. Evidence of involvement of bilirubin as physiological protector against oxidative damage. Biochim Biophys Acta 1223, 9–14.
39Gourley GR (1997) Bilirubin metabolism and kernicterus. Adv Pediatr 44, 173–229.
40Sedlak TW & Snyder SH (2004) Bilirubin benefits: cellular protection by a biliverdin reductase antioxidant cycle. Pediatrics 113, 1776–1782.
41Gieseg SP & Esterbauer H (1994) Low density lipoprotein is saturable by pro-oxidant copper. FEBS Lett 343, 188–194.
42Ryter SW, Alam J & Choi AMK (2006) Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications. Physiol Rev 86, 583–650.
43Schuster B, Prassl R, Nigon F, et al. (1995) Core lipid structure is a major determinant of the oxidative resistance of low density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 2509–2513.
44Wu TW, Fung KP, Wu J, et al. (1996) Antioxidation of human low density lipoprotein by unconjugated and conjugated bilirubins. Biochem Pharmacol 51, 859–862.
45Novotny L & Vítek N (2003) Inverse relationship between serum bilirubin and atherosclerosis in men: a meta-analysis of published studies. Exp Biol Med 228, 568–571.
46Zhou Z-P, Liu L-N, Chen X-L, et al. (2005) Factors that effect antioxidant activity of C-phycocyanins from Spirulina platensis. J Food Biochem 29, 313–322.