Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-55wx7 Total loading time: 2.243 Render date: 2021-03-02T07:32:33.938Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Bioavailability of minerals in legumes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Ann-Sofie Sandberg
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science, Chalmers University of Technology, PO Box 5401, SE 402 29 Göteborg, Sweden
Corresponding
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

The mineral content of legumes is generally high, but the bioavailability is poor due to the presence of phytate, which is a main inhibitor of Fe and Zn absorption. Some legumes also contain considerable amounts of Fe-binding polyphenols inhibiting Fe absorption. Furthermore, soya protein per se has an inhibiting effect on Fe absorption. Efficient removal of phytate, and probably also polyphenols, can be obtained by enzymatic degradation during food processing, either by increasing the activity of the naturally occurring plant phytases and polyphenol degrading enzymes, or by addition of enzyme preparations. Biological food processing techniques that increase the activity of the native enzymes are soaking, germination, hydrothermal treatment and fermentation. Food processing can be optimized towards highest phytate degradation provided that the optimal conditions for phytase activity in the plant is known. In contrast to cereals, some legumes have highest phytate degradation at neutral or alkaline pH. Addition of microbial enzyme preparations seems to be the most efficient for complete degradation during processing. Fe and Zn absorption have been shown to be low from legume-based diets. It has also been demonstrated that nutritional Fe deficiency reaches its greatest prevalence in populations subsisting on cereal- and legume-based diets. However, in a balanced diet containing animal protein a high intake of legumes is not considered a risk in terms of mineral supply. Furthermore, once phytate, and in certain legumes polyphenols, is degraded, legumes would become good sources of Fe and Zn as the content of these minerals is high.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2002

References

Allen, LK (1982) Calcium bioavailability and absorption; a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 783808.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartolomé, B, Hernández, T & Estrella, I (1997) Effects of processing on individual condensed tannins from lentils. In COST 98 Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets, vol. 4, pp. 3236 [Bardocz, S, Muzquiz, M and Pusztai, P, editors]. Luxembourg: European Communities.Google Scholar
Brune, M, Rossander, L & Hallberg, L (1989) Iron absorption and phenolic compounds. Importance of different phenolic structures. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 547558.Google ScholarPubMed
Brune, M, Rossander-hulthén, L, Hallberg, L, Gleerup, A & Sandberg, A-S (1992) Human iron absorption from bread: Inhibiting effects of cereal fiber, phytate and inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups. Journal of Nutrition 122, 442449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cook, JD, Morck, TA & Lynch, SR (1981) The inhibitory effect of soy products on nonheme iron absorption in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 26222629.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidsson, L, Dimitriou, T, Walczyk, T & Hurrell, RF (2001) Iron absorption from experimental infant formulas based on pea protein isolate The effect of phytic acid and ascorbic acid. British Journal of Nutrition 85, 5963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidsson, L, Galan, P, Kastenmayer, P, Cherouvrier, F, Juillerat, M-A, Jercberg, S & Hurrell, RF (1994) Iron bioavailability studied in infants: The influence of phytic acid and ascorbic acid in infant formulas based on soy isolate. Pediatric Research 36, 816822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fachmann, W, Souci, SW & Kraut, H (2000) Food Composition and Nutrition Tables, p. 1182. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Fredlund, K, Rossander-hulthén, L, Isaksson, M, Almgren, A & Sandberg, AS (2002) Absorption of zinc and calcium: dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93, 197204.Google Scholar
Fredrikson, M, Alminger, ML, Carlsson, NG & Sandberg, A-S (2001 a) Phytate content and phytate degradation by endogenous phytase in pea (Pisum sativum). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81, 11391144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredrikson, M, Alminger, ML & Sandberg, AS (2002 a) Improved in vitro availability of iron and zinc from dephytinised pea protein formulas, comparison of iron availability with commercial soy protein formula. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
Fredrikson, M, Andlid, T, Haikara, A & Sandberg, AS (2002 b) Phytate degradation by microorganisms in synthetic media and pea flour. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93, 197204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fredrikson, M, Biot, P, Alminger, ML, Carlsson, NG & Sandberg, AS (2001 b) Production process for high-quality pea-protein isolate, with low content of oligosaccharides and phytate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 12081212.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greiner, R & Konietzny, U (1997) Phytate hydrolysis in black beans by endogeneous and exogeneous enzymes. In COST 98 Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets, vol. 4, pp. 1927 [Bardocz, S, Muzquiz, M and Pusztai, A, editors]. Luxembourg: European Communities.Google Scholar
Gustafsson, E & Sandberg, A-S (1995) Phytate reduction in brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Journal of Food Science 60, 149152, 156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hallberg, L, Brune, M & Rossander, L (1989) Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 140144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hallberg, L & Rossander, L (1982) Effect of soy protein on non-hemeiron absorption in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 514520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heaney, RP & Weaver, CM (1989) Oxalate: effect on calcium absorbability. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 830832.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaney, RP & Weaver, CM (1990) Calcium absorption from kale. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 656657.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heaney, RP & Weaver, CM & Recker, RR (1988) Calcium absorption from spinach. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 707709.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Helman, AD & Darnton-Hill, I (1987) Vitamin and iron status in new vegetarians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 785789.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honke, J, Sandberg, A-S & Kozlowska, H (1999) The influence of pH and temperature on endogenous phytase activity and on hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate in lentil, faba bean and pea seeds. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 8/49, 109122.Google Scholar
Hurrell, RF, Juillerat, M-A, Reddy, MB, Lynch, SR, Dassenko, SA & Cook, JD (1992) Soy protein, phytate, and iron absorption in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 573578.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hurrell, RF, Reddy, M & Cook, JD (1999) Inhibition of non-haemiron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. British Journal of Nutrition 81, 289295.Google Scholar
International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (1982) Iron Absorption from Cereals and Legumes. A Report of the International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group, New York, pp. 144. New York: The Nutrition Foundation.Google Scholar
Loewus, RA, Everard, JD & Young, KA (1990) 3. Inositol metabolism: Precursor role and breakdown. In Inositol Metabolism in Plants, pp. 2145 [Morre, DJ, Boss, WF and Loewus, FA, editors]. New York: Wiley-Liss.Google Scholar
Lönnerdal, B, Bell, JG, Hendricks, AG, Burns, RA & Keen, CL (1988) Effect of phytate removal on zinc absorption from soy formula. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 13011306.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loönnerdal, B, Sandberg, A-S, Sandstroöm, B & Kunz, C (1989) Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphateson zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats. Journal of Nutrition 119, 211214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, SR, Beard, JL, Dassenko, SA & Cook, JD (1984) Iron absorption from legumes in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40, 4247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mcendree, LS, Kies, CV & Fox, HM (1983) Iron intake and iron nutritional status of lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivore students eating in a lacto-ovo-vegetarian food service. Nutrition Report International 27, 199206.Google Scholar
Matuschek, E, Towo, E & Svanberg, U (2001) Oxidation of polyphenols in high-tannin cereals and the effect on iron bioavailability. In Bioavailability 2001. Abstract book, [Abt, B, Amadò, Rand Davidsson, L editors]. Zürich: ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
Morck, TA, Lynch, SR, Skikne, BS & Cook, JD (1981)Iron availability from infant food supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 26302634.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paredes-lopez, O & Harry, GI (1989) Changes in selected chemical and antinutritional components during tempeh preparationusing fresh and hardened common beans. Journal of Food Science 54, 968970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reddy, NR, Pierson, MD, Sathe, SK & Salunkhe, DK (1989) Occurrence, distribution, content, and dietary intake of phytate. In Phytates in Cereals and Legumes, pp. 3956 [ Reddy, NR, Pierson, MD, Sathe, SK, and Salunkhe, DK editors]. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Reddy, S& Sanders, TAB (1990) Haematological studies on premenopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 331338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salunkhe, DK, Jadhav, SJ, Kadam, SS & Chavan, JK (1982) Chemical, biochemical, and biological significance of polyphenols in cereals and legumes. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 17, 277305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sandberg, AS (1996) Food processing influencing iron bioavailability. In Iron Nutrition in Health and Disease, pp. 349356 [Hallberg, H and Asp, N-G editors]. London: John Libbey.Google Scholar
Sandberg, AS (2000) Developing functional ingredients. A case study. In Functional Foods, pp. 209232 [Gibson, GR and Williams, CM editors]. Cambridge and Boca Raton, Florida: Woodhead Publishing and CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandberg, AS (2002) In vitro and in vivo degradation of phytate. In Food Phytates, pp. 139155 [Reddy, NR and Sathe, SK editors]. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
Sandberg, AS, Brune, M, Carlsson, NG, Hallberg, L, Skoglund, E & Rossander-hulthén, L (1999) Inositol phosphates with different number of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 240246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandberg, AS & Svanberg, U (1991) Phytate hydrolysis by phytase in cereals. Effects on in vitro estimation of iron availability. Journal of Food Science 56, 13301333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandström, B, Almgren, A, Kivistö, C & Cederblad, A (1989) Effect of protein level and protein source on zinc absorption in man. Journal of Nutrition 119, 4853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sandström, B & Cederblad, A (1980) Zinc absorption from composite meals. II. Influence of the main protein source. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 17781783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sandström, B,Cederblad, A & Lönnerdal, B (1983) Zinc absorption from human milk, cow's milk and infant formulas. American Journal of Diseases of Children 137, 726729.Google ScholarPubMed
Sandström, B & Sandberg, A-S (1992) Inhibitory effects of isolated inositol phosphates on zinc absorption in humans. Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease 6, 99103.Google ScholarPubMed
Scott, JJ (1991) Alkaline phytase activity in nonionic detergent extracts of legume seeds. Plant Physiology 95, 12981301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siegenberg, D, Baynes, RD, Bothwell, TH, Macfarlane, BJ, Lamparelli, RD, Car, NG, Macphail, P, Schmidt, U, Tal, A & Mayet, F (1991) Ascorbic acid prevents the dose-dependent inhibitory effects of polyphenols and phytates on nonhemeiron absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 537541.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 1920 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 2nd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Access

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Bioavailability of minerals in legumes
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Bioavailability of minerals in legumes
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Bioavailability of minerals in legumes
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *