Skip to main content
×
Home

Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey

  • G. M Price (a1), A. A Paul (a1), T. J Cole (a1) and M. E. J Wadsworth (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

The aim of the present study was to establish whether the characteristics of members of a large national birth cohort study who submitted diet diaries with implausibly low-energy intake differed from those whose recorded energy intake was more plausible. Survey members (n 1898) recorded their diets in a 7d diary in household measures. Those whose reported energy intake (EI) as 'a fraction of their estimated BMR was less than 1·10, here termed low-energy reporters (LER) but often called under-reporters, constituted 20·6% of the study population. None of the variables describing dietary, smoking or exercise behaviour bore a significant relationship with low EI/BMR (<1·10), neither did those describing region of residence, subjective adequacy of income, current social class, social relations or the social environment of the subjects. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that the only independently significant characteristic for men was higher BMI. In women, in addition to higher BMI, having been overweight or obese as an adult independently, but less significantly, predicted low EI/BMR, while membership as a child of social class III (non-manual), having more children in the household and having a paid job marginally but independently decreased the probability of reporting low EI/BMR. Submission of a diary with EI/BMR < 1·10 7 years earlier in the same survey was an even more powerful predictor of current low EI/BMR than higher BMI in both sexes. The average reported diet-composition of LER was more micronutrient- and protein-rich than that of the others, indicating different dietary, or diet-recording, behaviour in this group of subjects. LER are not a random sample of the survey population, and their characteristics, definable to some extent, put them at risk for lower health status. Although EI/BMR cut-off points can be used to identify LER, the problem of how to use their data is still unresolved.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Characteristics of the low-energy reporters in a longitudinal national dietary survey
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Armitage P. & Berry G. (1987). Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Barker M. E., Thompson K. A. & McClean S. I. (1995). Attitudinal dimensions of food choice and nutrient intake, British Journal of Nutrition 74, 649659.
Bennett K. & Stevens R. (1996). Weight anxiety in older women. European Eating Disorders Review 4, 3239.
Bingham S. A. (1994). The use of 24-h urine samples and energy expenditure to validate dietary assessments. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, Suppl., 227S231S.
Bingham S. A., Cassidy A., Cole T., Welch A., Runswick S. A., Black A. E., Thumham D., Bates C., Khaw K. T. & Day N. E. (1995). Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietary assessment using the 24 h urine nitrogen technique and other biological markers. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 531550.
Black A. E. (1997). Under-reporting of energy intake at all levels of energy expenditure: evidence from doubly labelled water. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 121A.
Black A. E., Coward W. A., Cole T. J. & Prentice A. M. (1996). Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: an analysis of 574 doubly-labelled water measurements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 7292.
Black A. E., Jebb S. A., Bingham S. A., Runswick S. A. & Poppitt S. D. (1995). The validation of energy and protein intakes by doubly labelled water and 24-hour urinary nitrogen excretion in post-obese subjects. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 8, 5164.
Braddon F. E. M., Rodgers B., Wadsworth M. E. J. & Davies J. M. C. (1986). Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study. British Medical Journal 293, 299303.
Braddon F. E. M., Wadsworth M. E. J., Davies J. M. C. & Cripps H. A. (1988). Social and regional differences in food and alcohol consumption and their measurement in a national birth cohort. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 42, 341349.
Briefel R. R., McDowell M. A., Alaimo K., Caughman C. R., Bischof A. L., Carroll M. D. & Johnson C. L. (1995). Total energy intake of the US population: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1991. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl.1072S1080S.
Cappeliez P. (1989). Social desirability response set and self-report depression inventories in the elderly. Clinical Gerontologist 9, 4552.
Charles N. & Kerr M. (1988). Women, Food and Families. Manchester and New York: Manchester University press.
Crawley H. (1988). Food Portion Sizes. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1991). Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1992). The Health of the Nation. A Strategy for Health in England. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Dietz W. H., Bandini L. G. & Schoeller D. A. (1991). Estimates of metabolic rate in obese and nonobese adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics 118, 146149.
Firouzbakhsh S., Mathis R. K., Dorchester W. L., Oseas R. S., Groncy P. K., Grant K. E. & Finklestein J. Z. (1993). Measured resting energy expenditure in children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 16, 136142.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements. Technical Report Series no. 724. Geneva: WHO.
Goldberg G. R., Black A. E., Jebb S. A., Cole T. J., Murgatroyd P. R., Coward W. A. & Prentice A. M. (1991). Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 569581.
Gregory J., Foster K., Tyler H. & Wiseman M. (1990). The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Hebert J. R., Clemow L., Pbert L., Ockene I. S. & Ockene J. K. (1995). Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. International Journal of Epidemiology 24, 389398.
Heitmann B. L. (1993). The influence of fatness, weight change, slimming history and other lifestyle variables on diet reporting in Danish men and women aged 35–65 years. International Journal of Obesity 17, 329336.
Heshka S., Feld K., Yang M. U., Allison D. B. & Heymsfield S. B. (1993). Resting energy expenditure in the obese: a cross-validation and comparison of prediction equations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 93, 10311036.
Heymsfield S. B., Darby P. C., Muhlheim L. S., Gallagher D., Wolper C. & Allison D. B. (1995). The calorie: myth, measurement, and reality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, Suppl., 1034S1041S.
Holland B., Unwin I. D. & Buss D. H. (1988). Cereals and Cereal Products: Third Supplement to McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods (4th Edition). Nottingham: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Holland B., Unwin I. D. & Buss D. H. (1989). Milk Products and Eggs: Fourth Supplement to McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods (4th Edition). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
James W. P. T. (1984). Dietary aspects of obesity. Postgraduate Medical Journal 60, Suppl. 3, 5055.
Key F. B., Paul A. A., Cole T. J. & Wadsworth M. E. J. (1991). Distribution of energy intake in relation to calculated basal metabolic rate and adiposity in a national cohort study. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 16A.
Klag M. J., Moore R. D., Whelton P. K., Sakai Y. & Comstock G. W. (1990). Alcohol consumption and blood pressure: a comparison of native Japanese to American men. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 43, 14071414.
Knight I. (1984). The Heights and Weights of Adults in Great Britain. London: Office of Population Censuses and Surveys/H.M. Stationery Office.
Kuh D. J. L., Coggan D., Mann S., Cooper C. & Yusuf E. (1993). Height, occupation and back pain in a national prospective study. British Journal of Rheumatology 32, 911916.
Lederman S. A. (1993). The effect of pregnancy weight gain on later obesity. Obstetrics and Gynecology 82, 148155.
Lichtman S. W., Pisarska K., Berman E. R., Pestone M., Dowling H., Offenbacher E., Weisel H., Heshka S., Matthews D. E. & Heymsfield S. B. (1992). Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 18931898.
Lissner L., Habicht J.-P., Strupp B. J., Levitsky D. A., Haas J. D. & Roe D. A. (1989). Body composition and energy intake: do overweight women overeat and underreport? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 320325.
Livingstone M. B. E., Prentice A. M., Strain J. J., Coward W. A., Black A. E., Barker M. E., McKenna P. G. & Whitehead R. G. (1990). Accuracy of weighed dietary records in studies of diet and health. British Medical Journal 300, 708712.
Maffeis C., Schutz Y., Micciolo R., Zoccante L. & Pinelli L. (1993). Resting metabolic rate in six- to ten-year-old obese and nonobese children. Journal of Pediatrics 122, 556562.
Mennell S., Murcott A. & van Otterloo A. H. (1992). The Sociology of Food: Eating, Diet and Culture, pp. 104, 109. London: Sage Publications.
Millar W. J. (1985). Smoking prevalence among Canadian adolescents. A comparison of survey estimates. Canadian Journal of Public Health 76, 3337.
Molnar D., Jeges S., Erhardt E. & Schutz Y. (1995). Measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in obese and nonobese adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics 127, 571577.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1980). Classification of Occupations 1980. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Paul A. A. & Southgate D. A. T. (1978). McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 4th ed. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Prentice A. M., Black A. E., Coward W. A. & Cole T. J. (1996). Energy expenditure in overweight and obese adults in affluent societies: an analysis of 319 doubly-labelled water measurements. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 9397.
Prentice A. M., Black A. E., Coward W. A., Davies H. L., Goldberg G. R., Murgatroyd P. R., Ashford J., Sawyer M. & Whitehead R. G. (1986). High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. British Medical Journal 292, 983987.
Prentice A. M. & Jebb S. A. (1995). Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal 311, 437439.
Price G. M., Paul A. A., Cole T. J. & Wadsworth M. E. J. (1996). Interviewees with higher body mass index were less likely to return diet diaries in a longitudinal national survey. Proceedings of the Nutrition Sociery 55, 218A.
Price G. M., Paul A. A., Key F. B., Harter A. C., Cole T. J., Day K. C. & Wadsworth M. E. J. (1995). Measurement of diet in a large national survey: comparison of computerized and manual coding of records in household measures. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 8, 417428.
Pryer J. A., Vrijheid M., Nichols R. & Elliott P. (1994). Who are the ‘low-energy reporters’ in the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 235A.
Rappoport L., Peters G. R., Downey R., McCann T. & Huff-Corzine L. (1993). Gender and age differences in food cognition. Appetite 20, 3352.
Rutishauser I. H. E., Wheeler C. E., Conn J. A. & O'Dea K. (1994). Food and nutrient intake in a randomly selected sample of adults: demographic and temporal influences on energy and nutrient intake. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 51, 157166.
Schoeller D. A. (1990). How accurate is self-reported dietary energy intake? Nutrition Reviews 48, 373379.
Schofield W. N. (1985). Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nunition 39C, Suppl. 1, 541.
Schwellnus M. P., Lambert M. I., Todd M. P. & Juritz J. M. (1992). Androgenic anabolic steroid use in matric pupils. A survey of prevalence of use in the western Cape. South African Medical Journal 82, 154158.
Sheiham A., Marmot M., Rawson D. & Ruck N. (1987). Food values: health and diet. In British Social Attitudes. The 1987 Report, pp. 95119 [Jowell R., Witherspoon S. and Brook L., editors]. London: Gower.
Smith G. T., Hohlstein L. A. & Atlas J. G. (1992). Accuracy of self-reported weight: covariation with binger or restrainer status and eating disorder symptomatology. Addictive Behaviors 17, 18.
Sobal J. & Stunkard A. J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin 105, 260275.
Stansfeld S. A. & Marmot M. G. (1992). Social class and minor psychiatric disorder in British Civil Servants: a validated screening survey using the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine 22, 739749.
Stunkard A. J. & Messick S. (1985). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 29, 7183.
Tarasuk V. & Beaton G. H. (1991). The nature and individuality of within-subject variation in energy intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 464470.
Tarasuk V. & Beaton G. H. (1992). Day-to-day variation in energy and nutrient intake: evidence of individuality in eating behaviour? Appetite 18, 4354.
Van Strien T., Frijters J. E. R., Bergers G. P. A. & Defares P. B. (1986). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal for Eating Disorders, 5 295315.
Wadsworth M. E. J. (1991). The Imprint of Time. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Wadsworth M. E. J., Mann S. L., Rodgers B., Kuh D. J. L., Hilder W. S. & Yusuf E. J. (1992). Loss and representativeness in a 43 year follow up of a national birth cohort. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 46, 300304.
Warnold I., Carlgren G. & Krotkiewski M. (1978). Energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in hyperplasic obese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31, 750763.
White A., Nicolaas G., Foster K., Browne F. & Carey S. (1993). Health Survey for England 1991. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Wiles S. J., Nettleton P. A., Black A. E. & Paul A. A. (1980). The nutrient composition of some cooked dishes eaten in Britain: a supplementary food composition table. Journal of Human Nutrition 34, 189223.
Willett W. & Stampfer M. J. (1986). Total energy-intake - implications for epidemiologic analyses. American Journal of Epidemiology 124, 1727.
Worsley A. (1991). Mothers, work and food consumption: going out to work changes mothers' diets? Ecology of Food and Nutrition 25, 5969.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 100 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 147 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.