Skip to main content
×
Home

A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine

  • Anne S. Biong (a1) (a2), Hanne Müller (a3) (a4), Ingebjørg Seljeflot (a5), Marit B. Veierød (a6) and Jan I. Pedersen (a1) (a3)...
Abstract

Milk fat contains considerable amounts of saturated fatty acids, known to increase serum cholesterol. Little is known, however, about the relative effect of different milk products on risk factors for CHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Jarlsberg cheese (a Norwegian variety of Swiss cheese) with butter on serum lipoproteins, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. A controlled dietary study was performed with twenty-two test individuals (nine men and thirteen women) aged 23–54 years. The subjects consumed three isoenergetic test diets, with equal amounts of fat and protein, and containing either cheese (CH diet), butter+calcium caseinate (BC diet) or butter+egg-white protein (BE diet). The study was a randomised cross-over study and the subjects consumed each diet for 3 weeks, with 1 week when they consumed their habitual diet in between. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of each period. Serum was analysed for lipids and plasma for haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Total cholesterol was significantly lower after the CH diet than after the BC diet (−0.27 mmol/l; P=0.03), while the difference in LDL-cholesterol was found to be below significance level (−0.22 mmol/l; P=0.06). There were no significant differences in HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apo A-I, apo B or lipoprotein (a), haemostatic variables and homocysteine between the diets. The results indicate that, at equal fat content, cheese may be less cholesterol increasing than butter.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Jan I. Pedersen, fax +47 22 85 13 41, email, j.i.pedersen@basalmed.uio.no
References
Hide All
Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Jee Sh, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Lin Ph, Erlinger T, Nadeau MR & Selhub J (2000) Effect of dietary patterns on serum homocysteine: results of a randomized, controlled feeding study. Circulation 102, 852857.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ (1999) The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 525S531S.
Artaud-Wild SM, Connor SL, Sexton G, Connor WE (1993) Differences in coronary mortality can be explained by differences in cholesterol and saturated fat intakes in 40 countries but not in France and Finland. A paradox. Circulation 88, 27712779.
Bhattacharyya AK, Thera C, Anderson JT, Grande F, Keys A (1969) Dietary calcium and fat. Effect on serum lipids and fecal excretion of cholesterol and its degradation products in man. Am J Clin Nutr 22, 11611174.
Clauss A (1957) Gerinnungsphysiologische schnellmetode zur bestimmung des fibrinogens (Rapid physiological coagulation method in determination of fibrinogen). Acta Haematol 17, 237246.
de Roos NM, Katan MB (2000) Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 405411.
Elwood PC, Pickering JE, Hughes J, Fehily AM, Ness AR (2004) Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 718724.
Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497509.
Forssen KM, Jagerstad MI, Wigertz K, Witthoft CM (2000) Folates and dairy products: a critical update. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 100S110S.
Forsythe WA, Green MS, Anderson JJ (1986) Dietary protein effects on cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 5, 533549.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18, 499502.
Haverkate F (2002) Levels of haemostatic factors, arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Vascul Pharmacol 39, 109112.
Hegsted DM, Ausman LM, Johnson JA, Dallal GE (1993) Dietary fat and serum lipids: an evaluation of the experimental data. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 875883.
Hornstra G (1985) Dietary lipids, platelet function and arterial thrombosis in animals and man. Proc Nutr Soc 44, 371378.
Hoshi M, Williams M, Kishimoto Y (1973) Esterification of fatty acids at room temperature by chloroform-methanolic HCl-cupric acetate. J Lipid Res 14, 599601.
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC (1999) Dietary saturated fats and their food sources in relation to the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 10011008.
Jacqmain M, Doucet E, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A (2003) Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 14481452.
Katan MB, Zock PL, Mensink RP (1995) Dietary oils, serum lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1368S1373S.
Kris-Etherton PM, Yu S (1997) Individual fatty acid effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: human studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1628S1644S.
Kushi LH, Lenart EB, Willett WC (1995) Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 1. Plant foods and dairy products. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1407S1415S.
Lorenzen JK, Jacobsen R, Astrup A (2004) Effect of short-term high dietary calcium intake on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and fecal fat excretion. Int J Obes 28, Suppl. 1S34
Marckmann P (2000) Dietary treatment of thrombogenic disorders related to the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr 83 Suppl. 1S121S126.
Mennen LI, Balkau B, Vol S (1999) Tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and consumption of dairy products. The DESIR study. Thromb Res 94, 381388.
Mennen LI, Lafay L, Feskens EJM, Novak M, Lépinay P, Balkau B (2000) Possible protective effect of bread and dairy products on the risk of the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Res 20, 335347.
Merigan TC, Farquhar JW, Williams JH, Sokolow M (1959) Effect of chylomicrons on the fibrinolytic activity of normal human plasma in vitro. Circ Res 7, 205209.
Moss M (2002) Does milk cause coronary heart disease?. J Nutr Environ Med 12, 207216.
Moss M, Freed D (2003) The cow and the coronary: epidemiology, biochemistry and immunology. Int J Cardiol 87, 203216.
Nakajima H, Suzuki Y, Hirota T (1992) Cholesterol-lowering activity of ropy fermented milk. J Food Sci 57, 13271329.
Ness AR, Smith GD, Hart C (2001) Milk, coronary heart disease and mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health 55, 379382.
O'Grady H, Kelly C, Bouchier-Hayes D, Leahy A (2002) Homocysteine and occlusive arterial disease. Br J Surg 89, 838844.
Ouwehand AC, Soumalainen T, Tøllkø S, Salminen S (2001) In vitro adhesion of propionic acid bacteria to human intestinal mucus. Le Lait 82, 123130.
Pereira MA, Jacobs DR, Jr van, Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA study. JAMA 287, 20812089.
Pietinen P, Vartiainen E, Seppanen R, Aro A, Puska P (1996) Changes in diet in Finland from 1972 to 1992: impact on coronary heart disease risk. Prev Med 25, 243250.
Ranby M, Nguyen G, Scarabin PY, Samama M (1989 a) Immunoreactivity of tissue plasminogen activator and of its inhibitor complexes. Biochemical and multicenter validation of a two site immunosorbent assay. Thromb Haemost 61, 409414.
Ranby M, Sundell IB, Nilsson TK (1989 b) Blood collection in strong acidic citrate anticoagulant used in a study of dietary influence on basal tPA activity. Thromb Haemost 62, 917922.
Renaud S, Lanzmann-Petithory D (2001) Coronary heart disease: dietary links and pathogenesis. Public Health Nutr 4, 459474.
Samuelson G, Bratteby LE, Mohsen R, Vessby B (2001) Dietary fat intake in healthy adolescents: inverse relationships between the estimated intake of saturated fatty acids and serum cholesterol. Br J Nutr 85, 333341.
Smedman AEM, Gustafsson IB, Berglund LGT, Vessby BOH (1999) Pentadecanoic acid in serum as a marker for intake of milk fat: relations between intake of milk fat and metabolic risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 2229.
St Onge, MP Farnworth, ER Jones PJ (2000) Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 674681.
Tavani A, Gallus S, Negri E, La Vecchia C (2002) Milk, dairy products, and coronary heart disease. J Epidemiol Community Health 56, 471472.
Tholstrup T, Hoy CE, Andersen LN, Christensen RD, Sandstrom B (2004) Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 169176.
Thomas WA, Hartroft WS (1959) Myocardial infarction in rats fed diets containing high fat, cholesterol, thiouracil, and sodium cholate. Circulation 19, 6572.
Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK (2002) Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 325, 1202
Wolever TM, Fernandes J, Rao AV (1996) Serum acetate:propionate ratio is related to serum cholesterol in men but not women. J Nutr 126, 27902797.
Yacowitz H, Fleischman AI, Bierenbaum ML (1965) Effect of oral calcium upon serum lipids in man. Br Med J i, 13521354.
Zarate G, Morata D, Chaia AP, Gonzalez SN (2002) Adhesion of dairy propionibacteria to intestinal epithelial tissue in vitro and in vivo. J Food Prot 65, 534539.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 159 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 268 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.