Auboeuf, D & Vidal, H (1997) The use of the reverse transcription-competitive polymerase reaction to investigate the in vivo regulation of gene expression in small tissue samples. Anal Biochem 245, 141–148.
Barbe, P, Millet, L, Larrouy, D, Galitzky, J, Berlan, M, Louvet, JP & Langin, D (1998) Uncoupling protein-2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression during very-low-calorie diet in obese premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 2450–2453.
Binnert, C, Pachiaudi, C, Beylot, M, Hans, D, Vandermander, J, Chantre, P & Laville, M (1998) Influence of human obesity on the metabolic fate of dietary long and medium chain triacylglycerol. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 595–601.
Blankson, H, Stakkestad, JA, Fagertun, H, Thom, E, Wadstein, J & Gudmundsen, O (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr 130, 2943–2948.
Bligh, E & Dyer, W (1995) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37, 911–917.
Brown, JM, Boysen, MS, Jensen, SS, Morrison, RF, Storkson, J, Renee, LC, Pariza, M, Mandrup, S & McIntosh, MK (2003) Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPAR gamma signalling by CLA in human preadipocytes. J Lip Res 44, 1287–1300.
Brown, JM & McIntosh, MK (2003) Conjugated linoleic acid in humans: regulation of adiposity and insulin sensitivity (Review). J Nutr 133, 3041–3046.
DeLany, JP & West, DB (2000) Changes in body composition with conjugated linoleic acid. J Am Coll Nutr 4, 487S–493S.
Desroches, S, Chouinard, PY, Galibois, I, Corneau, L, Delisle, J, Lamarche, B, Couture, P & Bergeron, N (2005) Lack of effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids naturally incorporated into butter on the lipids profile and body composition of overweight and obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 309–319.
Dugan, MER, Aalhus, JL, Schaefer, AL & Kramer, JKG (1997) The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on fat to lean repartitioning and feed conversion in pigs. Can J Anim Sci 77, 723–725.
Fay, L & Richli, U (1991) Location of double bonds in polyunsaturated fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatization. J Chromatogr 541, 89–98.
Gaullier, JM, Halse, J, Hoye, K, Kristiansen, K, Fagertun, H, Vik, H & Gudmundsen, O (2004) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 1118–1125.
Grandlund, L, Juvet, LK, Pedersen, JI & Nebb, HI (2003) Trans10, cis12-conjgated linoleic acid prevents triacylglycerol accumulation in adipocytes by acting as a PPAR gamma modulator. J Lipid Res 44, 1441–1452.
Kamphuis, MM, Lejeune, MP, Saris, WH & Westerterp-Plantenga, MS (2003) The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 840–847.
Kang, K, Liu, W, Albright, KJ, Park, Y & Pariza, MW (2003) Trans-10, cis-12 CLA inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and decreases PPAR gamma expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303, 795–799.
Kritchevsky, D, Tepper, SA, Wright, S, Tso, P & Czarnecki, SK (2000) Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on etablishment and progression of atherosclerosis in rabbits. J Am Coll Nutr 4, 472–477S0.
Kubota, N, Terauchi, Y, Miki, H, et al. (1999) PPAR gamma mediates high-fat diet-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance. Mol Cell 4, 597–609.
Laville, M, Auboeuf, D, Khadfallah, Y, Vega, N, Riou, JP & Vidal, H (1996) Acute regulation by insulin of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, Rad, Glut4 and lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels in human muscle. J Clin Invest 98, 43–49.
Lavillonnière, F, Martin, JC, Bougnoux, P & Sebedio, J-L (1998) Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and content in French cheeses. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75, 343–352.
Lefebvre, M, Laville, M, Vega, N, Riou, JP, Van Gaal, L, Auwerx, J & Vidal, H (1998) Depot-specific differences in adipose tissue gene expression in lean and obese subjects. Diabetes 47, 98–103.
Lin, H, Boylston, TD, Chang, MJ, Luedecke, LO & Schultz, TD (1995) Survey of the conjugated linoleic acid contents of dairy products. J Dairy Sci 78, 2358–2365.
Lowell, BB (1999) PPARgamma: an essential regulator of adipogenesis and modulator of fat cell function. Cell 99, 239–242.
Malpuech-Brugère, C, Verboeket-van de Venne, WP, Mensink, RP, et al. (2004) Effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res 12, 591–598.
Medina, EA, Horn, WF, Keimn, NL, Havel, PJ, Benito, P, Kelley, DS, Nelson, GJ & Erickson, KL (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effect on circulating leptin concentrations and appetite. Lipids 35, 783–788.
Pariza, MW (2004) Perspective on the safety and effectiveness of conjugated linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 79, Suppl. 6, 1132S–1136S.
Pariza, MW, Park, Y & Cook, ME (2000) Mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid: evidence and speculation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 223, 8–13.
Park, Y, Storkson, JM, Albright, KJ, Liu, W & Pariza, MW (1999) Evidence that the trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid induces body composition changes in mice. Lipids 34, 235–241.
Park, Y, Storkson, JM, Liu, W, Albright, KJ, Cook, ME & Pariza, MW (2004) Structure-activity relationship of conjugated linoleic acid and its cognates in inhibiting heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase and glycerol release from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 15, 561–568.
Richard, MJ, Portal, B, Meo, J, Coudray, C, Hadjian, A & Favier, A (1992) Malondialdehyde evaluated for determining plasma and lipoprotein fractions that react with thiobarbituric acid. Clin Chem 38, 704–709.
Ricquier, D & Bouillaud, F (2000) Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins: from mitochondria to the regulation of energy balance. J Physiol 529, 3–10.
Riserus, U, Vessby, B, Arnlov, J & Basu, S (2004) Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 279–283.
Ryder, JW, Portocarrero, CP, Song, XM, et al. (2001) Isomer-specific antidiabetic properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Improved glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle insulin action, and UCP-2 gene expression. Diabetes 50, 1149–1157.
Smedman, A & Vessby, B (2001) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans – metabolic effects. Lipids 36, 773–781.
Stangl, GI (2000) Conjugated linoleic acids exhibit a strong fat to lean partitionning effect, reduce serum VLDL lipids and redistribute tissue lipids in food restricted rats. J Nutr 130, 1140–1146.
Takahashi, Y, Kushiro, M, Shinohara, K & Ide, T (2002) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass and affects gene expression of proteins regulating energy metabolism in mice. Comp Biochem Phys B Biochem Mol Biol 133, 395–404.
Terpstra, AH (2004) Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition and plasma lipids in humans: an overview of the literature. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 352–361.
Terpstra, AH, Beynen, AC, Everts, H, Kocsis, S, Katan, MB & Zock, PL (2002) The decrease in body fat in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid is due to increases in energy expenditure and energy loss in the excreta. J Nutr 132, 940–945.
Tricon, S, Burdge, GC, Williams, CM, Calder, PC & Yaqoob, P (2005) The effects of conjugated linoleic acid on human health-related outcomes. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 171–182.
Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N, Takahashi, M, Tanemura, K, Kim, HJ, Tange, T, Okuyama, H, Kasai, M, Ijemoto, S & Ezaki, O (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduces adipose tissue by apoptosis and develops lipodystrophy in mice. Diabetes 49, 1534–1542.
Vidal, H, Auboeuf, D, De Vos, P, Staels, B, Riou, JP, Auwerx, J & Laville, M (1996) The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 98, 251–255.
Wang, Y & Jones, PJ (2004) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 1153s–1158s.
Wargent, E, Sennit, MV, Stocker, C, Mayes, AE, Brown, L, O'dowd, J, Wang, S, Einerhand, AW, Mohede, I, Arch, JR & Cawthorne, MA (2005) Prolonged treatment of genetically obese mice with conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose tolerance and lowers plasma insulin concentration: possible involvment of PPAR activation. Lipids Health Dis 10, 3.
West, DB, Delany, JP, Camet, PM, Blohm, F, Truett, AA & Scimeca, J (1998) Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse. Am J Physiol 275, R667–R672.
Zambell, KL, Keim, NL, Van Loan, MD, Gale, B, Benito, P, Kelley, DS & Nelson, GJ (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans: effect on body composition and energy expenditure. Lipids 35, 777–782.